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Psych 2-2011.Ppt  Chap  2
Psych 2-2011.Ppt  Chap  2
Psych 2-2011.Ppt  Chap  2
Psych 2-2011.Ppt  Chap  2
Psych 2-2011.Ppt  Chap  2
Psych 2-2011.Ppt  Chap  2
Psych 2-2011.Ppt  Chap  2
Psych 2-2011.Ppt  Chap  2
Psych 2-2011.Ppt  Chap  2
Psych 2-2011.Ppt  Chap  2
Psych 2-2011.Ppt  Chap  2
Psych 2-2011.Ppt  Chap  2
Psych 2-2011.Ppt  Chap  2
Psych 2-2011.Ppt  Chap  2
Psych 2-2011.Ppt  Chap  2
Psych 2-2011.Ppt  Chap  2
Psych 2-2011.Ppt  Chap  2
Psych 2-2011.Ppt  Chap  2
Psych 2-2011.Ppt  Chap  2
Psych 2-2011.Ppt  Chap  2
Psych 2-2011.Ppt  Chap  2
Psych 2-2011.Ppt  Chap  2
Psych 2-2011.Ppt  Chap  2
Psych 2-2011.Ppt  Chap  2
Psych 2-2011.Ppt  Chap  2
Psych 2-2011.Ppt  Chap  2
Psych 2-2011.Ppt  Chap  2
Psych 2-2011.Ppt  Chap  2
Psych 2-2011.Ppt  Chap  2
Psych 2-2011.Ppt  Chap  2
Psych 2-2011.Ppt  Chap  2
Psych 2-2011.Ppt  Chap  2
Psych 2-2011.Ppt  Chap  2
Psych 2-2011.Ppt  Chap  2
Psych 2-2011.Ppt  Chap  2
Psych 2-2011.Ppt  Chap  2
Psych 2-2011.Ppt  Chap  2
Psych 2-2011.Ppt  Chap  2
Psych 2-2011.Ppt  Chap  2
Psych 2-2011.Ppt  Chap  2
Psych 2-2011.Ppt  Chap  2
Psych 2-2011.Ppt  Chap  2
Psych 2-2011.Ppt  Chap  2
Psych 2-2011.Ppt  Chap  2
Psych 2-2011.Ppt  Chap  2
Psych 2-2011.Ppt  Chap  2
Psych 2-2011.Ppt  Chap  2
Psych 2-2011.Ppt  Chap  2
Psych 2-2011.Ppt  Chap  2
Psych 2-2011.Ppt  Chap  2
Psych 2-2011.Ppt  Chap  2
Psych 2-2011.Ppt  Chap  2
Psych 2-2011.Ppt  Chap  2
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Psych 2-2011.Ppt Chap 2

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  • Figure 2.1: Estimated numbers of neurons in humans . Because of the small size of many neurons and the variation in cell density from one spot to another, obtaining an accurate count is difficult. (Source: R. W. Williams & Herrup, 1988)
  • Figure 2.2: An electron micrograph of parts of a neuron from the cerebellum of a mouse . The nucleus, membrane, and other structures are characteristic of most animal cells. The plasma membrane is the border of the neuron. Magnification approximately x 20,000. (Source: Micrograph courtesy of Dennis M. D. Landis)
  • Figure 2.3: The membrane of a neuron . Embedded in the membrane are protein channels that permit certain ions to cross through the membrane at a controlled rate.
  • Figure 2.4: Neurons, stained to appear dark . Note the small fuzzy-looking spines on the dendrites.
  • Figure 2.5: The components of a vertebrate motor neuron . The cell body of a motor neuron is located in the spinal cord. The various parts are not drawn to scale; in particular, a real axon is much longer in proportion to the soma.
  • Figure 2.6: A vertebrate sensory neuron . Note that the soma is located on a stalk off the main trunk of the axon. (As in Figure 2.5, the various structures are not drawn to scale.)
  • Figure 2.7: Dendritic spines . The dendrites of certain neurons are lined with spines, short outgrowths that receive specialized incoming information. That information apparently plays a key role in long-term changes in the neuron that mediate learning and memory. (Source: From K. M. Harris and J. K. Stevens, Society for Neuroscience, “Dendritic spines of CA1 pyramidal cells in the rat hippocampus: Serial electron microscopy with reference to their biophysical characteristics.” Journal of Neuroscience, 9, 1989, 2982–2997. Copyright © 1989 Society for Neuroscience. Reprinted by permission.)
  • Figure 2.8: Cell structures and axons . It all depends on the point of view. An axon from A to B is an efferent axon from A and an afferent axon to B, just as a train from Washington to New York is exiting Washington and approaching New York.
  • Figure 2.9: The diverse shapes of neurons . (a) Purkinje cell, a cell type found only in the cerebellum; (b) sensory neurons from skin to spinal cord; (c) pyramidal cell of the motor area of the cerebral cortex; (d) bipolar cell of retina of the eye; (e) Kenyon cell, from a honeybee. (Source: Part e, from R. G. Coss, Brain Research, October 1982. Reprinted by permission of R. G. Coss.)
  • Figure 2.10: Shapes of some glia cells . Oligodendrocytes produce myelin sheaths that insulate certain vertebrate axons in the central nervous system; Schwann cells have a similar function in the periphery. The oligodendrocyte is shown here forming a segment of myelin sheath for two axons; in fact, each oligodendrocyte forms such segments for 30 to 50 axons. Astrocytes pass chemicals back and forth between neurons and blood and among neighboring neurons. Microglia proliferate in areas of brain damage and remove toxic materials. Radial glia (not shown here) guide the migration of neurons during embryological development. Glia have other functions as well.
  • Figure 2.11: How an astrocyte synchronizes associated axons . Branches of the astrocyte (in the center) surround the presynaptic terminals of related axons. If a few of them are active at once, the astrocyte absorbs some of the chemicals they release. It then temporarily inhibits all the axons to which it is connected. When the inhibition ceases, all of the axons are primed to respond again in synchrony. (Source: Based on Antanitus, 1998)
  • Figure 2.12: The blood-brain barrier . Most large molecules and electrically charged molecules cannot cross from the blood to the brain. A few small, uncharged molecules such as O 2 and CO 2 cross easily; so can certain fat-soluble molecules. Active transport systems pump glucose and amino acids across the membrane.
  • Figure 2.13: Methods for recording activity of a neuron . (a) Diagram of the apparatus and a sample recording. (b) A microelectrode and stained neurons magnified hundreds of times by a light microscope.
  • Figure 2.14: Ion channels in the membrane of a neuron . When a channel opens, it permits one kind of ion to cross the membrane. When it closes, it prevents passage of that ion.
  • Figure 2.15: The sodium and potassium gradients for a resting membrane . Sodium ions are more concentrated outside the neuron; potassium ions are more concentrated inside. Protein and chloride ions (not shown) bear negative charges inside the cell. At rest, very few sodium ions cross the membrane except by the sodium - potassium pump. Potassium tends to flow into the cell because of an electrical gradient but tends to flow out because of the concentration gradient.
  • Figure 2.16: The movement of sodium and potassium ions during an action potential . Sodium ions cross during the peak of the action potential and potassium ions cross later in the opposite direction, returning the membrane to its original polarization.
  • Figure 2.17 Current that enters an axon during the action potential flows down the axon, depolarizing adjacent areas of the membrane. The current flows more easily through thicker axons. Behind the area of sodium entry, potassium ions exit.
  • Figure 2.18: An axon surrounded by a myelin sheath and interrupted by nodes of Ranvier . The inset shows a cross-section through both the axon and the myelin sheath. Magnification approximately x 30,000. The anatomy is distorted here to show several nodes; in fact, the distance between nodes is generally about 100 times as large as the nodes themselves.
  • Figure 2.19: Saltatory conduction in a myelinated axon . An action potential at the node triggers flow of current to the next node, where the membrane regenerates the action potential.
  • Transcript

    • 1. Chapter 2 Nerve Cells and Nerve Impulses
    • 2. The Cells of the Nervous System <ul><li>The human nervous system is comprised of two kinds of cells: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Neurons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Glia </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The human brain contains approximately 100 billion individual neurons. </li></ul><ul><li>Behavior depends upon the communication between neurons. </li></ul>
    • 3. Fig. 2-1, p. 28
    • 4. The Cells of the Nervous System <ul><li>Spaniard Santiago Ramon y Cajal (1852-1934) was the first to demonstrate that the individual cells comprising the nervous system remained separate. </li></ul><ul><li>He showed that they did not grow into each other as previously believed. </li></ul>
    • 5. The Cells of the Nervous System <ul><li>Like other cells in the body, neurons contain the following structures: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Membrane </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nucleus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mitochondria </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ribosomes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Endoplasmic reticulum </li></ul></ul>
    • 6. Fig. 2-2, p. 29
    • 7. The Cells of the Nervous System <ul><li>The membrane - a structure that separates the inside of the cell from the outside environment. </li></ul><ul><li>The nucleus – a structure that contains the chromosomes. </li></ul><ul><li>The mitochondrion - structure that performs metabolic activities and provides energy that the cells requires. </li></ul><ul><li>Ribosomes - sites at which the cell synthesizes new protein molecules </li></ul>
    • 8. The Cells of the Nervous System <ul><li>Ribosomes - sites at which the cell synthesizes new protein molecules </li></ul><ul><li>Endoplasmic reticulum – network of thin tubes that transport newly synthesized proteins to their location </li></ul>
    • 9. Fig. 2-3, p. 30
    • 10. The Cells of the Nervous System <ul><li>Neuron cells are similar to other cells of the body but have a distinctive shape. </li></ul><ul><li>A motor neuron has its soma in the spinal cord and receives excitation from other neurons and conducts impulses along it axon to a muscle. </li></ul><ul><li>A sensory neuron is specialized at one end to be highly sensitive to a particular type of stimulation (touch, light, sound, etc.) </li></ul>
    • 11. Fig. 2-4, p. 30
    • 12. Fig. 2-5, p. 30
    • 13. Fig. 2-6, p. 31
    • 14. The Cells of the Nervous System <ul><li>All neurons have the following major components: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dendrites. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Soma/ cell body. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Axon. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Presynaptic terminals. </li></ul></ul>
    • 15. The Cells of the Nervous System <ul><li>Dendrites are branching fibers with a surface lined with synaptic receptors responsible for bringing information into the neruon . </li></ul><ul><li>Some dendrites also contain dendritic spines that further branch out and increase the surface area of the dendrite. </li></ul><ul><li>Dendrite shape of dendrites vary and depend upon varying inputs. </li></ul>
    • 16. Fig. 2-7, p. 31
    • 17. The Cells of the Nervous System <ul><li>Cell body/ Soma - contains the nucleus, mitochondria, ribosomes, and other structures found in other cells. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Also responsible for the metabolic work of the neuron. </li></ul></ul>
    • 18. The Cells of the Nervous System <ul><li>Axon - thin fiber of a neuron responsible for transmitting nerve impulses toward other neurons, organs, or muscles. </li></ul><ul><li>Some neurons are covered with an insulating material called the myelin sheath with interruptions in the sheath known as nodes of Ranvier. </li></ul>
    • 19. The Cells of the Nervous System <ul><li>Presynaptic terminals refer to the end points of an axon where the release of chemicals to communicate with other neurons occurs. </li></ul>
    • 20. The Cells of the Nervous System <ul><li>Terms used to describe the neuron include the following: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Afferent axon - refers to bringing information into a structure. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Efferent axon - refers to carrying information away from a structure. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interneurons or Intrinsic neurons are those whose dendrites and axons are completely contained within a single structure. </li></ul></ul>
    • 21. Fig. 2-8, p. 32
    • 22. The Cells of the Nervous System <ul><li>Neurons vary in size, shape, and function. </li></ul><ul><li>The shape of a neuron determines it connection with other neurons and contribution to the nervous system. </li></ul><ul><li>The function is closely related to the shape of a neuron. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: Pukinje cells of the cerebellum branch extremely widely within a single plane </li></ul></ul>
    • 23. Fig. 2-9, p. 32
    • 24. The Cells of the Nervous System <ul><li>Glia are the other major components of the nervous system that exchange chemicals with adjacent neurons. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Astrocytes helps synchronize the activity of the axon by wrapping around the presynaptic terminal and taking up chemicals released by the axon. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Microglia - remove waste material and other microorganisms that could prove harmful to the neuron. </li></ul></ul>
    • 25. Fig. 2-10, p. 33
    • 26. Fig. 2-11, p. 33
    • 27. The Cells of the Nervous System <ul><li>(Types of glia continued) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Oligdendrocytes & Schwann cells build the myelin sheath that surrounds the axon of some neurons. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Radial glia - guide the migration of neurons and the growth of their axons and dendrites during embryonic development. </li></ul></ul>
    • 28. The Cells of the Nervous System <ul><li>The blood-brain barrier is a mechanism that surrounds the brain and blocks most chemicals from entering. </li></ul><ul><li>The immune system destroys damaged or infected cells throughout the body. </li></ul><ul><li>Because neurons in the brain generally do not regenerate, it is vitally important for the blood brain barrier to block incoming viruses, bacteria or other harmful material from entering. </li></ul>
    • 29. Fig. 2-12, p. 34
    • 30. The Cells of the Nervous System <ul><li>Active transport is the protein mediated process by which useful chemicals are brought into the brain. </li></ul><ul><li>Glucose, hormones, amino acids, and vitamins are brought into the brain via active transport. </li></ul><ul><li>Glucose is a simple sugar that is the primary source of nutrition for neurons. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Thiamine is a chemical that is necessary for the use of glucose. </li></ul></ul>
    • 31. The Nerve Impulse <ul><li>A nerve impulse is the electrical message that is transmitted down the axon of a neuron. </li></ul><ul><li>The impulse does not travel directly down the axon but is regenerated at points along the axon. </li></ul><ul><li>The speed of nerve impulses ranges from approximately 1 m/s to 100 m/s. </li></ul>
    • 32. The Nerve Impulse <ul><li>The membrane of a neuron maintains an electrical gradient which is a difference in the electrical charge inside and outside of the cell. </li></ul>
    • 33. Fig. 2-13, p. 38
    • 34. The Nerve Impulse <ul><li>At rest, the membrane maintains an electrical polarization or a difference in the electrical charge of two locations. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the inside of the membrane is slightly negative with respect to the outside. (approximately -70 millivolts) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The resting potential of a neuron refers to the state of the neuron prior to the sending of a nerve impulse. </li></ul>
    • 35. The Nerve Impulse <ul><li>The membrane is selectively permeable, allowing some chemicals to pass more freely than others. </li></ul><ul><li>Sodium, potassium, calcium, and chloride pass through channels in the membrane. </li></ul><ul><li>When the membrane is at rest: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sodium channels are closed. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Potassium channels are partially closed allowing the slow passage of sodium. </li></ul></ul>
    • 36. Fig. 2-14, p. 38
    • 37. The Nerve Impulse <ul><li>The sodium-potassium pump is a protein complex that continually pumps three sodium ions out of the cells while drawing two potassium ions into the cell. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>helps to maintain the electrical gradient. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The electrical gradient and the concentration gradient (the difference in distributions of ions) work to pull sodium ions into the cell. </li></ul><ul><li>The electrical gradient tends to pull potassium ions into the cells. </li></ul>
    • 38. Fig. 2-15, p. 39
    • 39. The Nerve Impulse <ul><li>The resting potential remains stable until the neuron is stimulated. </li></ul><ul><li>Hyperpolarization refers to increasing the polarization or the difference between the electrical charge of two places. </li></ul><ul><li>Depolarization refers to decreasing the polarization towards zero. </li></ul><ul><li>The threshold of excitement refers to a levels above which any stimulation produces a massive depolarization. </li></ul>
    • 40. The Nerve Impulse <ul><li>An action potential is a rapid depolarization of the neuron. </li></ul><ul><li>Stimulation of the neuron past the threshold of excitation triggers a nerve impulse or action potential. </li></ul>
    • 41. The Nerve Impulse <ul><li>Voltage-activated channels are membrane channels whose permeability depends upon the voltage difference across the membrane. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sodium channels are voltage activated channels. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>When sodium channels are opened, positively charged sodium ions rush in and a subsequent nerve impulse occurs. </li></ul>
    • 42. Fig. 2-16, p. 41
    • 43. The Nerve Impulse <ul><li>After an action potential occurs, sodium channels are quickly closed. </li></ul><ul><li>The neuron is returned to its resting state by the opening of potassium channels. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>potassium ions flow out due to the concentration gradient and take with them their positive charge. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The sodium-potassium pump later restores the original distribution of ions. </li></ul>
    • 44. The Nerve Impulse <ul><li>Local anesthetic drugs block sodium channels and therefore prevent action potentials from occurring. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: Novocain and xylocaine </li></ul></ul>
    • 45. The Nerve Impulse <ul><li>The all-or-none law states that the amplitude and velocity of an action potential are independent of the intensity of the stimulus that initiated it. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Action potentials are equal in intensity and speed within a given neuron. </li></ul></ul>
    • 46. The Nerve Impulse <ul><li>After an action potential, a neuron has a refractory period during which time the neuron resists the production of another action potential. </li></ul><ul><li>The absolute refractory period is the first part of the period in which the membrane can not produce an action potential. </li></ul><ul><li>The relative refractory period is the second part in which it take a stronger than usual stimulus to trigger an action potential. </li></ul>
    • 47. The Nerve Impulse <ul><li>In a motor neuron, the action potential begins at the axon hillock (a swelling where the axon exits the soma). </li></ul><ul><li>Propagation of the action potential is the term used to describe the transmission of the action potential down the axon. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the action potential does not directly travel down the axon. </li></ul></ul>
    • 48. Fig. 2-17, p. 43
    • 49. The Nerve Impulse <ul><li>The myelin sheath of axons are interrupted by short unmyelinated sections called nodes of Ranvier. </li></ul><ul><li>Myelin is an insulating material composed of fats and proteins </li></ul><ul><li>At each node of Ranvier, the action potential is regenerated by a chain of positively charged ion pushed along by the previous segment. </li></ul>
    • 50. Fig. 2-18, p. 44
    • 51. The Nerve Impulse <ul><li>Saltatory conduction is the word used to describe this “jumping” of the action potential from node to node. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides rapid conduction of impulses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conserves energy for the cell </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Multiple sclerosis is disease in which the myelin sheath is destroyed and associated with poor muscle coordination. </li></ul>
    • 52. Fig. 2-19, p. 45
    • 53. The Nerve Impulse <ul><li>Not all neurons have lengthy axons. </li></ul><ul><li>Local neurons have short axons, exchange information with only close neighbors, and do not produce action potentials. </li></ul><ul><li>When stimulated, local neurons produce graded potentials which are membrane potentials that vary in magnitude and do not follow the all-or-none law,. </li></ul><ul><li>A local neuron depolarizes or hyperpolarizes in proportion to the stimulation. </li></ul>

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