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Chapter 12 Emotional Behaviors
What is Emotion? <ul><li>Psychologists define emotion in terms of three components: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cognition </li><...
What is Emotion? <ul><li>Emotional situations arouse the autonomic nervous system. </li></ul><ul><li>Each situation evokes...
 
What is Emotion? <ul><li>The  James-Lange theory  of emotion suggests that the autonomic arousal and skeletal action occur...
What is Emotion? <ul><li>James-Lange theory leads to two predictions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People with a weak autonomic o...
What is Emotion? <ul><li>Research indicates the following: </li></ul><ul><li>Paralyzed people report feeling emotion to th...
What is Emotion? <ul><li>According to the James-Lange theory, emotional feelings result from the body’s action.   </li></u...
What is Emotion? <ul><li>Creating certain body actions may also slightly influence emotion. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>smiling ...
 
 
What is Emotion? <ul><li>Emotional experiences arouse many areas of the brain. </li></ul><ul><li>The  limbic system  inclu...
 
What is Emotion? <ul><li>Measurement of evoked responses indicate the brain is specialized to attend strongly to facial ex...
 
What is Emotion? <ul><li>Localization in the brain seems to exist for the emotion of disgust. </li></ul><ul><li>The  insul...
What is Emotion? <ul><li>The two hemispheres of the brain play different roles in emotion. </li></ul><ul><li>Activation of...
What is Emotion? <ul><li>The  Behavioral Inhibition System (BIS)  is associated with increased activity of the frontal and...
What is Emotion? <ul><li>Differences in frontal cortex activity relates to personality. </li></ul><ul><li>People with grea...
What is Emotion? <ul><li>The right hemisphere seems to be more responsive to emotional stimuli than the left. </li></ul><u...
What is Emotion? <ul><li>Functions of emotions include: </li></ul><ul><li>adaptive values (fear leads to escape, anger lea...
What is Emotion? <ul><li>The consequences of our decisions have emotional considerations. </li></ul><ul><li>Emotions are a...
 
What is Emotion? <ul><li>Damage to the prefrontal cortex impairs decision making. </li></ul><ul><li>Leads to impulsive dec...
Attack and Escape Behaviors <ul><li>Attack and escape behaviors are closely related physiologically and behaviorally.  </l...
Attack and Escape Behaviors <ul><li>Pain, threat or other unpleasant stimuli can trigger an attack behavior. </li></ul><ul...
 
Attack and Escape Behaviors <ul><li>Environmental factors associated with increased violent tendencies include </li></ul><...
 
Attack and Escape Behaviors <ul><li>Twins studies suggest genetic contribution to the likelihood of violent behavior. </li...
Attack and Escape Behaviors <ul><li>Violence is particularly enhanced with both a genetic predisposition and an early trou...
 
Attack and Escape Behaviors <ul><li>Hormones also influence aggressive behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>Male aggressive behavio...
 
Attack and Escape Behaviors <ul><li>Testosterone alters the way people respond to stimuli. </li></ul><ul><li>Testosterone ...
 
Attack and Escape Behaviors <ul><li>Studies also suggest a connection between aggressive behavior and low serotonin releas...
Attack and Escape Behaviors <ul><li>5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA)  is a serotonin metabolite found in the blood, cer...
Attack and Escape Behaviors <ul><li>Monkeys with high levels of 5-HIAA were more likely to survive. </li></ul><ul><li>Evol...
Attack and Escape Behaviors <ul><li>In human studies, low serotonin turnover has been linked to:  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pe...
 
Attack and Escape Behaviors <ul><li>Changes in diet can alter serotonin synthesis. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: tryptoph...
Attack and Escape Behaviors <ul><li>Serotonin activity an also be influenced by genetics. </li></ul><ul><li>Genes control ...
Attack and Escape Behaviors <ul><li>The role of serotonin is very complicated and should not be thought of as the “anti-ag...
Attack and Escape Behaviors <ul><li>Proneness to approach, avoidance, and anxiety varies with the situation. </li></ul><ul...
Attack and Escape Behaviors <ul><li>The  startle reflex  is the extremely fast response to unexpected loud noises. </li></...
Attack and Escape Behaviors <ul><li>Current mood or situation can modify the reaction </li></ul><ul><li>Startle reflex is ...
 
Attack and Escape Behaviors <ul><li>Output from the amygdala to the hypothalamus controls autonomic fear responses. </li><...
Attack and Escape Behaviors <ul><li>Damage to the amygdala interferes with: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the learning of fear res...
Attack and Escape Behaviors <ul><li>In the early 1900s, studies of monkeys with Kluver-Bucy syndrome illustrated the effec...
Attack and Escape Behaviors <ul><li>fMRI studies suggest the amygdala responds strongly to emotional stimuli and facial ex...
 
Attack and Escape Behaviors <ul><li>In humans, damage to the amygdala does not result in the loss of emotion. </li></ul><u...
Attack and Escape Behaviors <ul><li>Amygdala damage also affects the ability to recognize emotions specifically in photogr...
 
 
Attack and Escape Behaviors <ul><li>Genetic variations in amygdala arousal may thus underlie some of the variations of anx...
Attack and Escape Behaviors <ul><li>Drugs intended to control anxiety alter activity at amygdala synapses. </li></ul><ul><...
 
Attack and Escape Behaviors <ul><li>Benzodiazepines  are the most commonly used anti-anxiety drugs. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>...
 
Attack and Escape Behaviors <ul><li>Diazepam-binding inhibitor (DBI)  is a naturally occurring protein which attaches to t...
Attack and Escape Behaviors <ul><li>Ethyl alcohol has behavioral effects similar to benzodiazepines..  </li></ul><ul><li>A...
 
Stress and Health <ul><li>Behavioral medicine  emphasizes the effects on health of diet, smoking, exercise, stressful expe...
Stress and Health <ul><li>Hans Selye (1979) defined  stress  as the non-specific response of the body to any demand made u...
Stress and Health <ul><ul><li>The General Adaptation Syndrome: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alarm stage  - characterized by ...
Stress and Health <ul><li>Sapolsky (1998) argues that the nature of today’s crises are more prolonged. </li></ul><ul><ul><...
Stress and Health <ul><li>Stress activates two systems in the body: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The sympathetic nervous system -...
 
Stress and Health <ul><li>The HPA axis becomes the dominant response to prolonged stressors. </li></ul><ul><li>Activation ...
Stress and Health <ul><li>The  immune system  consists of cells that protect the body against viruses and bacteria by prod...
Stress and Health <ul><ul><li>T cells  – attack intruders directly and help other T cells or B cells to multiply. </li></u...
 
Stress and Health <ul><li>During an infection, leukocytes and other cells produce small proteins called  cytokines. </li><...
Stress and Health <ul><li>Psychoneuroimmunology  deals with the way in which experiences alter the immune system. </li></u...
Stress and Health <ul><li>In response to a stressful experience, the nervous system activates the immune system. </li></ul...
Stress and Health <ul><li>Prolonged stress response is damaging to the body. </li></ul><ul><li>Prolonged increase of corti...
Stress and Health <ul><li>Prolonged stress can also be harmful to the hippocampus and can affect memory. </li></ul><ul><li...
Stress and Health <ul><li>A variety of ways exist to reduce stress or control our response to it: </li></ul><ul><li>Breath...
Stress and Health <ul><li>Posttraumatic stress disorder  (PTSD) occurs in some people after terrifying experiences and inc...
Stress and Health <ul><li>Studies have revealed most PTSD victims have a smaller than average hippocampus. </li></ul><ul><...
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  1. 1. Chapter 12 Emotional Behaviors
  2. 2. What is Emotion? <ul><li>Psychologists define emotion in terms of three components: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cognition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Readiness for action </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Feeling </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. What is Emotion? <ul><li>Emotional situations arouse the autonomic nervous system. </li></ul><ul><li>Each situation evokes its own special mixture of sympathetic and parasympathetic arousal </li></ul>
  4. 5. What is Emotion? <ul><li>The James-Lange theory of emotion suggests that the autonomic arousal and skeletal action occurs first in an emotion. </li></ul><ul><li>The emotion that is felt is the label that we give the arousal of the organs and muscle </li></ul>
  5. 6. What is Emotion? <ul><li>James-Lange theory leads to two predictions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People with a weak autonomic or skeletal response should feel less emotion. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increasing one’s response should enhance an emotion </li></ul></ul>
  6. 7. What is Emotion? <ul><li>Research indicates the following: </li></ul><ul><li>Paralyzed people report feeling emotion to the same degree as prior to their injury </li></ul><ul><li>People with “pure autonomic failure” still report feeling emotion but less intensely. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pure autonomic failure - output from the autonomic nervous system to the body fails. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Suggests other factors are involved in the perception of emotion. </li></ul>
  7. 8. What is Emotion? <ul><li>According to the James-Lange theory, emotional feelings result from the body’s action. </li></ul><ul><li>Panic attacks are marked by extreme sympathetic nervous system arousal. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Only if perceived as occurring spontaneously. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 9. What is Emotion? <ul><li>Creating certain body actions may also slightly influence emotion. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>smiling slightly increases happiness. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inducing a frown leads to the rating of stimuli as slightly less pleasant. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Indicates that perception of the body's actions do contribute to emotional feeling </li></ul><ul><li>However, body’s actions are not required. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: M ö bius syndrome </li></ul></ul>
  9. 12. What is Emotion? <ul><li>Emotional experiences arouse many areas of the brain. </li></ul><ul><li>The limbic system includes the forebrain areas surrounding the thalamus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>traditionally been regarded as critical for emotion. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>PET and fMRI studies also suggest many other areas of the cerebral cortex, especially the frontal and temporal lobes, are activated during an emotional experience. </li></ul>
  10. 14. What is Emotion? <ul><li>Measurement of evoked responses indicate the brain is specialized to attend strongly to facial expressions. </li></ul><ul><li>Emotions tend not to be localized in specific parts of the cortex. </li></ul><ul><li>A single emotion increases activity in various parts of the brain. </li></ul>
  11. 16. What is Emotion? <ul><li>Localization in the brain seems to exist for the emotion of disgust. </li></ul><ul><li>The insular cortex is strongly activated during exposure to stimuli perceived as “disgusting”. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Also the primary taste cortex. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Also reacts to frightening stimuli so not completely dedicated to disgust. </li></ul></ul>
  12. 17. What is Emotion? <ul><li>The two hemispheres of the brain play different roles in emotion. </li></ul><ul><li>Activation of the frontal and temporal areas of the left hemisphere is associated with “approach” and the Behavioral Activation System . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Marked by low to moderate arousal. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can characterize either happiness or anger. </li></ul></ul>
  13. 18. What is Emotion? <ul><li>The Behavioral Inhibition System (BIS) is associated with increased activity of the frontal and temporal lobe of the right hemisphere. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increases attention and arousal. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inhibits action. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stimulates emotions such as fear and disgust. </li></ul></ul>
  14. 19. What is Emotion? <ul><li>Differences in frontal cortex activity relates to personality. </li></ul><ul><li>People with greater activity in the left hemisphere tend to be happier, more out-going and friendlier. </li></ul><ul><li>People with greater left hemisphere activity tend to be socially withdrawn, less satisfied with life, and prone to unpleasant emotions. </li></ul>
  15. 20. What is Emotion? <ul><li>The right hemisphere seems to be more responsive to emotional stimuli than the left. </li></ul><ul><li>Damage to the right temporal cortex causes problems in the ability to identify emotions of others. </li></ul>
  16. 21. What is Emotion? <ul><li>Functions of emotions include: </li></ul><ul><li>adaptive values (fear leads to escape, anger lead to attack, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>allow us to make quick decisions </li></ul><ul><li>help us make moral decisions. </li></ul>
  17. 22. What is Emotion? <ul><li>The consequences of our decisions have emotional considerations. </li></ul><ul><li>Emotions are an important component to moral decisions. </li></ul><ul><li>Failure to anticipate the unpleasantness of an event can lead to bad decision making. </li></ul><ul><li>Contemplating moral decisions activates the prefrontal cortex, cingulate gyrus, and amygdala. </li></ul>
  18. 24. What is Emotion? <ul><li>Damage to the prefrontal cortex impairs decision making. </li></ul><ul><li>Leads to impulsive decision-making without pausing to consider consequences. </li></ul><ul><li>Stems form failure to anticipate unpleasantness of an outcome </li></ul>
  19. 25. Attack and Escape Behaviors <ul><li>Attack and escape behaviors are closely related physiologically and behaviorally. </li></ul><ul><li>Corresponding behaviors are anger and fear. </li></ul>
  20. 26. Attack and Escape Behaviors <ul><li>Pain, threat or other unpleasant stimuli can trigger an attack behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>Attack behaviors are associated with increased activity in the corticomedial area of the amygdala. </li></ul><ul><li>After experiencing a provocation, people are more likely to attack for a period of time afterwards. </li></ul><ul><li>An initial attack behavior increases the probability of a second attack behavior. </li></ul>
  21. 28. Attack and Escape Behaviors <ul><li>Environmental factors associated with increased violent tendencies include </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exposure to lead </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Smoking behavior of mother during pregnancy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The effect is particularly strong if the mother smoked and also had complications during pregnancy. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Both may impair brain development </li></ul>
  22. 30. Attack and Escape Behaviors <ul><li>Twins studies suggest genetic contribution to the likelihood of violent behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>Monozygotic twins resembled each other much more than dizygotic twins with regard to violent and criminal behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>Attempts to identify a specific gene have found only a weak effect. </li></ul>
  23. 31. Attack and Escape Behaviors <ul><li>Violence is particularly enhanced with both a genetic predisposition and an early troubled environment. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: Interaction between MAO A levels and childhood maltreatment </li></ul></ul>
  24. 33. Attack and Escape Behaviors <ul><li>Hormones also influence aggressive behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>Male aggressive behavior is influenced by the hormone testosterone. </li></ul><ul><li>On average, males engage in more aggressive and violent behaviors than do females. </li></ul><ul><li>Research shows that men with the highest rates of violent behavior also have slightly higher testosterone levels. </li></ul>
  25. 35. Attack and Escape Behaviors <ul><li>Testosterone alters the way people respond to stimuli. </li></ul><ul><li>Testosterone may increase the response of the amygdala to angry expressions. </li></ul><ul><li>Decreases ability of the cerebral cortex to identify and regulate emotion. </li></ul>
  26. 37. Attack and Escape Behaviors <ul><li>Studies also suggest a connection between aggressive behavior and low serotonin release. </li></ul><ul><li>Turnover is the amount of a neurotransmitter that is released and resynthesized by neurons. </li></ul><ul><li>Valzelli’s (1973) study with male juvenile mice found that social isolation decreased serotonin turnover and increased aggressive behavior. </li></ul>
  27. 38. Attack and Escape Behaviors <ul><li>5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) is a serotonin metabolite found in the blood, cerebrospinal fluid, and urine that allows researchers to infer turnover rate. </li></ul><ul><li>High levels of 5-HIAA imply much serotonin release and turnover. </li></ul><ul><li>Research with monkeys has demonstrated that low levels of 5-HIAA increases the probability of attack on larger monkey </li></ul><ul><ul><li>few survived past age 6. </li></ul></ul>
  28. 39. Attack and Escape Behaviors <ul><li>Monkeys with high levels of 5-HIAA were more likely to survive. </li></ul><ul><li>Evolution seems to select for an intermediate amount of anxiety and aggression. </li></ul><ul><li>Evolution might also select for high aggressive behaviors. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>may die young, but are more likely to achieve a dominant position within the troop. </li></ul></ul>
  29. 40. Attack and Escape Behaviors <ul><li>In human studies, low serotonin turnover has been linked to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People with a history of violent behavior and violent crime. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>People who attempt suicide by violent means. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recurrent violent behaviors. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A simple blood tests does not enable the reliable identification. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  30. 42. Attack and Escape Behaviors <ul><li>Changes in diet can alter serotonin synthesis. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: tryptophan and serotonin synthesis </li></ul></ul>
  31. 43. Attack and Escape Behaviors <ul><li>Serotonin activity an also be influenced by genetics. </li></ul><ul><li>Genes control the production of tryptophan hydroxylase. </li></ul><ul><li>Tryptophan hydroxylase is the enzyme that converts tryptophan into serotonin. </li></ul><ul><li>People with less active form of this enzyme are more likely than others to report frequent anger and aggression. </li></ul>
  32. 44. Attack and Escape Behaviors <ul><li>The role of serotonin is very complicated and should not be thought of as the “anti-aggression” transmitter. </li></ul><ul><li>During aggression, the brain releases serotonin. </li></ul><ul><li>Clinical depression is linked to low serotonin. </li></ul><ul><li>High levels of serotonin may inhibit a variety of impulses. </li></ul>
  33. 45. Attack and Escape Behaviors <ul><li>Proneness to approach, avoidance, and anxiety varies with the situation. </li></ul><ul><li>Amygdala is one of the main areas for integrating both environmental and genetic influences and then regulating current levels of anxiety. </li></ul><ul><li>Fear and anxiety are not necessarily associated with the desire to flee. </li></ul>
  34. 46. Attack and Escape Behaviors <ul><li>The startle reflex is the extremely fast response to unexpected loud noises. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>found in young infants and suggest fear is built-in and unlearned </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Auditory information stimulates an area of the pons that commands the tensing of the neck and other muscles. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Information reaches the pons within 3 to 8 milliseconds after </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The startle response occurs within two-tenths of a second. </li></ul></ul>
  35. 47. Attack and Escape Behaviors <ul><li>Current mood or situation can modify the reaction </li></ul><ul><li>Startle reflex is more vigorous if already tenses </li></ul><ul><li>Cells in the amygdala, especially the basal lateral and central nuclei, receive information from pain, vision, and hearing circuits. </li></ul><ul><li>Axons extend to areas in the midbrain that relay information to the nucleus in the pons. </li></ul><ul><li>The relay enhances the startle reflex. </li></ul>
  36. 49. Attack and Escape Behaviors <ul><li>Output from the amygdala to the hypothalamus controls autonomic fear responses. </li></ul><ul><li>Axons extending from the amygdala to the prefrontal cortex regulate approach and avoidance responses. </li></ul>
  37. 50. Attack and Escape Behaviors <ul><li>Damage to the amygdala interferes with: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the learning of fear responses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>retention of fear responses previously learned </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>interpreting or understanding stimuli with emotional consequences </li></ul></ul>
  38. 51. Attack and Escape Behaviors <ul><li>In the early 1900s, studies of monkeys with Kluver-Bucy syndrome illustrated the effects of amygdala damage. </li></ul><ul><li>Monkeys with this syndrome are calm and placid and display less than normal fear of snakes and larger, more dominant monkeys. </li></ul><ul><li>Also alters social behaviors in that they have decreased ability to interpret threat gestures. </li></ul><ul><li>Amygdala damage can also lead to an increase in the approach motive. </li></ul>
  39. 52. Attack and Escape Behaviors <ul><li>fMRI studies suggest the amygdala responds strongly to emotional stimuli and facial expressions. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not necessarily associated with just fear. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Activity is strongest when the meaning is unclear and requires some processing. </li></ul><ul><li>Responds more strongly to an angry face directed toward the viewer and frightened faces directed elsewhere. </li></ul><ul><li>Amygdala also responds to stimuli not consciously perceived. </li></ul>
  40. 54. Attack and Escape Behaviors <ul><li>In humans, damage to the amygdala does not result in the loss of emotion. </li></ul><ul><li>Damage to the amygdala impairs the processing of emotional information when the signals are subtle or complicated. </li></ul><ul><li>Amygdala damage affects the ability to judge “trustworthiness” in people. </li></ul><ul><li>People with amygdala damage focus on emotional stimuli the same as irrelevant stimuli or details. </li></ul>
  41. 55. Attack and Escape Behaviors <ul><li>Amygdala damage also affects the ability to recognize emotions specifically in photographs or pictures. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Effect is particularly strong for fear or disgust. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Amygdala damage does not affect the ability to recognize fear in real life. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Attention to certain aspects of the face (eyes versus mouth) may account for the difference. </li></ul></ul>
  42. 58. Attack and Escape Behaviors <ul><li>Genetic variations in amygdala arousal may thus underlie some of the variations of anxiety in the population and related disorders. </li></ul><ul><li>Arousal of the amygdala relates to the tendency to experience some negative emotions. </li></ul><ul><li>Excessive fear and anxiety disorders are associated with hyperactivity in the amygdala </li></ul>
  43. 59. Attack and Escape Behaviors <ul><li>Drugs intended to control anxiety alter activity at amygdala synapses. </li></ul><ul><li>The main excitatory neuromodulator in the amygdala is CCK, and the main inhibitory transmitter is GABA. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Injections of CCK-stimulating drugs into the amygdala enhance the startle response. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Drugs that increase GABA activity trigger panic. </li></ul></ul>
  44. 61. Attack and Escape Behaviors <ul><li>Benzodiazepines are the most commonly used anti-anxiety drugs. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: dizepam (valium), alprazolam (xanax) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Benzodiazepines bind to the GABA A receptor , and facilitate the effects of GABA. </li></ul><ul><li>Benzodiazepines exert their effects in the amygdala, hypothalamus, midbrain, and other areas. </li></ul>
  45. 63. Attack and Escape Behaviors <ul><li>Diazepam-binding inhibitor (DBI) is a naturally occurring protein which attaches to the same sites as benzodiazepines and blocks their effects. </li></ul><ul><li>Endozepines are neuromodulators that include DBI and other related proteins that work to increase levels of fear and anxiety. </li></ul><ul><li>Variations in genes controlling endozepines may relate to people’s probability of developing anxiety disorders. </li></ul>
  46. 64. Attack and Escape Behaviors <ul><li>Ethyl alcohol has behavioral effects similar to benzodiazepines.. </li></ul><ul><li>Alcohol enhances GABA effects. </li></ul><ul><li>An experimental drug Ro-15-4513 blocks the effect of alcohol on the GABA A receptors complex. </li></ul>
  47. 66. Stress and Health <ul><li>Behavioral medicine emphasizes the effects on health of diet, smoking, exercise, stressful experiences, and other behaviors. </li></ul><ul><li>Emotions and other experiences influence illness and pattern of recovery. </li></ul>
  48. 67. Stress and Health <ul><li>Hans Selye (1979) defined stress as the non-specific response of the body to any demand made upon it. </li></ul><ul><li>Threats on the body activate a general response to stress called the general adaptation syndrome . </li></ul>
  49. 68. Stress and Health <ul><ul><li>The General Adaptation Syndrome: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alarm stage - characterized by increased sympathetic nervous system activity. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resistance stage - sympathetic response declines, the adrenal cortex releases cortisol and other hormones that enable the body to maintain prolonged alertness. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exhaustion stage - occurs after prolonged stress and is characterized by inactivity, vulnerability, and decreased energy to sustain heightened responses. </li></ul></ul>
  50. 69. Stress and Health <ul><li>Sapolsky (1998) argues that the nature of today’s crises are more prolonged. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Accounts for widespread stress-related illnesses and psychiatric problems in industrial societies. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Long-term, inescapable issues activate the general adaptation syndrome which is harmful to our health over time. </li></ul>
  51. 70. Stress and Health <ul><li>Stress activates two systems in the body: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The sympathetic nervous system - “fight or flight” response that prepares the body for brief emergency responses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The HPA axis - the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, and adrenal cortex. </li></ul></ul>
  52. 72. Stress and Health <ul><li>The HPA axis becomes the dominant response to prolonged stressors. </li></ul><ul><li>Activation of the hypothalamus induces the pituitary gland to secrete adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) . </li></ul><ul><li>ACTH stimulates the adrenal cortex to secrete cortisol. </li></ul><ul><li>Cortisol helps to mobilize energies to fight a difficult situation. </li></ul>
  53. 73. Stress and Health <ul><li>The immune system consists of cells that protect the body against viruses and bacteria by producing leukocytes (white blood cells). </li></ul><ul><ul><li>B-cells – leukocytes that mature in the bone marrow and secrete antibodies. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Antibodies – Y-shaped proteins that attach to particular kinds of antigens. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Antigens – surface proteins that are antibody-generator molecules </li></ul></ul></ul>
  54. 74. Stress and Health <ul><ul><li>T cells – attack intruders directly and help other T cells or B cells to multiply. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Natural killer cells – leukocytes that attack tumor cells and cells that are infected with viruses. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Prolonged increased cortisol levels impair the immune system. </li></ul>
  55. 76. Stress and Health <ul><li>During an infection, leukocytes and other cells produce small proteins called cytokines. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Combat infection and communicate with the brain to inform of illness. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cytokines in the brain produce symptoms of illness. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fever, sleepiness, lack of energy etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sleep and inactivity are the bodies way of conserving energy to fight illness. </li></ul></ul>
  56. 77. Stress and Health <ul><li>Psychoneuroimmunology deals with the way in which experiences alter the immune system. </li></ul><ul><li>Also deals with how the immune system influences the central nervous system. </li></ul>
  57. 78. Stress and Health <ul><li>In response to a stressful experience, the nervous system activates the immune system. </li></ul><ul><li>Immune system increases production of natural killer cells, leukocytes and cytokines. </li></ul><ul><li>The cytokines can trigger symptom of illness as a reaction to the stress itself. </li></ul>
  58. 79. Stress and Health <ul><li>Prolonged stress response is damaging to the body. </li></ul><ul><li>Prolonged increase of cortisol detracts from the synthesis of proteins of the immune system. </li></ul><ul><li>Prolonged stress of longer than a month significantly increases the likelihood of illness. </li></ul>
  59. 80. Stress and Health <ul><li>Prolonged stress can also be harmful to the hippocampus and can affect memory. </li></ul><ul><li>Cortical enhances metabolic activity in the body. </li></ul><ul><li>When metabolic activity is high in the hippocampus, the neurons are more sensitive to damage by toxins or over-stimulation. </li></ul><ul><li>Stress also impairs the adaptability and the production of new hippocampal neurons. </li></ul>
  60. 81. Stress and Health <ul><li>A variety of ways exist to reduce stress or control our response to it: </li></ul><ul><li>Breathing routines, exercise, meditation, distraction, dealing with the problem. </li></ul><ul><li>Social support from a loved one helps to reduce stress. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduces response in several brain areas including the prefrontal cortex. </li></ul></ul>
  61. 82. Stress and Health <ul><li>Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) occurs in some people after terrifying experiences and includes the following symptoms: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Frequent distressing recollections. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nightmares. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoidance of reminders of the event. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exaggerated arousal in response to noises and other stimuli. </li></ul></ul>
  62. 83. Stress and Health <ul><li>Studies have revealed most PTSD victims have a smaller than average hippocampus. </li></ul><ul><li>PTSD victims show lower than normal cortisol levels after the trauma. </li></ul><ul><li>People with low cortisol levels may be ill-equipped to combat stress and more prone to the damaging effects of stress. </li></ul>
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