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Chapter 1  Wood  Power Point
Chapter 1  Wood  Power Point
Chapter 1  Wood  Power Point
Chapter 1  Wood  Power Point
Chapter 1  Wood  Power Point
Chapter 1  Wood  Power Point
Chapter 1  Wood  Power Point
Chapter 1  Wood  Power Point
Chapter 1  Wood  Power Point
Chapter 1  Wood  Power Point
Chapter 1  Wood  Power Point
Chapter 1  Wood  Power Point
Chapter 1  Wood  Power Point
Chapter 1  Wood  Power Point
Chapter 1  Wood  Power Point
Chapter 1  Wood  Power Point
Chapter 1  Wood  Power Point
Chapter 1  Wood  Power Point
Chapter 1  Wood  Power Point
Chapter 1  Wood  Power Point
Chapter 1  Wood  Power Point
Chapter 1  Wood  Power Point
Chapter 1  Wood  Power Point
Chapter 1  Wood  Power Point
Chapter 1  Wood  Power Point
Chapter 1  Wood  Power Point
Chapter 1  Wood  Power Point
Chapter 1  Wood  Power Point
Chapter 1  Wood  Power Point
Chapter 1  Wood  Power Point
Chapter 1  Wood  Power Point
Chapter 1  Wood  Power Point
Chapter 1  Wood  Power Point
Chapter 1  Wood  Power Point
Chapter 1  Wood  Power Point
Chapter 1  Wood  Power Point
Chapter 1  Wood  Power Point
Chapter 1  Wood  Power Point
Chapter 1  Wood  Power Point
Chapter 1  Wood  Power Point
Chapter 1  Wood  Power Point
Chapter 1  Wood  Power Point
Chapter 1  Wood  Power Point
Chapter 1  Wood  Power Point
Chapter 1  Wood  Power Point
Chapter 1  Wood  Power Point
Chapter 1  Wood  Power Point
Chapter 1  Wood  Power Point
Chapter 1  Wood  Power Point
Chapter 1  Wood  Power Point
Chapter 1  Wood  Power Point
Chapter 1  Wood  Power Point
Chapter 1  Wood  Power Point
Chapter 1  Wood  Power Point
Chapter 1  Wood  Power Point
Chapter 1  Wood  Power Point
Chapter 1  Wood  Power Point
Chapter 1  Wood  Power Point
Chapter 1  Wood  Power Point
Chapter 1  Wood  Power Point
Chapter 1  Wood  Power Point
Chapter 1  Wood  Power Point
Chapter 1  Wood  Power Point
Chapter 1  Wood  Power Point
Chapter 1  Wood  Power Point
Chapter 1  Wood  Power Point
Chapter 1  Wood  Power Point
Chapter 1  Wood  Power Point
Chapter 1  Wood  Power Point
Chapter 1  Wood  Power Point
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  • 1. Introduction to Psychology Chapter One Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006 <ul><li>This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: </li></ul><ul><li>Any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; </li></ul><ul><li>Preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any images; </li></ul><ul><li>Any rental, lease, or lending of the program. </li></ul>Slide author: Cynthia K. Shinabarger Reed Book authors: Samuel Wood Ellen G. Wood Denise Boyd
  • 2. Chapter One Overview Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006 <ul><li>SQ3R Method </li></ul><ul><li>Psychology: An Introduction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Scientific Method </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Goals of Psychology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How to Think Like a Scientist </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Descriptive Research Methods </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Naturalistic and Laboratory Observations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Case Study </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Survey Research </li></ul></ul>
  • 3. Chapter One Overview Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006 <ul><li>The Experimental Method </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Experiments and Hypothesis Testing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Independent and Dependent Variables </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Experimental and Control Groups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sources of Bias in Experimental Research </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Limitations of the Experimental Method </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Correlational Method </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Correlation Coefficient </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strengths and Weaknesses of Correlational Studies </li></ul></ul>
  • 4. Chapter One Overview Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006 <ul><li>Participants in Psychological Research </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Participant-Related Bias in Psychological Research </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protecting Research Participants’ Rights </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Use of Animals in Research </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Exploring Psychology’s Roots </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Founding of Psychology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Structuralism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Functionalism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Women and Minorities in Psychology </li></ul></ul>
  • 5. Chapter One Overview Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006 <ul><li>Schools of Thought in Psychology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Behaviorism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Psychoanalysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Humanistic Psychology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cognitive Psychology </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Current Trends in Psychology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Evolutionary Psychology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Biological (Physiological) Psychology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Sociocultural Approach </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Psychological Perspectives and Eclecticism </li></ul></ul>
  • 6. Chapter One Overview Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006 <ul><li>Psychologists at Work </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Specialties in Psychology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Majoring in Psychology </li></ul></ul>
  • 7. Study Help <ul><li>SQ3R Method </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A 5-Step Study Method </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Survey </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Question </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Read </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Recite </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Review </li></ul></ul></ul>Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006
  • 8. Psychology: An Introduction <ul><li>Psychology is : </li></ul><ul><li>The scientific study of behavior and mental processes. </li></ul>Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006
  • 9. The Scientific Method <ul><li>The orderly, systematic procedure that researchers follow as they </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify a research problem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Design a study to investigate the problem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Collect and analyze data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Draw conclusions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communicate their findings </li></ul></ul>Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006
  • 10. The Scientific Method <ul><li>Theory </li></ul><ul><li>A general principle or set of principles proposed to explain how a number of separate facts are related . </li></ul><ul><li>Replication </li></ul><ul><li>The process of repeating a study with different participants and preferably a different investigator to verify research findings . </li></ul>Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006
  • 11. Goals of Psychology <ul><ul><li>Description: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> To accurately and completely describe behaviors or mental processes. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Explanation: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> An explanation tells why a given event or behavior occurred. </li></ul></ul>Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006
  • 12. Goals of Psychology <ul><ul><li>Prediction: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This goal is accomplished when researchers can specify the conditions under which a behavior or event is likely to occur. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Influence: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This goal is accomplished when researchers know how to apply a principle or change a condition in order to prevent unwanted occurrences or bring about desired outcomes. </li></ul></ul>Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006
  • 13. How to Think Like a Scientist <ul><li>Critical thinking: </li></ul><ul><li>The process of objectively evaluating claims, propositions, and conclusions to determine whether they follow logically from the evidence presented. </li></ul>Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006
  • 14. How to Think Like a Scientist <ul><li>Characteristics of Critical Thinking: </li></ul><ul><li>Independent thinking </li></ul><ul><li>Suspension of judgment </li></ul><ul><li>Willingness to modify or abandon prior judgments </li></ul>Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006
  • 15. Descriptive Research Methods <ul><li>Naturalistic Observation </li></ul><ul><li>A research method in which the researchers observe and record behavior in its natural setting without attempting to influence or control it. </li></ul><ul><li>Laboratory Observation </li></ul><ul><li>Studying behavior by observation in a laboratory, not in a natural setting. Researchers can exert more control and use more precise equipment to measure responses . </li></ul>Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006
  • 16. Descriptive Research Methods <ul><li>The Case Study </li></ul><ul><li>A single individual or a small number of persons are studied in great depth, usually over an extended period of time. </li></ul>Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006
  • 17. Descriptive Research Methods <ul><li>Survey Research </li></ul><ul><li>A method of study in which researchers use interviews and/or questionnaires to gather information about the attitudes, beliefs, experiences, or behaviors of a group of people. </li></ul><ul><li>Population: the entire group of interest to researchers. </li></ul><ul><li>Sample: a part of the population that is studied in order to reach conclusions about the entire population. </li></ul>Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006
  • 18. Descriptive Research Methods <ul><li>Survey Research (continued) </li></ul><ul><li>Representative sample: includes important subgroups in the same proportions as they are found in that population. </li></ul><ul><li>Biased sample: does not adequately reflect the larger population. </li></ul>Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006
  • 19. Descriptive Research Methods <ul><li>Survey Research (continued) </li></ul><ul><li>Random sample: selecting individuals from the population in such a way that every member of the population has an equal chance of being included in the sample. </li></ul>Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006
  • 20. Descriptive Research Methods <ul><li>Interviews and Questionnaires </li></ul><ul><li>Survey results can be affected by the questions’ wording and the context for the survey. </li></ul><ul><li>Truthfulness of the responses can be affected by characteristics of the interviewers. </li></ul><ul><li>Questionnaires can be completed more quickly and less expensively than interviews. </li></ul><ul><li>Surveys in which respondents choose whether or not to participate, rather than being selected through some kind of random process, are not scientific. </li></ul>Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006
  • 21. Descriptive Research Methods <ul><li>Advantages and Disadvantages of Survey Research </li></ul><ul><li>Surveys can provide highly accurate information. </li></ul><ul><li>They can track changes in attitudes or behavior over time. </li></ul><ul><li>Large-scale surveys can be costly and time-consuming. </li></ul><ul><li>Respondents may provide inaccurate information. </li></ul>Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006
  • 22. The Experimental Method <ul><li>The experiment is the only research method that can be used to identify cause – effect relationships. </li></ul><ul><li>An experiment is designed to test a hypothesis. </li></ul><ul><li>A hypothesis is a prediction about a cause – effect relationship between two or more variables. </li></ul><ul><li>A variable is any condition or factor that can be manipulated, controlled, or measured. </li></ul>Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006
  • 23. The Experimental Method Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006 <ul><li>Independent and Dependent Variables </li></ul><ul><li>Independent variable: a factor or condition that is deliberately manipulated in order to determine whether it causes any change in another behavior or condition. </li></ul><ul><li>Sometimes the independent variable is referred to as the treatment . </li></ul>
  • 24. The Experimental Method <ul><li>Independent and Dependent Variables </li></ul><ul><li>Dependent Variable: a factor or condition that is measured at the end of an experiment and is presumed to vary as a result of the independent variable(s). </li></ul><ul><li>Operational definition: explains precisely how the variables will be observed and measured. </li></ul>Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006
  • 25. The Experimental Method <ul><li>Experimental and Control Groups </li></ul><ul><li>Experimental Group: in an experiment, the group that is exposed to the independent variable, or the treatment. </li></ul><ul><li>Control Group: in an experiment, the group that is exposed to the same experimental environment, but is not given the treatment. This group is used for purposes of comparison. </li></ul>Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006
  • 26. The Experimental Method <ul><li>Sources of Bias in Experimental Research </li></ul><ul><li>Confounding variables: factors or conditions other than the independent variable that are not equivalent across groups and that could cause differences among the groups with respect to the dependent variable. </li></ul><ul><li>Selection bias: the assignment of participants to experimental or control groups in such a way that systematic differences among the groups are present at the beginning of the experiment. </li></ul>Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006
  • 27. The Experimental Method <ul><li>Sources of Bias in Experimental Research </li></ul><ul><li>Random assignment: the process of selecting participants for experimental and control groups by using a chance procedure to guarantee that each participant has an equal probability of being assigned to any of the groups; a control for selection bias. </li></ul><ul><li>Placebo effect: occurs in an experiment when a participant’s response to a treatment is due to his or her expectations about the treatment rather than to the treatment itself. </li></ul>Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006
  • 28. The Experimental Method <ul><li>Sources of Bias in Experimental Research </li></ul><ul><li>Placebo: an inert substance given to the control group as a control for the placebo effect. </li></ul><ul><li>Experimenter bias: occurs when researchers’ preconceived notions or expectations become a self-fulfilling prophecy and cause the researchers to find what they expect to find. </li></ul><ul><li>Double-Blind Procedure: a procedure in which neither the researchers nor the participants know who is in the experimental group and control groups until after the data have been gathered; a control for experimenter bias. </li></ul>Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006
  • 29. The Experimental Method <ul><li>Limitations of the Experimental Method </li></ul><ul><li>The more researchers control a setting, the more unnatural and contrived the research setting becomes, making the findings less generalizable to the real world. </li></ul><ul><li>The use of the experimental method is unethical or impossible for research in many areas of interest to psychologists. </li></ul>Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006
  • 30. The Correlational Method <ul><li>A research method used to establish the degree of relationship (correlation) between two characteristics, events, or behaviors. </li></ul><ul><li>Correlation Coefficient </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A numerical value that indicates the strength and direction of the relationship between two variables; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ranges from +1.00 to - 1.00 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>+1.00 – a perfect positive correlation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>.00 – no relationship </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>- 1.00 – a perfect negative correlation </li></ul></ul></ul>Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006
  • 31. The Correlational Method <ul><li>Correlation Coefficients </li></ul><ul><li>The higher the number, the stronger the relationship. </li></ul><ul><li>A positive correlation indicates that two variables vary in the same direction. </li></ul><ul><li>A negative correlation means that an increase in the value of one variable is associated with a decrease in the value of the other variable. </li></ul>Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006
  • 32. The Correlational Method Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006 <ul><li>Strengths and Weaknesses of Correlational Studies </li></ul><ul><li>A correlation between two variables does not prove that a cause – effect </li></ul><ul><li>relationship exists between them. There is a correlation between stress and illness, but that does not mean that stress necessarily causes illness. </li></ul><ul><li>Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006 </li></ul>
  • 33. The Correlational Method <ul><li>Strengths and Weaknesses of Correlational Studies </li></ul><ul><li>Correlational studies can be used to examine variables that cannot be manipulated in experiments because of ethical or other reasons. </li></ul><ul><li>Correlational studies can be done more quickly and cheaply than experiments. </li></ul>Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006
  • 34. Participants in Psychological Research <ul><li>Lack of racial representativeness in a research sample is a type of participant-related bias. </li></ul><ul><li>Another kind of bias happens when researchers, or consumers of research, overgeneralize the findings of a study to all members of a particular group. </li></ul><ul><li>Gender bias and ageism are also sources of participant-related bias. </li></ul><ul><li>Researchers should guard against using descriptions or reaching conclusions that imply that all members of a given age group are defined by negative characteristics. </li></ul>Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006
  • 35. Participants in Psychological Research <ul><li>Protecting Research Participants’ Rights </li></ul><ul><li>Legality: research must conform to applicable laws. </li></ul><ul><li>Institutional Approval: clearance from institution or school is required. </li></ul><ul><li>Informed Consent: participants must be informed of the purpose and any potential harm. </li></ul><ul><li>Deception: only used when necessary and when no other means are available. </li></ul>Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006
  • 36. Participants in Psychological Research <ul><li>Protecting Research Participants’ Rights </li></ul><ul><li>Debriefing: participants are informed of any deception after end of research. </li></ul><ul><li>Clients, patients, students, and subordinates: researchers take steps to assure participants are not damaged in any way by participating. </li></ul><ul><li>Payment for participation: must be fully informed about what is expected in return for payment. </li></ul>Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006
  • 37. Participants in Psychological Research <ul><li>Protecting Research Participants’ Rights </li></ul><ul><li>Publication: researchers must report their findings in an appropriate form and they must make their data available to others who want to verify their findings. Results must also be made available to participants. </li></ul>Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006
  • 38. Participants in Psychological Research <ul><li>The Use of Animals in Research </li></ul><ul><li>Legality: adherence to all relevant federal, state, and local laws. </li></ul><ul><li>Supervision by experienced personnel: the use of animals must be supervised by people who are trained in their care. </li></ul><ul><li>Minimization of discomfort: researchers are ethically bound to minimize discomfort to animals and to euthanize in a humane manner when necessary. </li></ul>Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006
  • 39. Exploring Psychology’s Roots <ul><li>The Founding of Psychology </li></ul><ul><li>Wilhelm Wundt: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Generally thought of as the “father” of psychology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Established a psychological laboratory at the University of Leipzig in Germany in 1879, marking the birth of psychology as a formal discipline </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used a method called introspection </li></ul></ul>Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006
  • 40. Introspection <ul><li>Even though two people eating ice cream experience the same sensations (sweetness and coldness) their reported introspections of the experience would probably differ. </li></ul>Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006
  • 41. Exploring Psychology’s Roots <ul><li>Structuralism: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First formal school of thought in psychology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aimed at analyzing the basic elements of conscious mental experience </li></ul></ul>Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006
  • 42. Exploring Psychology’s Roots <ul><ul><li>Functionalism: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Advocated by American psychologist William James </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Concerned with how humans and animals use mental processes in adapting to their environment </li></ul></ul>Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006
  • 43. Exploring Psychology’s Roots <ul><li>Functionalism: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Broadened the scope of psychology to include behavior as well as mental processes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It also allowed the study of children, animals, and the mentally impaired, groups that could not be studied by the structuralists because they could not be trained to use introspection. </li></ul></ul>Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006
  • 44. Exploring Psychology’s Roots <ul><li>Women and Minorities in Psychology </li></ul><ul><li>Overcame early prejudices to produce many notable achievements contributing to modern day psychology. </li></ul><ul><li>Christine Ladd-Franklin (1847-1930 ): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Completed Ph.D. in the mid 1880’s at John Hopkins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Did not receive her degree until 1926. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Formulated a well-regarded, evolutionary theory of color vision. </li></ul></ul>Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006
  • 45. Exploring Psychology’s Roots <ul><li>Women and Minorities in Psychology (continued) </li></ul><ul><li>Mary Whiton Calkins (1863-1930) </li></ul><ul><li>Completed the requirements for a doctorate at Harvard, but Harvard refused to grant the degree. </li></ul><ul><li>Established a psychology laboratory at Wellesley College. </li></ul><ul><li>Developed the paired associates test. </li></ul>Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006
  • 46. Exploring Psychology’s Roots <ul><li>Women and Minorities in Psychology (continued) </li></ul><ul><li>Margaret Floy Washburn (1871-1939) </li></ul><ul><li>Received her Ph.D. from Cornell University </li></ul><ul><li>Taught at Vasser College </li></ul><ul><li>Wrote The Animal Mind (1908) and Movement and Mental Imagery (1916) </li></ul>Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006
  • 47. Exploring Psychology’s Roots <ul><li>Women and Minorities in Psychology (continued) </li></ul><ul><li>Albert Sidney Beckham (1897-1964) </li></ul><ul><li>A notable African American psychologist </li></ul><ul><li>Established first psychological laboratory at a black institution of higher learning – Howard University </li></ul><ul><li>Conducted impressive studies on intelligence and how it is related to occupational fields </li></ul>Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006
  • 48. Exploring Psychology’s Roots <ul><li>Women and Minorities in Psychology (continued) </li></ul><ul><li>Kenneth Clark </li></ul><ul><li>A recent African American psychologist </li></ul><ul><li>Achieved national recognition for writings on the harmful effects of racial segregation </li></ul><ul><li>Writings affected Supreme Court rulings declaring racial segregation unconstitutional </li></ul><ul><li>Published classic writings on racial identification and self-esteem with his wife, Mamie Phipps Clark </li></ul>Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006
  • 49. Exploring Psychology’s Roots <ul><li>Women and Minorities in Psychology (continued) </li></ul><ul><li>Jorge Sanchez </li></ul><ul><li>An Hispanic American psychologist </li></ul><ul><li>Studied bias in intelligence testing during the 1930s </li></ul><ul><li>Pointed out that cultural and language differences work against Hispanic students when they take IQ tests </li></ul>Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006
  • 50. Exploring Psychology’s Roots <ul><li>Women and Minorities in Psychology (continued) </li></ul><ul><li>Native American and Asian American psychologists have made important contributions to psychological research as well. </li></ul><ul><li>Moreover, they are the fastest growing minority groups in the field of psychology. </li></ul><ul><li>Today, more women than men obtain degrees in psychology. </li></ul>Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006
  • 51. Schools of Thought in Psychology <ul><li>Behaviorism </li></ul><ul><li>Developed by John B. Watson </li></ul><ul><li>Confines itself to the study of behavior because behavior is observable and measurable and, therefore, objective and scientific </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasized that behavior is determined primarily by factors in the environment </li></ul><ul><li>B.F. Skinner was also an influential force in behaviorism </li></ul>Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006
  • 52. Schools of Thought in Psychology <ul><li>Psychoanalysis </li></ul><ul><li>Developed by Sigmund Freud </li></ul><ul><li>Maintains that the unconscious is the primary force which determines thoughts, feelings, and behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Freud believed the unconscious is the storehouse for material that threatens the conscious life of the individual. </li></ul>Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006
  • 53. Schools of Thought in Psychology <ul><li>Cognitive Psychology </li></ul><ul><li>Sees humans as active participants who seek out experiences, who alter and shape those experiences, and who use mental processes to transform information in the course of their own cognitive development </li></ul><ul><li>Derived from Gestalt psychology and information-processing theory </li></ul>Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006
  • 54. Schools of Thought in Psychology <ul><li>Cognitive Psychology (continued) </li></ul><ul><li>Gestalt psychology: emphasized that individuals perceive objects and patterns as whole units and that the perceived whole is more than the sum of its parts. </li></ul><ul><li>Information-processing theory: view that the brain processes information in sequential steps, in much the same way as a computer does serial processing – one step at a time. </li></ul>Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006
  • 55. Current Trends in Psychology <ul><li>Evolutionary Psychology: studies how humans have adapted the behaviors required for survival in the face of environmental pressures. </li></ul><ul><li>Biological (Physiological) Psychology: looks for links between specific behaviors and biological processes that often help explain individual differences. </li></ul><ul><li>Sociocultural Approach: emphasizes social and cultural influences on human behavior. </li></ul>Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006
  • 56. Current Trends in Psychology <ul><li>Psychological Perspectives: general points of view used for explaining people’s behavior and thinking. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Behavioral perspective – environmental factors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Psychoanalytic perspective – emotions, unconscious motivations, early childhood experiences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Humanistic perspective – subjective experiences, intrinsic motivation to achieve self-actualization </li></ul></ul>Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006
  • 57. Current Trends in Psychology <ul><li>Psychological Perspectives (continued) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cognitive perspective – mental processes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evolutionary perspective – inherited traits that enhance adaptability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Biological perspective – biological structures, processes, heredity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sociocultural perspective – social and cultural variables </li></ul></ul>Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006
  • 58. Current Trends in Psychology <ul><li>Eclectic Position: choosing a combination of approaches to explain a particular behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>By adopting multiple perspectives, psychologists are able to devise more complex theories and research studies, resulting in improved treatment strategies. </li></ul><ul><li>In this way, their theories and studies can more closely mirror the behavior of real people in real situations. </li></ul>Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006
  • 59. Psychologists at Work <ul><li>Clinical psychologists: specialize in diagnosis and treatment of mental and behavioral disorders such as anxiety, phobias, and schizophrenia. </li></ul><ul><li>Counseling psychologists: help people who have adjustment problems (marital, social, or behavioral) that are generally less severe than those handled by clinical psychologists. </li></ul><ul><li>Physiological, Biological, or Neuropsychologists : study the relationship between physiological processes and behavior. </li></ul>Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006
  • 60. Psychologists at Work <ul><li>Experimental psychologists : specialize in the use of experimental research methods. </li></ul><ul><li>Developmental psychologists: study how people grow, develop, and change throughout the lifespan. </li></ul><ul><li>Educational psychologists: specialize in the study of teaching and learning. </li></ul><ul><li>Industrial/organizational (I/O) psychologists: study the relationships between people and their work environments. </li></ul>Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006
  • 61. Psychologists at Work <ul><li>Majoring in Psychology </li></ul><ul><li>The number of undergraduate degrees awarded in psychology is second only to the number awarded in business administration. </li></ul><ul><li>Professional psychologists have graduate degrees. </li></ul><ul><li>Many men and women who intend to go on to postgraduate work in other fields – law, for example – major in psychology. </li></ul>Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006
  • 62. Review of Learning Objectives <ul><li>Psychology: An introduction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What process do scientists use to answer questions about behavior and mental processes? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What are the goals of psychology? </li></ul></ul>Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006
  • 63. Review of Learning Objectives <ul><li>Descriptive Research Methods </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How do psychological researchers use naturalistic and laboratory observation? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What are the advantages and disadvantages of the case study? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How do researchers ensure that survey results are useful? </li></ul></ul>Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006
  • 64. Review of Learning Objectives <ul><li>The Experimental Method </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Why do researchers use experiments to test hypotheses about cause-effect relationships? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How do independent and dependent variables differ? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Why are experimental and control groups necessary? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What kinds of factors introduce bias into experimental studies? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What are the limitations of the experimental method? </li></ul></ul>Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006
  • 65. Review of Learning Objectives <ul><li>The Correlational Method </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What is a correlation coefficient, and what does it mean? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What are the strengths and weaknesses of the correlational method? </li></ul></ul>Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006
  • 66. Review of Learning Objectives <ul><li>Participants in Psychological Research </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In what ways can participants bias research results? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What ethical rules must researchers follow when humans are involved in studies? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Why are animals used in research? </li></ul></ul>Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006
  • 67. Review of Learning Objectives <ul><li>Exploring Psychology’s Roots </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What roles did Wundt and Titchener play in the founding of psychology? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Why is functionalism important in the history of psychology? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In what ways have women and minorities shaped the field of psychology, both in the past and today? </li></ul></ul>Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006
  • 68. Review of Learning Objectives <ul><li>Schools of Thought in Psychology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How do behaviorists explain behavior and mental processes? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What do psychoanalytic psychologists believe about the role of the unconscious? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>According to Maslow and Rogers, what motivates human behavior and mental processes? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What is the focus of cognitive psychology? </li></ul></ul>Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006
  • 69. Review of Learning Objectives <ul><li>Current Trends in Psychology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What is the main idea behind evolutionary psychology? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How is biological psychology changing the field of psychology? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What kinds of variables interest psychologists who take a sociocultural approach? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What are psychological perspectives, and how are they related to an eclectic position? </li></ul></ul>Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006
  • 70. Review of Learning Objectives <ul><li>Psychologists at Work </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Who are some of the specialists working within psychology? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What kinds of employment opportunities are available for psychology majors? </li></ul></ul>Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006

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