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    Ch9 portable Ch9 portable Presentation Transcript

    • ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Instructor Version
    • Chapter 9 Motivation and Emotion ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law.  The following are prohibited by law: any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or part, of any images; any rental, lease, or lending of the program.
    • Chapter 9 Overview
      • Explaining Motivation
      • Social Motives
      • Hunger
      • Emotion
      ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
    • Explaining Motivation
      • Motivation is all the processes that initiate, direct and sustain behavior
      • Motive is the need or desire that energizes and directs behavior toward a goal
      ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
    • The Components of Motivation
      • Activation
        • Taking the first steps toward a goal
      • Persistence
        • Continuing to work toward a goal despite encountering obstacles
      • Intensity
        • The energy and attention applied to achieve a goal
      ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
    • Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation
      • Intrinsic motivation
        • Desire to perform an act because it is satisfying or pleasurable in and of itself
          • e.g., A child reads a book because it is fun
      • Extrinsic motivation
        • Desire to perform an act to gain an external reward or avoid an undesirable consequence
          • e.g., A child reads a book to avoid losing TV privileges
      ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
    • Biological Approaches to Motivation
      • In many species, behavior is motivated by instincts
        • Fixed behavior patterns characteristic of every member of a species
          • e.g., spiders spinning webs, birds migrating
      • No true instincts motivate human behavior
      • But, biological forces underlie some human behaviors
      ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
    • Biological Approaches to Motivation cont…
      • According to Clark Hull, a biological need creates an unpleasant internal state, called a drive , and the person or organism is motivated to reduce it
          • e.g., need for food causes hunger, motivates food seeking to reduce the drive
      • Drive theory is based on the concept of homeostasis
          • Natural tendency of the body to maintain a balanced internal state
      ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
    • Figure 9.1 Drive-Reduction Theory ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
    • Biological Approaches to Motivation cont…
      • People are motivated to maintain an optimal level of arousal
        • a state of alertness and mental and physical activation
      • In contrast to drive reduction theory, arousal theory proposes that humans and other animals are sometimes motivated to increase tension
      • When arousal is too low, stimulus motives motivate organisms to increase stimulation
      ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
    • Biological Approaches to Motivation Cont…
      • The Yerkes-Dodson law
      • States that task performance is best when arousal level is appropriate to task difficulty
      • Higher arousal for simple tasks
      • Moderate arousal for moderate tasks
      • Low arousal for difficult tasks
      ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
    • Figure 9.2 The Yerkes-Dodson Law ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
    • Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
      • Abraham Maslow proposed that human needs are hierarchical
      • Humans are motivated by their lowest unmet need
      • When lower needs are met, the ultimate goal is self-actualization
      ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
    • Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs cont…
      • Maslow studied people who exemplified self- actualization
        • Abraham Lincoln
        • Thomas Jefferson
        • Albert Einstein
        • Eleanor Roosevelt
      ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
    • Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs cont…
      • Self-actualizers
      • Perceive reality accurately
      • Believe they have a mission to accomplish
      • Devote their lives to some larger good
      • Frequently have peak experiences of deep meaning, insight, and harmony with the universe
      ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
    • Figure 9.3 Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
    • Social Motives
      • Motive (such as the needs for affiliation and achievement) that is acquired through experience and interaction with others
      ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
    • Achievement Motivation
      • Henry Murray
      • Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
        • A series of pictures of ambiguous situations
        • Person taking the test is asked to create a story about each picture
        • The stories are presumed to reveal the test taker’s needs
      ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
    • Achievement Motivation cont…
      • According to Murray, one motive revealed by the TAT is need for achievement (n Ach)
      • The need to accomplish something difficult and to perform at a high standard of excellence
      ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
    • Achievement Motivation cont…
      • People with high n Ach
        • Pursue goals that are challenging yet attainable through hard work
        • Goals that are too easy offer no challenge and hold no interest
      • People with low n Ach
        • Are more motivated by fear of failure than by hope of success
        • So they set low goals or impossibly high goals
      ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
    • Achievement Motivation cont…
      • Goal orientation theory
      • Proposes that achievement motivation varies according to which of four goal orientations one adopts
      • Mastery approach orientation
      • Mastery avoidance orientation
      • Performance avoidance orientation
      • Performance approach orientation
      ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
    • Achievement Motivation cont…
      • Mastery goals measure achievement against a desired level of knowledge or skill
      • Performance goals measure achievement against that of others
      • Research findings
      • Students with mastery goal orientations tend to procrastinate less
      • Students with performance approach orientation tend to get the highest grades
      ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
    • Work Motivation
      • Work motivation is the conditions responsible for arousal, direction, magnitude, and maintenance of effort of workers
      • Two effective ways to increase work motivation
        • Reinforcement Goal Setting
      ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
    • Work Motivation cont…
      • Research suggests that organizations can enhance employees’ commitment to goals
      • Having them participate in goal setting
      • Making goals specific, attractive, difficult, and attainable
      • Providing feedback on performance
      • Rewarding employees for attaining goals
      ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
    • Hunger
      • Primary drives are unlearned motives that serve to satisfy biological needs, states of tension or arousal that arise from a biological need and are unlearned
      ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
    • Internal and External Cues
      • Two areas of the hypothalamus regulate hunger and eating behavior
        • Lateral hypothalamus
        • Ventromedial hypothalamus
      • Signals that activate these structures
        • Low levels of glucose and high levels of insulin stimulate hunger
      ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
    • Internal and External Cues cont…
      • External cues that stimulate eating include
        • Appetizing smell, taste, or appearance of food
        • Being around others who are eating
        • Reaction to boredom, stress, or an unpleasant emotional state
      • External cues that inhibit eating include
        • Unappetizing smell, taste, or appearance of food
        • Acquired taste aversions
        • Reaction to stress or an unpleasant emotional state
      ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
    • Explaining Variations in Body Weight
      • Health care professionals classify body weight by measuring body mass index (BMI)
        • A measure of weight relative to height
      • Heredity is a cause of variations in BMI
        • Genes influence metabolic rate and the number of fat cells in the body
        • Set point theory proposes that each person is genetically programmed to carry a certain amount of body weight
      ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
    • Obesity and Weight Loss
      • Prevalence of obesity has increased over the past 40 years
      • Most individuals who are obese require a doctor’s supervision to attain a healthy weight
      • For individuals who are not obese, weight loss is best achieved by lifestyle changes including both diet and exercise
        • Diets that focus only on cutting calories tend to be ineffective
      ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
    • Figure 9.4 Age-Adjusted Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity among U.S. Adults, Age 20-74 Years ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
    • Eating Disorders
      • Anorexia nervosa is an eating disorder characterized by overwhelming, irrational fear of gaining weight or becoming fat, compulsive dieting to the point of starvation, and excessive weight loss
      • Causes of this disorder are not well understood
      • Treatment is difficult
      ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
    • Eating Disorders cont…
      • Bulimia nervosa is an eating disorder characterized by repeated and uncontrolled episodes of binge eating
      • Causes not well understood
      • Treatment is difficult
      • 10-15% of all people with bulimia are males
      ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
    • Emotion
      • An identifiable feeling state involving physiological arousal, a cognitive appraisal of the situation or stimulus causing that internal body state, and an outward behavior expressing the state
      ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
    • Theories of Emotions
      • The James-Lange theory suggests that emotional feelings result when an individual becomes aware of a physiological response to an emotion-provoking stimulus
      ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
    • Figure 9.5 The James-Lange Theory of Emotion ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
    • Theories of Emotions cont…
      • The Cannon Bard theory suggests that emotion-provoking stimulus is transmitted simultaneously to the cerebral cortex, which is responsible for conscious experience of the emotion, and to the sympathetic nervous system, which causes physiological arousal
      • So, emotions are experienced psychologically and physiologically at the same time
      ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
    • Theories of Emotions cont…
      • The Schachter-Singer two-factor theory suggests that two things must happen for a person to feel an emotion
      • There must be physiological arousal
      • There must be a cognitive interpretation of the arousal, so the person can label it as a specific emotion
      ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
    • Theories of Emotions cont…
      • The Lazarus theory proposes that a cognitive appraisal is the first step in an emotional response, and that all other aspects of an emotion, including physiological arousal, depend on it
      ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
    • Emotion and the Brain
      • The amygdala is the brain structure most closely associated with fear
      • The cerebral cortex regulates the amygdala based on its interpretation of the situation
      • Emotions are lateralized in the two cerebral hemispheres
      ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
    • Figure 9.6 Neuroimaging of Emotions ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
    • The Expression of Emotion
      • Basic emotions are unlearned and universal
        • They are found in all cultures
        • Emerge in children according to a predictable developmental timetable
      ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
    • The Expression of Emotion cont…
      • Facial-feedback hypothesis is the idea that muscular movements involved in certain facial expressions produce the corresponding emotions
      • Research supports this hypothesis
      ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc.