Ch9 portable

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Ch9 portable

  1. 1. ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc.©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. 11 Instructor Version
  2. 2. ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc.©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. 22 Chapter 9Chapter 9 Motivation and EmotionMotivation and Emotion This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or part, of any images; any rental, lease, or lending of the program.
  3. 3. ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc.©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. 33 Chapter 9 OverviewChapter 9 Overview  Explaining MotivationExplaining Motivation  Social MotivesSocial Motives  HungerHunger  EmotionEmotion
  4. 4. ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc.©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. 44 Explaining MotivationExplaining Motivation  MotivationMotivation is all the processes that initiate,is all the processes that initiate, direct and sustain behaviordirect and sustain behavior  MotiveMotive is the need or desire that energizesis the need or desire that energizes and directs behavior toward a goaland directs behavior toward a goal
  5. 5. ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc.©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. 55 The Components of MotivationThe Components of Motivation  ActivationActivation – Taking the first steps toward a goalTaking the first steps toward a goal  PersistencePersistence – Continuing to work toward a goal despiteContinuing to work toward a goal despite encountering obstaclesencountering obstacles  IntensityIntensity – The energy and attention applied to achieve aThe energy and attention applied to achieve a goalgoal
  6. 6. ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc.©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. 66 Intrinsic and Extrinsic MotivationIntrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation  Intrinsic motivationIntrinsic motivation – Desire to perform an act because it is satisfyingDesire to perform an act because it is satisfying or pleasurable in and of itselfor pleasurable in and of itself  e.g., A child reads a book because it is fune.g., A child reads a book because it is fun  Extrinsic motivationExtrinsic motivation – Desire to perform an act to gain an externalDesire to perform an act to gain an external reward or avoid an undesirable consequencereward or avoid an undesirable consequence  e.g., A child reads a book to avoid losing TV privilegese.g., A child reads a book to avoid losing TV privileges
  7. 7. ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc.©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. 77 Biological Approaches to MotivationBiological Approaches to Motivation  In many species, behavior is motivated byIn many species, behavior is motivated by instinctsinstincts – Fixed behavior patterns characteristic of everyFixed behavior patterns characteristic of every member of a speciesmember of a species  e.g., spiders spinning webs, birds migratinge.g., spiders spinning webs, birds migrating  No true instincts motivate human behaviorNo true instincts motivate human behavior  But, biological forces underlie some humanBut, biological forces underlie some human behaviorsbehaviors
  8. 8. ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc.©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. 88 Biological Approaches to MotivationBiological Approaches to Motivation cont…cont…  According to Clark Hull, a biological needAccording to Clark Hull, a biological need creates an unpleasant internal state, calledcreates an unpleasant internal state, called aa drivedrive, and the person or organism is, and the person or organism is motivated to reduce itmotivated to reduce it  e.g., need for food causes hunger, motivatese.g., need for food causes hunger, motivates food seeking to reduce the drivefood seeking to reduce the drive  Drive theory is based on the concept ofDrive theory is based on the concept of homeostasishomeostasis  Natural tendency of the body to maintain aNatural tendency of the body to maintain a balanced internal statebalanced internal state
  9. 9. ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc.©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. 99 Figure 9.1 Drive-Reduction Theory
  10. 10. ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc.©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. 1010 Biological Approaches to Motivation cont…  People are motivated to maintain an optimalPeople are motivated to maintain an optimal level oflevel of arousalarousal – a state of alertness and mental and physicala state of alertness and mental and physical activationactivation  In contrast to drive reduction theory, arousalIn contrast to drive reduction theory, arousal theory proposes that humans and othertheory proposes that humans and other animals are sometimes motivated to increaseanimals are sometimes motivated to increase tensiontension  When arousal is too low,When arousal is too low, stimulus motivesstimulus motives motivate organisms to increase stimulationmotivate organisms to increase stimulation
  11. 11. ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc.©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. 1111 Biological Approaches to Motivation Cont… The Yerkes-Dodson law  States that task performance is best whenStates that task performance is best when arousal level is appropriate to task difficultyarousal level is appropriate to task difficulty  Higher arousal for simple tasksHigher arousal for simple tasks  Moderate arousal for moderate tasksModerate arousal for moderate tasks  Low arousal for difficult tasksLow arousal for difficult tasks
  12. 12. ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc.©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. 1212 Figure 9.2 The Yerkes-Dodson Law
  13. 13. ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc.©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. 1313 Maslow’s Hierarchy of NeedsMaslow’s Hierarchy of Needs  Abraham Maslow proposed that humanAbraham Maslow proposed that human needs are hierarchicalneeds are hierarchical  Humans are motivated by their lowestHumans are motivated by their lowest unmet needunmet need  When lower needs are met, the ultimateWhen lower needs are met, the ultimate goal isgoal is self-actualizationself-actualization
  14. 14. ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc.©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. 1414 Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs cont…  Maslow studied people whoMaslow studied people who exemplified self- actualizationexemplified self- actualization Abraham LincolnAbraham Lincoln Thomas JeffersonThomas Jefferson Albert EinsteinAlbert Einstein Eleanor RooseveltEleanor Roosevelt
  15. 15. ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc.©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. 1515 Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs cont… Self-actualizersSelf-actualizers  Perceive reality accuratelyPerceive reality accurately  Believe they have a mission to accomplishBelieve they have a mission to accomplish  Devote their lives to some larger goodDevote their lives to some larger good  Frequently haveFrequently have peak experiencespeak experiences of deepof deep meaning, insight, and harmony with themeaning, insight, and harmony with the universeuniverse
  16. 16. ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc.©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. 1616 Figure 9.3 Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
  17. 17. ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc.©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. 1717 Social Motives  Motive (such as the needs forMotive (such as the needs for affiliation and achievement) that isaffiliation and achievement) that is acquired through experience andacquired through experience and interaction with othersinteraction with others
  18. 18. ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc.©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. 1818 Achievement Motivation  Henry MurrayHenry Murray  Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) – A series of pictures of ambiguousA series of pictures of ambiguous situationssituations – Person taking the test is asked to createPerson taking the test is asked to create a story about each picturea story about each picture – The stories are presumed to reveal theThe stories are presumed to reveal the test taker’s needstest taker’s needs
  19. 19. ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc.©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. 1919 Achievement Motivation cont…  According to Murray, one motiveAccording to Murray, one motive revealed by the TAT isrevealed by the TAT is need forneed for achievement (n Ach)achievement (n Ach)  The need to accomplish somethingThe need to accomplish something difficult and to perform at a highdifficult and to perform at a high standard of excellencestandard of excellence
  20. 20. ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc.©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. 2020 Achievement Motivation cont…  People with high n AchPeople with high n Ach – Pursue goals that are challenging yetPursue goals that are challenging yet attainable through hard workattainable through hard work – Goals that are too easy offer noGoals that are too easy offer no challenge and hold no interestchallenge and hold no interest  People with low n AchPeople with low n Ach – Are more motivated by fear of failure thanAre more motivated by fear of failure than by hope of successby hope of success – So they set low goals or impossibly highSo they set low goals or impossibly high goalsgoals
  21. 21. ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc.©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. 2121 Achievement Motivation cont… Goal orientation theoryGoal orientation theory  Proposes that achievement motivationProposes that achievement motivation varies according to which of four goalvaries according to which of four goal orientations one adoptsorientations one adopts  Mastery approachMastery approach orientationorientation  Mastery avoidanceMastery avoidance orientationorientation  Performance avoidancePerformance avoidance orientationorientation  Performance approachPerformance approach orientationorientation
  22. 22. ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc.©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. 2222 Achievement Motivation cont…  Mastery goals measure achievementMastery goals measure achievement against a desired level of knowledge or skillagainst a desired level of knowledge or skill  Performance goals measure achievementPerformance goals measure achievement against that of othersagainst that of others Research findings  Students with mastery goal orientationsStudents with mastery goal orientations tend to procrastinate lesstend to procrastinate less  Students with performance approachStudents with performance approach orientation tend to get the highest gradesorientation tend to get the highest grades
  23. 23. ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc.©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. 2323 Work Motivation  Work motivationWork motivation is the conditionsis the conditions responsible for arousal, direction,responsible for arousal, direction, magnitude, and maintenance of effort ofmagnitude, and maintenance of effort of workersworkers  Two effective ways to increase workTwo effective ways to increase work motivationmotivation Reinforcement Goal Setting
  24. 24. ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc.©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. 2424 Work Motivation cont… Research suggests that organizations canResearch suggests that organizations can enhance employees’ commitment to goalsenhance employees’ commitment to goals  Having them participate in goal settingHaving them participate in goal setting  Making goals specific, attractive, difficult,Making goals specific, attractive, difficult, and attainableand attainable  Providing feedback on performanceProviding feedback on performance  Rewarding employees for attaining goalsRewarding employees for attaining goals
  25. 25. ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc.©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. 2525 HungerHunger  Primary drivesPrimary drives are unlearned motivesare unlearned motives that serve to satisfy biological needs,that serve to satisfy biological needs, states of tension or arousal that arisestates of tension or arousal that arise from a biological need and arefrom a biological need and are unlearnedunlearned
  26. 26. ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc.©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. 2626 Internal and External Cues  Two areas of the hypothalamusTwo areas of the hypothalamus regulate hunger and eating behaviorregulate hunger and eating behavior – Lateral hypothalamusLateral hypothalamus – Ventromedial hypothalamusVentromedial hypothalamus  Signals that activate these structuresSignals that activate these structures – Low levels of glucose and high levels ofLow levels of glucose and high levels of insulin stimulate hungerinsulin stimulate hunger
  27. 27. ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc.©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. 2727 Internal and External Cues cont…  External cues that stimulate eating includeExternal cues that stimulate eating include – Appetizing smell, taste, or appearance of foodAppetizing smell, taste, or appearance of food – Being around others who are eatingBeing around others who are eating – Reaction to boredom, stress, or an unpleasantReaction to boredom, stress, or an unpleasant emotional stateemotional state  External cues that inhibit eating includeExternal cues that inhibit eating include – Unappetizing smell, taste, or appearance of foodUnappetizing smell, taste, or appearance of food – Acquired taste aversionsAcquired taste aversions – Reaction to stress or an unpleasant emotionalReaction to stress or an unpleasant emotional statestate
  28. 28. ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc.©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. 2828 Explaining Variations in Body Weight  Health care professionals classifyHealth care professionals classify body weight by measuringbody weight by measuring body massbody mass index (BMI)index (BMI) – A measure of weight relative to heightA measure of weight relative to height  Heredity is a cause of variations inHeredity is a cause of variations in BMIBMI – Genes influenceGenes influence metabolic ratemetabolic rate and theand the number of fat cells in the bodynumber of fat cells in the body – Set point theorySet point theory proposes that eachproposes that each person is genetically programmed toperson is genetically programmed to carry a certain amount of body weightcarry a certain amount of body weight
  29. 29. ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc.©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. 2929 Obesity and Weight Loss  Prevalence of obesity has increased over thePrevalence of obesity has increased over the past 40 yearspast 40 years  Most individuals who are obese require aMost individuals who are obese require a doctor’s supervision to attain a healthy weightdoctor’s supervision to attain a healthy weight  For individuals who are not obese, weight loss isFor individuals who are not obese, weight loss is best achieved by lifestyle changes includingbest achieved by lifestyle changes including both diet and exerciseboth diet and exercise – Diets that focus only on cutting calories tend to beDiets that focus only on cutting calories tend to be ineffectiveineffective
  30. 30. ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc.©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. 3030 Figure 9.4 Age-Adjusted Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity among U.S. Adults, Age 20-74 Years
  31. 31. ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc.©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. 3131 Eating Disorders  Anorexia nervosaAnorexia nervosa is an eating disorderis an eating disorder characterized by overwhelming,characterized by overwhelming, irrational fear of gaining weight orirrational fear of gaining weight or becoming fat, compulsive dieting tobecoming fat, compulsive dieting to the point of starvation, and excessivethe point of starvation, and excessive weight lossweight loss  Causes of this disorder are not wellCauses of this disorder are not well understoodunderstood  Treatment is difficultTreatment is difficult
  32. 32. ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc.©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. 3232 Eating Disorders cont…  BulimiaBulimia nervosanervosa is an eating disorderis an eating disorder characterized by repeated andcharacterized by repeated and uncontrolled episodes of binge eatinguncontrolled episodes of binge eating  Causes not well understoodCauses not well understood  Treatment is difficultTreatment is difficult  10-15% of all people with bulimia are10-15% of all people with bulimia are malesmales
  33. 33. ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc.©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. 3333 Emotion  An identifiable feeling state involvingAn identifiable feeling state involving physiological arousal, a cognitivephysiological arousal, a cognitive appraisal of the situation or stimulusappraisal of the situation or stimulus causing that internal body state, andcausing that internal body state, and an outward behavior expressing thean outward behavior expressing the statestate
  34. 34. ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc.©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. 3434 Theories of Emotions  TheThe James-Lange theoryJames-Lange theory suggests thatsuggests that emotional feelings result when an individualemotional feelings result when an individual becomes aware of a physiological responsebecomes aware of a physiological response to an emotion-provoking stimulusto an emotion-provoking stimulus
  35. 35. ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc.©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. 3535 Figure 9.5 The James-Lange Theory of Emotion
  36. 36. ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc.©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. 3636 Theories of Emotions cont…  TheThe Cannon Bard theoryCannon Bard theory suggests thatsuggests that emotion-provoking stimulus is transmittedemotion-provoking stimulus is transmitted simultaneously to the cerebral cortex, which issimultaneously to the cerebral cortex, which is responsible for conscious experience of theresponsible for conscious experience of the emotion, and to the sympathetic nervousemotion, and to the sympathetic nervous system, which causes physiological arousalsystem, which causes physiological arousal  So, emotions are experienced psychologicallySo, emotions are experienced psychologically and physiologically at the same timeand physiologically at the same time
  37. 37. ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc.©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. 3737 Theories of Emotions cont…  TheThe Schachter-Singer two-factor theorySchachter-Singer two-factor theory suggests that two things must happen forsuggests that two things must happen for a person to feel an emotiona person to feel an emotion  There must be physiological arousalThere must be physiological arousal  There must be a cognitive interpretation ofThere must be a cognitive interpretation of the arousal, so the person can label it as athe arousal, so the person can label it as a specific emotionspecific emotion
  38. 38. ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc.©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. 3838 Theories of Emotions cont…  TheThe Lazarus theoryLazarus theory proposes that aproposes that a cognitive appraisal is the first step in ancognitive appraisal is the first step in an emotional response, and that all otheremotional response, and that all other aspects of an emotion, includingaspects of an emotion, including physiological arousal, depend on itphysiological arousal, depend on it
  39. 39. ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc.©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. 3939 Emotion and the Brain  TheThe amygdalaamygdala is the brain structureis the brain structure most closely associated with fearmost closely associated with fear  TheThe cerebral cortexcerebral cortex regulates theregulates the amygdala based on its interpretationamygdala based on its interpretation of the situationof the situation  Emotions are lateralized in the twoEmotions are lateralized in the two cerebral hemispherescerebral hemispheres
  40. 40. ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc.©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. 4040 Figure 9.6 Neuroimaging of Emotions
  41. 41. ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc.©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. 4141 The Expression of Emotion  Basic emotionsBasic emotions are unlearned andare unlearned and universaluniversal – They are found in all culturesThey are found in all cultures – Emerge in children according to aEmerge in children according to a predictable developmental timetablepredictable developmental timetable
  42. 42. ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc.©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. 4242 The Expression of Emotion cont…  Facial-feedback hypothesisFacial-feedback hypothesis is the idea thatis the idea that muscular movements involved in certainmuscular movements involved in certain facial expressions produce thefacial expressions produce the corresponding emotionscorresponding emotions  Research supports this hypothesisResearch supports this hypothesis

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