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  • 1. Instructor Version
  • 2. Chapter 12: Personality Theory and Assessment This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law.  The following are prohibited by law: any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or part, of any images; any rental, lease, or lending of the program.
  • 3. Chapter 12 Overview
    • Psychoanalytic Theories
    • Humanistic Theories
    • Trait Theories
    • Social-Cognitive Theories
    • Nature, Nurture, and Personality
    • Personality Assessment
  • 4. Psychoanalytic Theories
    • Psychoanalysis is Freud’s theory of personality and his therapy for treating psychological disorders; focuses on unconscious processes
    • Personality is a person’s characteristic pattern of behaving, thinking, and feeling
  • 5. The Levels of Consciousness
    • The conscious
      • All thoughts, feelings, memories of which we are aware at a given moment
    • The preconscious
      • Thoughts, feelings, memories that we are not consciously aware of but can easily bring to mind
    • The unconscious
      • The primary motivating force of human behavior
      • Contains repressed memories and instincts, wishes, and desires that have never been conscious
  • 6. The Structure of Personality
    • Id
      • Contains life and death instincts
      • Operates according to the pleasure principle
    • Ego
      • The logical, rational part of personality
      • Operates according to the reality principle
    • Superego
      • The moral system of the personality
      • Consists of the conscience and the ego ideal
  • 7. Figure 12.1 Freud’s Conception of Personality
  • 8. Defense Mechanisms
    • The ego uses defense mechanisms to maintain self-esteem and protect itself from anxiety created by conflict between the id and superego
      • The id’s demands for pleasure often conflict with the superego’s desires for moral perfection
    • e.g., ego protects itself from unacceptable thoughts and memories through repression
      • Removing painful thoughts, memories, desires from consciousness and keeping them in the unconscious
  • 9. The Psychosexual Stages of Development
    • According to Freud, the sex instinct is the most important factor influencing personality
    • It is present at birth, and then develops through a series of psychosexual stages
      • Each stage involves an erogenous zone and a conflict
      • If the conflict is not resolved, the child develops a fixation , and a portion of the libido remains invested at that stage
  • 10. Evaluating Freud’s Contribution
    • Oral stage : Birth to 1 year
      • Conflict: Weaning
      • Fixation can lead to dependency and passivity or sarcasm and hostility
    • Anal stage : 1 to 3 years
      • Conflict: Toilet training
      • Fixation can lead to excessive cleanliness and stinginess or messiness and rebelliousness
  • 11. Evaluating Freud’s Contribution cont…
    • Phallic stage : 3 to 5 or 6 years
      • Conflict: Oedipus complex
      • Fixation can lead to flirtatiousness and promiscuity or excessive pride and chastity
    • Latency : 5 or 6 years to puberty
      • Period of sexual calm
    • Genital stage : Puberty on
      • Revival of sexual interests
  • 12. Evaluating Freud’s Contribution cont…
    • Freud is credited with making important contributions to psychology
      • Recognizing the importance of childhood experiences in shaping personality
      • Identifying the role of defense mechanisms
      • Calling attention to the unconscious
    • But critics argue that
      • People do not typically repress painful memories
      • Dreams do not have symbolic meaning
      • Freud’s ideas are difficult to test scientifically
  • 13. The Neo-Freudians
    • Several theorists built on the strengths of Freud’s theory, and tried to avoid its weaknesses
    • They are called the neo-Freudians
      • Carl Jung (1875-1961)
      • Alfred Adler (1870-1937)
      • Karen Horney (1885-1952)
  • 14. The Neo-Freudians cont…
    • Jung’s theory , the personality has three parts
    • Ego
    • Personal unconscious
    • Collective unconscious
    • Jung rejected Freud’s ideas
      • that the sexual instinct is the most important determinant of personality
      • that personality is mostly formed in childhood
  • 15. Figure 12.2 Jung’s Conception of Personality
  • 16. The Neo-Freudians cont…
    • Adler’s theory
    • The predominant force of the personality is not sexual in nature
    • The drive to overcome feelings of inferiority motivates most human behavior
    • When feelings of inferiority prevent personal development, they constitute an inferiority complex
  • 17. The Neo-Freudians cont…
    • Karen Horney believed that Freud overemphasized the role of sexual instinct
    • Rejected his psychosexual stages – ideas such as the Oedipus complex and penis envy
    • Women’s psychological difficulties arise from failure to live up to idealized versions of themselves
    • Women and men must overcome irrational beliefs about the need for perfection
    • Modern cognitive-behavioral therapy
  • 18. Humanistic Theories
    • In humanistic psychology, people are assumed to have a natural tendency toward growth and the realization of their fullest potential
    • These theories are more optimistic about human nature than Freud’s theory
    • But, like Freud’s theory, humanistic theories are difficult to test scientifically
  • 19. Maslow and Self-Actualizations
    • Abraham Maslow (1908-1970) proposed a hierarchy of needs that motivates human behavior
    • The highest need is self-actualization
    • Self actualizers
      • Accurately perceive reality and quickly spot dishonesty
      • Tend not to depend on external authority, but are internally driven, autonomous, and independent
      • Frequently have peak experiences
  • 20. Rogers and Conditions of Worth
    • According to Carl Rogers (1902-1987), our parents set up conditions of worth
      • Conditions on which their positive regard depends
    • These conditions force us to live according to someone else’s values
    • A goal of person-centered therapy is to enable people to live by their own values
      • NOT live by the values of others to gain positive regard
      • Unconditional positive regard
  • 21. Trait Theories
    • Attempts to explain personality and differences among people in terms of personal characteristics that are stable across situations
  • 22. Early Trait Theories
    • Allport (1897-1967) proposed two kinds of traits
      • Cardinal traits
      • Central traits
    • Cattell’s(1950) theory
      • Surface traits are the observable qualities of personality
      • Source traits underlie surface traits, and cause certain surface traits to cluster together
      • Cattell identified 23 source traits
  • 23. Figure 12.3 The 16PF Personality Profile
  • 24. Early Trait Theories cont…
    • Eysenck (1916-1997) : Three Personality Factors
      • Psychoticism an individual’s link to reality
      • Extraversion a dimension ranging from outgoing to shy
      • Neuroticism a dimension of emotional stability, from stable to anxious and irritable
    • Rooted in neurological functioning
    • Supported by modern brain-imaging studies
  • 25. The Five-Factor Model
    • A trait theory that attempts to explain personality using five broad dimensions, each of which is composed of a constellation of personality traits
      • Openness
      • Conscientiousness
      • Extraversion
      • Agreeableness
      • Neuroticism
  • 26. The Five-Factor Model cont…
    • Openness
      • Open to new experiences, curious, and broad minded versus having narrow interests and preferring the familiar
    • Conscientiousness
      • Reliable, orderly, and industrious versus undependable and lazy
    • Extraversion
      • Outgoing with a preference to be around other people versus shy with a preference to be alone
  • 27. The Five-Factor Model cont…
    • Agreeableness
      • Easygoing and friendly versus unfriendly and cold
    • Neuroticism
      • Pessimistic and irritable versus optimistic and able to take things in stride
  • 28. Social-Cognitive Theories
    • The view that personality can be defined as a collection of learned behaviors acquired through social interactions
  • 29. The Situation versus Trait Debate
    • An ongoing discussion among theorists about the relative influence of traits and situations on personality
    • Walter Mischel (1968) proposed that situations dictate personality more than traits
    • Research suggests that traits are generally stable over time and across situations
      • Although situations can modify personality traits
  • 30. Bandura’s Reciprocal Determinism
    • Bandura proposed that internal, environmental, and behavioral variables interact to influence personality
    • An important cognitive factor in Bandura’s theory is self-efficacy
      • A person’s perception of his or her ability to perform competently whatever is attempted
  • 31. Figure 12.4 Bandura’s Reciprocal Determinism
  • 32. Rotter’s Locus of Control
    • Julian Rotter proposed a personality factor called locus of control
    • People with an internal locus of control see themselves as primarily in control of their behavior and its consequences
    • People with an external locus of control p erceive that what happens to them is in the hands of fate, luck, or chance
  • 33. Nature, Nurture, and Personality
    • Although all psychologists agree that our genes play at least some roles in personality, most also acknowledge that environmental factors influence how our traits change over time
  • 34. Twin and Adoption Studies
    • Identical twins are similar on several personality dimensions
      • Whether raised together or apart
    • Adoption studies indicate that shared family environment has little influence on personality development
    • These findings show that heredity strongly influences personality
  • 35. Figure 12.5 Estimated Influence of Heredity and Environment on the Big Five Personality Dimensions
  • 36. Personality and Culture
    • Advocates of the five-factor model assert that the factors are universal
    • But other theorists argue that cultures differ in individualism/collectivism , a dimension of personality
      • In individualist cultures more emphasis is placed on independence and individual achievement
      • In collectivist cultures , people emphasize social connectedness and tend to define themselves in terms of group membership
  • 37. Personality Assessment
    • Personality assessment is commonly used in business and industry to aid in hiring decisions
    • Clinical psychologists, psychiatrists, and counselors use various ways of measuring personality in the diagnosis of patients and in the assessment of progress in therapy
  • 38. Observation, Interviews, and Rating Scales
    • Assessment methods include
      • Behavioral assessment
        • In which behavior is observed and recorded
      • Structured interviews
        • In which an interview follows a prescribed procedure
    • Rating scales provide a standardized format for recording behaviors or interview responses
  • 39. Personality Inventories
    • An inventory is a paper and pencil test with questions about a person’s thoughts, feelings, and behaviors
    • Scored according to a standard procedure
    • Used to measure several dimensions of personality
  • 40. Personality Inventories cont…
    • The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory ( MMPI-2) is the most widely used personality inventory
    • Used to screen for and diagnose psychiatric problems and disorders
    • Includes 550 items that differentiate specific groups of psychiatric patients from people considered to be normal
      • Also includes validity scales, such as a social desirability scale
  • 41. Personality Inventories cont…
    • California Personality Inventory (CPI)
      • Developed to assess personality in normal individuals
      • Is useful for predicting school achievement, leadership and executive success, and effectiveness of police and military personnel
    • Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)
      • Based on Jung’s theory of personality
      • Measures normal individual differences on four personality dimensions
  • 42. Projective Tests
    • A projective test is a personality test consisting of inkblots, drawings of ambiguous human situations, or incomplete sentences for which there are no correct or incorrect responses
    • People respond by projecting their inner thoughts, feelings, fears, or conflicts onto the test materials
  • 43. Projective Tests cont…
    • In the Rorschach Inkblot Method the test taker is asked to describe 10 inkblots
    • According to Rorschach, responses can be used to diagnose disorders
    • Critics argue that results are too dependent on the judgment of the examiner
    • In response, Exner (1993) developed the Comprehensive System for scoring
  • 44. Figure 12.6 An Inkblot Similar to One Used for the Rorschach Inkblot Method
  • 45. Projective Tests cont…
    • The Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) was developed by Henry Murray
    • Test taker describes a series of drawings of ambiguous human situations
    • Descriptions are thought to reveal inner feelings, conflicts, and motives
    • Critics argue that
    • It relies too heavily on interpretation of the examiner
    • Responses may reflect temporary states and may not indicate more permanent aspects of personality