Abnormal sexual ident.hand out_ch11
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×
 

Abnormal sexual ident.hand out_ch11

on

  • 3,238 views

 

Statistics

Views

Total Views
3,238
Views on SlideShare
3,232
Embed Views
6

Actions

Likes
3
Downloads
102
Comments
0

1 Embed 6

http://www.slideshare.net 6

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Microsoft PowerPoint

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

Abnormal sexual ident.hand out_ch11 Abnormal sexual ident.hand out_ch11 Presentation Transcript

  • Chapter 11 Handouts Sexual Disorders and Gender Identity Disorder Comer, Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology , 5e – Chapter 11 Slides & Handouts by Karen Clay Rhines, Ph.D.
  • Sexual Disorders and Gender Identity Disorder
    • Sexual behavior is a major focus of both our private thoughts and public discussions
    • Experts recognize two general categories of sexual disorders:
      • Sexual dysfunctions – problems with sexual responses
      • Paraphilias – sexual urges and fantasies in response to socially inappropriate objects or situations
    • DSM-IV-TR also includes a diagnosis called gender identity disorder, a sex-related disorder in which people feel that they have been assigned to the wrong sex
    Comer, Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology , 5e – Chapter 11
  • Sexual Dysfunctions
    • Sexual dysfunctions are disorders in which people cannot respond normally in key areas of sexual functioning
      • As many as ___% of men and ___% of women in the U.S. suffer from such a dysfunction during their lives
    • Sexual dysfunctions are typically ______________, and often lead to sexual frustration, guilt, loss of self-esteem, and interpersonal problems
    Comer, Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology , 5e – Chapter 11
  • Sexual Dysfunctions
    • The human sexual response can be described as a cycle with four phases:
      • _________________________________
      • _________________________________
      • _________________________________
      • _________________________________
    • Sexual dysfunctions affect one or more of the first three phases
    Comer, Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology , 5e – Chapter 11
  • Comer, Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology , 5e – Chapter 11
  • Comer, Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology , 5e – Chapter 11
  • Sexual Dysfunctions
    • Some people struggle with sexual dysfunction their whole lives
      • For others, normal sexual functioning preceded the disorder
    • In some cases the dysfunction is present during all sexual situations
      • In others, it is tied to particular situations
    Comer, Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology , 5e – Chapter 11
  • Disorders of Desire
    • The desire phase of the sexual response cycle consists of _____________, _____________, and _________________
    • Two dysfunctions affect this phase:
      • Hypoactive sexual desire disorder
      • Sexual aversion disorder
    Comer, Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology , 5e – Chapter 11
  • Comer, Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology , 5e – Chapter 11
  • Disorders of Desire
    • Hypoactive sexual desire disorder
      • Characterized by a ________________________ and __________________________________________
        • Physical responses may be normal
      • Prevalent in about 16% of men and 33% of women
      • DSM-IV-TR refers to “deficient” sexual interest/activity but ____________________________________
        • In reality, this criterion is difficult to define
    Comer, Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology , 5e – Chapter 11
  • Disorders of Desire
    • Sexual aversion disorder
      • Characterized by a _______________________ _______________________________________
        • Sexual advances may sicken, repulse, or frighten
      • This disorder seems to be rare in men and more common in women
    Comer, Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology , 5e – Chapter 11
  • Disorders of Desire
    • A person’s sex drive is determined by a combination of biological, psychological, and sociocultural factors, and any of these may reduce sexual desire
    • Most cases of low sexual desire or sexual aversion are caused primarily by sociocultural and psychological factors, but biological conditions also can lower sex drive significantly
    Comer, Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology , 5e – Chapter 11
  • Disorders of Desire
    • Biological causes
      • A number of _____________________ interact to produce sexual desire and behavior
        • Abnormalities in their activity can lower sex drive
        • These hormones include prolactin, testosterone, and estrogen for both men and women
      • Sex drive can also be lowered by _____________ ________________________________________________________________________________
    Comer, Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology , 5e – Chapter 11
  • Disorders of Desire
    • Psychological causes
      • A general increase in anxiety or anger may reduce sexual desire in both women and men
      • Fears, attitudes, and memories may contribute to sexual dysfunction
      • Certain psychological disorders, including depression and obsessive-compulsive disorder, may lead to sexual desire disorders
    Comer, Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology , 5e – Chapter 11
  • Disorders of Desire
    • Sociocultural causes
      • Attitudes, fears, and psychological disorders that contribute to sexual desire disorders occur within a social context
        • Many sufferers of desire disorders are feeling _______________ ____________________
          • Examples: divorce, death, job stress, infertility, and/or relationship difficulties
      • Cultural standards can affect the development of these disorders
      • The trauma of sexual molestation or assault is also likely to produce sexual dysfunction
    Comer, Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology , 5e – Chapter 11
  • Disorders of Excitement
    • Excitement phase of the sexual response cycle
      • Marked by changes in the pelvic region, general physical arousal, and increases in heart rate, muscle tension, blood pressure, and rate of breathing
        • In men: _______________________________________
        • In women: ____________________________________
    • Two dysfunctions affect this phase:
      • Female sexual arousal disorder (formerly “frigidity”)
      • Male erectile disorder (formerly “impotence”)
    Comer, Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology , 5e – Chapter 11
  • Comer, Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology , 5e – Chapter 11
  • Disorders of Excitement
    • Female sexual arousal disorder
      • Characterized by ________________________________ ______________________________________________
        • Many with this disorder also have desire or orgasmic disorders
      • It is estimated that more than _____% of women experience this disorder
      • Because this disorder is so often tied to an orgasmic disorder, researchers usually _____________________; causes of the two disorders will be examined together
    Comer, Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology , 5e – Chapter 11
  • Disorders of Excitement
    • Male erectile disorder (ED)
      • Characterized by __________________________________ ______________________________________________
      • An estimated _____% of men experience this disorder
      • According to surveys, _____ of all adult men have erectile difficulty during intercourse at least some of the time
    Comer, Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology , 5e – Chapter 11
  • Disorders of Excitement
    • Most cases of erectile disorder result from an interaction of biological, psychological, and sociocultural processes
    Comer, Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology , 5e – Chapter 11
  • Disorders of Excitement
    • Biological causes
      • The same hormonal imbalances that can cause hypoactive sexual desire can also produce ED
      • Most commonly, _______________ are involved
        • ED can also be caused by damage to the nervous system from various diseases, disorders, or injuries
      • The use of ______________________________ may interfere with erections
    Comer, Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology , 5e – Chapter 11
  • Disorders of Excitement
    • Biological causes
      • Medical devices have been developed for diagnosing biological causes of ED
        • One strategy involves measuring nocturnal penile tumescence (NPT)
          • Men typically have erections during REM sleep; abnormal or absent nighttime erections usually indicate a physical basis for erectile failure
    Comer, Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology , 5e – Chapter 11
  • Disorders of Excitement
    • Psychological causes
      • Any of the psychological causes of hypoactive sexual desire can also interfere with erectile function
        • For example, as many as 90% of men with severe depression experience some degree of ED
      • One well-supported cognitive explanation for ED emphasizes __________________________________
        • Once a man begins to have erectile difficulties, he becomes fearful and worried during sexual encounters; instead of being a participant, the man becomes a spectator and judge
        • __________________________________________________________________________________________________
    Comer, Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology , 5e – Chapter 11
  • Disorders of Excitement
    • Sociocultural causes
      • Each of the sociocultural factors tied to hypoactive sexual desire has also been linked to ED
        • Job and marital distress are particularly relevant
    Comer, Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology , 5e – Chapter 11
  • Disorders of Orgasm
    • Orgasm phase of the sexual response cycle
      • Sexual pleasure peaks and sexual tension is released as the muscles in the pelvic region contract rhythmically
        • For men: semen is ejaculated
        • For women: the outer third of the vaginal walls contract
    • There are three disorders of this phase:
      • Premature ejaculation
      • Male orgasmic disorder
      • Female orgasmic disorder
    Comer, Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology , 5e – Chapter 11
  • Comer, Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology , 5e – Chapter 11
  • Disorders of Orgasm
    • Premature ejaculation
      • Characterized by _______________________________ _____________________________________________
        • About ____% of men experience premature ejaculation at some time
      • Psychological, particularly behavioral, explanations of this disorder have received more research support than other theories
        • The dysfunction seems to be typical of young, sexually inexperienced men
        • It may also be related to anxiety, hurried masturbation experiences, or poor recognition of arousal
    Comer, Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology , 5e – Chapter 11
  • Disorders of Orgasm
    • Male orgasmic disorder
      • Characterized by ________________________ or by __________________________________ after normal sexual excitement
        • Occurs in 8% of the male population
      • Biological causes include low testosterone, neurological disease, and head or spinal injury
        • __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
    Comer, Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology , 5e – Chapter 11
  • Disorders of Orgasm
    • Male orgasmic disorder
      • A leading psychological cause appears to be ______________________________________, the cognitive factors involved in ED
    Comer, Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology , 5e – Chapter 11
  • Disorders of Orgasm
    • Female orgasmic disorder
      • Characterized by ________________________________ _________________ following normal sexual excitement
        • Almost ____% of women appear to have this problem
          • ___% or more have never reached orgasm
          • An additional ____% reach orgasm only rarely
        • Women who are more sexually assertive and more comfortable with masturbation tend to have orgasms more regularly
        • Female orgasmic disorder is more common in single women than in married or cohabiting women
    Comer, Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology , 5e – Chapter 11
  • Disorders of Orgasm
    • Female orgasmic disorder
      • Most clinicians agree that orgasm during intercourse is _____________________ for normal sexual functioning
        • Early psychoanalytic theory used to consider lack of orgasm during intercourse to be pathological
      • Typically linked to female sexual arousal disorder
        • The two disorders tend to be studied and treated together
      • Once again, biological, psychological, and sociocultural factors may combine to produce these disorders
    Comer, Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology , 5e – Chapter 11
  • Disorders of Orgasm
    • Female orgasmic disorder
      • Biological causes
        • A variety of physiological conditions can affect a woman’s arousal and orgasm
          • These conditions include diabetes and multiple sclerosis
        • The same medications and illegal substances that affect erection in men can affect arousal and orgasm in women
        • Postmenopausal changes also may be responsible
    Comer, Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology , 5e – Chapter 11
  • Disorders of Orgasm
    • Female orgasmic disorder
      • Psychological causes
        • The psychological causes of hypoactive sexual desire and sexual aversion may also lead to female arousal and orgasmic disorders
        • ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________
    Comer, Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology , 5e – Chapter 11
  • Disorders of Orgasm
    • Female orgasmic disorder
      • Sociocultural causes
        • For decades, the leading sociocultural theory of female sexual dysfunction was that it resulted from ___________________________________
        • This theory has been challenged because:
          • Sexually restrictive histories are equally common in women with and without disorders
          • Cultural messages about female sexuality have been changing while the rate of female sexual dysfunction stays constant
    Comer, Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology , 5e – Chapter 11
  • Disorders of Orgasm
    • Female orgasmic disorder
      • Sociocultural causes
        • Researchers suggest that unusually stressful events, traumas, or relationships may produce the fears, memories, and attitudes that characterize these dysfunctions
        • Research has also linked certain qualities in a woman’s intimate relationships (such as emotional intimacy) to orgasmic behavior
    Comer, Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology , 5e – Chapter 11
  • Disorders of Sexual Pain
    • Two sexual dysfunctions do not fit neatly into a specific phase of the sexual response cycle
      • These are the sexual pain disorders:
        • Vaginismus
        • Dyspareunia
    Comer, Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology , 5e – Chapter 11
  • Comer, Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology , 5e – Chapter 11
  • Disorders of Sexual Pain
    • Vaginismus
      • Characterized by __________________________ ________________________________________
        • Severe cases can prevent a woman from having intercourse
        • Perhaps 20% of women occasionally have pain during intercourse, but fewer than ____% of all women have vaginismus
    Comer, Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology , 5e – Chapter 11
  • Disorders of Sexual Pain
    • Vaginismus
      • Most clinicians agree with the cognitive-behavioral theory that vaginismus __________________________
        • A variety of factors can set the stage for this fear, including anxiety and ignorance about intercourse, trauma caused by an unskilled partner, and childhood sexual abuse
      • Some women experience painful intercourse because of infection or disease, leading to “__________” vaginismus
      • Many women with vaginismus also have other sexual disorders
    Comer, Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology , 5e – Chapter 11
  • Disorders of Sexual Pain
    • Dyspareunia
      • Characterized by ________________________________ _______________ during sexual activity
        • Affects about ____% of women and about ___% of men
      • Dyspareunia in women usually has a ________________, most commonly from injury sustained in childbirth
      • Although relationship problems or psychological trauma from abuse may contribute to dyspareunia, psychosocial factors alone _______________________________
    Comer, Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology , 5e – Chapter 11
  • Treatments for Sexual Dysfunctions
    • The last 35 years have brought major changes in the treatment of sexual dysfunction
      • Early 20th century: _______________________
        • Believed that sexual dysfunction was caused by a failure to negotiate the stages of psychosexual development
        • Therapy focused on gaining insight and making broad personality changes; was generally unhelpful
    Comer, Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology , 5e – Chapter 11
  • Treatments for Sexual Dysfunctions
    • 1950s and 1960s: _____________________
      • Behavioral therapists attempted to reduce fear by applying relaxation training and systematic desensitization
      • Had moderate success, but failed to work in cases where the key problems were cognitive or psychoeducational
    Comer, Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology , 5e – Chapter 11
  • Treatments for Sexual Dysfunctions
    • 1970: Human Sexual Inadequacy
      • This book, written by William Masters and Virginia Johnson, revolutionized treatment of sexual dysfunctions
      • This original “sex therapy” program has evolved into a complex, multidimensional approach
        • Includes techniques from various models
        • More recently, biological interventions also have been incorporated
    Comer, Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology , 5e – Chapter 11
  • What Are the General Features of Sex Therapy?
    • Modern sex therapy is short-term and instructive
      • Therapy typically lasts 15 to 20 sessions
      • It is centered on specific sexual problems rather than on broad personality issues
    Comer, Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology , 5e – Chapter 11
  • What Are the General Features of Sex Therapy?
    • Modern sex therapy includes:
      • Assessing and conceptualizing the problem
      • Assigning “___________________” for the problem
      • Education about sexuality
      • Attitude change
      • Elimination of performance anxiety and the spectator role
      • _____________________________________________
      • Changing destructive lifestyles and marital interactions
      • Addressing physical and medical factors
    Comer, Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology , 5e – Chapter 11
  • What Techniques Are Applied to Particular Dysfunctions?
    • In addition to the universal components of sex therapy, specific techniques can help in each of the sexual dysfunctions
    Comer, Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology , 5e – Chapter 11
  • What Techniques Are Applied to Particular Dysfunctions?
    • Hypoactive sexual desire and sexual aversion
      • These disorders are among the most difficult to treat because of the many issues that feed into them
      • Therapists typically apply a combination of techniques which may include:
        • Affectual awareness, self-instruction training, behavioral techniques, insight-oriented exercises, and biological interventions such as hormone treatments
    Comer, Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology , 5e – Chapter 11
  • What Techniques Are Applied to Particular Dysfunctions?
    • Erectile disorder
      • Treatments for ED focus on reducing a man’s performance anxiety and/or increasing his stimulation
        • __________________________________________________________________________________________________________
      • Biological approaches, used when the ED has biological causes, have gained great momentum with the recent approval of _____________________
        • Most other biological approaches have been around for decades and include gels, suppositories, penile injections, a vacuum erection device (VED), and penile implant surgery
    Comer, Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology , 5e – Chapter 11
  • What Techniques Are Applied to Particular Dysfunctions?
    • Male orgasmic disorder
      • Like treatment for ED, therapies for this disorder include techniques to reduce performance anxiety and increase stimulation
      • When the cause of the disorder is physical, treatment may include a drug to increase arousal of the nervous system
    Comer, Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology , 5e – Chapter 11
  • What Techniques Are Applied to Particular Dysfunctions?
    • Premature ejaculation
      • Premature ejaculation has been successfully treated for years by behavioral procedures such as the “stop-start” or “pause” technique
      • Some clinicians favor the use of fluoxetine (Prozac) and other serotonin-enhancing antidepressant drugs
        • __________________________________________________________________________________________________________
        • Although some studies have reported positive findings, long-term outcome studies have yet to be conducted
    Comer, Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology , 5e – Chapter 11
  • What Techniques Are Applied to Particular Dysfunctions?
    • Female arousal and orgasmic disorders
      • Specific treatment techniques for these disorders include self-exploration, enhancement of body awareness, and directed masturbation training
      • Again, a lack of orgasm during intercourse is not necessarily a sexual dysfunction, provided the woman enjoys intercourse and is orgasmic through other means
        • For this reason, some therapists believe that the wisest course of action is simply to educate women whose only concern is lack of orgasm through intercourse
    Comer, Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology , 5e – Chapter 11
  • What Techniques Are Applied to Particular Dysfunctions?
    • Vaginismus
      • Specific treatment for vaginismus takes two approaches:
        • Practice tightening and releasing the muscles of the vagina to gain more voluntary control
        • Overcome fear of intercourse through _____________ ____________________________________________
      • Over ____% of women treated for vaginismus using these methods eventually report pain-free intercourse
    Comer, Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology , 5e – Chapter 11
  • What Techniques Are Applied to Particular Dysfunctions?
    • Dyspareunia
      • Determining the specific cause of dyspareunia is the first stage of treatment
        • Given that most cases are caused by physical causes, medical intervention may be necessary
    Comer, Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology , 5e – Chapter 11
  • What Are the Current Trends in Sex Therapy?
    • Over the past 30 years, sex therapists have moved beyond the approach first developed by Masters and Johnson
      • Therapists now treat unmarried couples, those with other psychological disorders, couples with severe marital discord, the elderly, the medically ill, the physically handicapped, clients with a homosexual orientation, and clients with no long-term sex partner
    Comer, Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology , 5e – Chapter 11
  • What Are the Current Trends in Sex Therapy?
    • Therapists are paying more attention to excessive sexuality, which is sometimes called sexual addiction
    • The use of medications to treat sexual dysfunction is troubling to many therapists
      • They are concerned that therapists will choose biological interventions rather than a more integrated approach
    Comer, Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology , 5e – Chapter 11
  • Paraphilias
    • These disorders are characterized by unusual fantasies and sexual urges or behaviors that are recurrent and sexually arousing
      • Often involve:
        • Humiliation of self or partner
        • Children
        • Nonconsenting people
        • Nonhuman objects
    Comer, Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology , 5e – Chapter 11
  • Paraphilias
    • According to the DSM-IV-TR, paraphilias should be diagnosed only when the urges, fantasies, or behaviors last at least 6 months
      • For most paraphilias, the urges, fantasies, or behaviors must also cause great distress or impairment
        • ________________________________________________________________________________________
          • Example: ________________________________________
    Comer, Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology , 5e – Chapter 11
  • Comer, Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology , 5e – Chapter 11
  • Paraphilias
    • Some people with one kind of paraphilia display others, as well
      • Relatively few people receive a formal diagnosis, but clinicians believe that the patterns may be quite common
    • Although theorists have proposed various explanations for paraphilias, there is little formal evidence to support the theories
      • None of the treatments applied to paraphilias have received much research or been proved clearly effective
      • Recent work has focused on biological interventions
    Comer, Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology , 5e – Chapter 11
  • Fetishism
    • The key features of fetishism are recurrent intense sexual urges, sexually arousing fantasies, or behaviors that involve ________ _____________________________________
      • The disorder usually begins in adolescence
      • Almost anything can be a fetish
        • ___________________, __________________, and ________________ are especially common
    Comer, Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology , 5e – Chapter 11
  • Fetishism
    • Researchers have been unable to pinpoint the causes of fetishism
      • Psychodynamic theorists view fetishes as defense mechanisms, but therapy using this model has been unsuccessful
    Comer, Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology , 5e – Chapter 11
  • Fetishism
    • Behaviorists propose that fetishes are learned through _______________________________
      • Fetishes are sometimes treated with aversion therapy, covert sensitization, or imaginal exposure
      • Another behavioral treatment is ___________________, in which clients masturbate to boredom while imagining the fetish object
      • An additional behavioral treatment is ________________, a process which teaches individuals to respond to more appropriate sources of sexual stimulation
    Comer, Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology , 5e – Chapter 11
  • Transvestic Fetishism
    • Also known as transvestism or cross-dressing
    • Characterized by fantasies, urges, or behaviors involving dressing in the clothes of the opposite sex to achieve sexual arousal
    Comer, Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology , 5e – Chapter 11
  • Transvestic Fetishism
    • The typical person with transvestism is a _______________ who began cross-dressing in childhood or adolescence
    • Transvestism is often confused with gender identity disorder (transsexualism), but the two are separate patterns
    • The development of the disorder seems to follow the behavioral principles of ________________________
    Comer, Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology , 5e – Chapter 11
  • Exhibitionism
    • Characterized by arousal from the exposure of genitals in a public setting
      • Also known as “_______________”
      • Sexual contact is ______________________
    • Usually begins before age 18 and is most common in males
    • Treatment generally includes aversion therapy and masturbatory satiation
      • May be combined with orgasmic reorientation, social skills training, or psychodynamic therapy
    Comer, Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology , 5e – Chapter 11
  • Voyeurism
    • Characterized by repeated and intense sexual desires to observe people in secret as they undress or to spy on couples having intercourse; may involve acting upon these desires
      • The person may masturbate during the act of observing or while remembering it later
      • The risk of discovery often adds to the excitement
    Comer, Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology , 5e – Chapter 11
  • Voyeurism
    • Many psychodynamic theorists propose that voyeurs are seeking power
      • Others have explained it as an attempt to reduce fears of castration
    • Behaviorists explain voyeurism as a learned behavior that can be traced to a chance and secret observation of a sexually arousing scene
    Comer, Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology , 5e – Chapter 11
  • Frotteurism
    • A person who develops frotteurism has fantasies, urges, or behaviors _________________________ _________________________________________
      • Almost always male, the person fantasizes during the act that he is having a ___________________ with the victim
    • Usually begins in the teenage years or earlier
      • Acts generally decrease and disappear after age 25
    Comer, Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology , 5e – Chapter 11
  • Pedophilia
    • Characterized by fantasies, urges, or behaviors involving ____________________ _________________, usually 13 years of age or younger
      • Some people are satisfied with child pornography
      • Others are driven to watching, fondling, or engaging in intercourse with children
      • Evidence suggests that two-thirds of victims are female
    Comer, Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology , 5e – Chapter 11
  • Pedophilia
    • People with pedophilia develop the disorder in adolescence
      • Some were sexually abused as children
        • Many were neglected, excessively punished, or deprived of close relationships in childhood
      • Most are immature, display faulty thinking, and have an additional psychological disorder
        • Some theorists have proposed a related biochemical or brain structure abnormality
    Comer, Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology , 5e – Chapter 11
  • Pedophilia
    • Most people with pedophilia are imprisoned or forced into treatment
      • Treatments include aversion therapy, masturbatory satiation, and orgasmic reorientation
      • Cognitive-behavioral treatment involves relapse-prevention training, modeled after programs used for substance dependence
    Comer, Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology , 5e – Chapter 11
  • Sexual Masochism
    • Characterized by fantasies, urges, or behaviors involving the act or the thought of being humiliated, beaten, bound, or otherwise made to suffer
    • Most masochistic fantasies begin in childhood and seem to develop through the behavioral process of classical conditioning
    Comer, Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology , 5e – Chapter 11
  • Sexual Sadism
    • A person with sexual sadism finds fantasies, urges, or behaviors involving the thought or act of psychological or physical suffering of a victim sexually exciting
      • Named for the infamous Marquis de Sade
      • People with sexual sadism imagine that they have total control over a sexual victim
    Comer, Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology , 5e – Chapter 11
  • Sexual Sadism
    • Sadistic fantasies may first appear in childhood
      • Pattern is long-term
      • Appears to be related to classical conditioning and/or modeling
    • Psychodynamic and cognitive theorists view people with sexual sadism as having underlying feelings of sexual inadequacy
    Comer, Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology , 5e – Chapter 11
  • Sexual Sadism
    • Biological studies have found possible abnormalities in the endocrine system
    • The primary treatment for this disorder is aversion therapy
    Comer, Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology , 5e – Chapter 11
  • A Word of Caution
    • _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________
    • Some clinicians argue that, except when people are hurt by them, paraphilic behaviors should not be considered disorders at all
    Comer, Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology , 5e – Chapter 11
  • Gender Identity Disorder
    • Gender identity disorder, or _____________, is one of the most fascinating disorders related to sexuality
      • ________________________________________________________________________________
        • They would like to ____________ their primary and secondary sex characteristics and _____________ the characteristics of the opposite sex
    Comer, Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology , 5e – Chapter 11
  • Comer, Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology , 5e – Chapter 11
  • Gender Identity Disorder
    • Men with gender identity disorder outnumber women 2 to 1
    • People with gender identity disorder often experience anxiety or depression and may have thoughts of suicide
    Comer, Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology , 5e – Chapter 11
  • Gender Identity Disorder
    • People with gender identity disorder usually feel uncomfortable wearing the clothes of their own sex and may cross-dress
      • This is distinctly different than a transsexual fetish; ____________________________________________
    • The disorder sometimes emerges in childhood and disappears with adolescence
      • In some cases it develops into adult gender identity disorder
    Comer, Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology , 5e – Chapter 11
  • Gender Identity Disorder
    • Several theories have been proposed to explain this disorder, but research is limited and generally weak
      • Some clinicians suspect biological – perhaps genetic - factors
        • Abnormalities in the hypothalamus (particularly the bed nucleus of stria terminalis) are a potential link
    • Some adults with this disorder change their sexual characteristics by way of hormones; others opt for sexual reassignment (sex change) surgery
    Comer, Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology , 5e – Chapter 11