Causes of Failed Hernia Repairs Done By Experts
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Causes of Failed Hernia Repairs Done By Experts

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Causes of Failed Hernia Repairs Done By Experts Causes of Failed Hernia Repairs Done By Experts Presentation Transcript

  • Causes of Failed Hernia Repairs Done by Experts Suvretta Meeting St. Moritz, 2006 Arthur I. Gilbert, Jerrold Young, Michael F. Graham Hernia Institute of Florida
  • Causes of Failed Repairs by Experts
    • Who is an expert ?
    • What is a failed repair ?
    • Can we categorize causes ?
  • What makes a hernia expert?
    • The number of repairs one has done?
    • Achieved excellent results with one technique?
    • Achieved excellent results with many techniques?
    • Done a series and evaluated it?
    • Lectured on it?
    • Published on the subject?
  • What is a failed repair?
    • Recurrence
    • Chronic pain
    • Upper GI dysfunction
  • Location of hernias reviewed
    • Groin
    • Ventral
    • Incisional
    • Hiatal
  • Suvretta Meeting Assignment: Current Two-Group Personal Survey (electronic mail)
    • Group #1 (N=112):
      • Senior authors in HERNIA, 2003-2005
      • Recognized and often quoted hernia experts
    • Group #2: (N=62)
      • Invitees to the 2006 Suvretta conference
  • Group #1
    • Initial email sent to 112 surgeons
      • “ What do you think are the most frequent causes of failed repairs by experts?”
      • 12 of 112 emails returned as “undeliverable”
      • Of the assumed 100 received email requests answers were received from 46 surgeons
  • Group #1 - 46 responders Causes of Hernia Repair Failure (CHRF)
    • Groin hernias : 169 total answers
      • Itemized 46 CHRF
    • Ventral hernias : 140 total answers
      • Itemized 27 CHRF
    • Incisional hernias : 149 total answers
      • Itemized 31 CHRF
    • Hiatal hernias : 133 total answers
      • Itemized 35 CHRF
  • Categories of Causes of Hernia Repair Failure - CHRF (all locations) Groups #1 & #2
    • Surgeon’s personal preparation
      • Training – Experience - Ability
    • Patient profile and habits
    • Intraoperative factors
    • Wound problems
    • Postoperative events
  • Group #1 Groin Hernias : CHRF by experts 1. Surgeon’s personal preparation 36/169 Poor understanding of anatomy/pathophysiology 7 Poor training in Lap hernia repair 7 Surgeon’s limited experience 6 Poor training in open hernia repair 5 Failure to recognize multiple defects 4 Ignorance of MPO 3 Poor teaching of residents 2 Surgeon’s age-related factors 1 Non expert pressured to do LIH vs. lose case 1
  • Group #1 Groin Hernias : CHRF by experts 2. Patient profile and habits 12/169 Collagen disorders 4 Smoking 3 Obesity 2 Genetic factors 2 Ascites 1
  • Group #1 Groin Hernias : CHRF by experts 3. Intraoperative factors 101/169 Inadequate dissection 13 Repair without mesh 10 Inadequate size of mesh 10 Technical mistakes 9 Inadequate overlap of mesh 9 Errant fixation of mesh 7 Plug migration 6 Tension in repair 5 Plug not in pp space for direct hernias 5 Choice of wrong procedure 4 Missed hernia sac 4 Mesh wrongly placed 3 Lichtenstein poor shutter reconstruction 3 No coverage of femoral canal from groin 3 Incision too small 2 Unrecognized lateral hernias 2 Lichtenstein poor overlap at pubis 2 LIH poor closure of keyhole 2 Wrong anesthetic modality 2
  • Group #1 Groin Hernias : CHRF by experts 4 . Wound problems 17/169 Infection 8 Mesh shrinkage 3 Hematoma 2 Use of absorbable suture material 2 Intestinal obstruction 1 Seroma 1
  • Group #1 Groin Hernias : CHRF by experts 5. Postoperative events 3/169 Strenuous activity too soon 3
  • Group #1 Ventral Hernias : CHRF by experts Surgeon’s personal preparation 16/140 Poor understanding of anatomy and physiology 7 Surgeon’s limited knowledge, experience, and skill 5 Surgeon underestimating extent of hernia 4
  • Group #1 Ventral Hernias : CHRF by experts Patient profile and habits 20/140 Genetic factors 7 Obesity 4 Collagen disorders 4 Previous contaminated or infected wound 3 Smoking 1 Concurrent diastasis recti 1
  • Group #1 Ventral Hernias : CHRF by experts Intraoperative factors 86/140 Failure to use mesh 14 Mesh too small 13 Tension on repair 12 Inadequate fixation of mesh 12 Inadequate overlap of mesh 10 Using onlay method of mesh repair 7 Overlooked multiple defects 5 Failure to use component separation tissue repairs 3 Poor exposure 2 Inadequate dissection 2 Wrong anesthetic modality 2 Rapidly absorbing suture material 2 Lap hernia poor alignment of mesh 1 Fascia not strong enough for repair 1
  • Group #1 Ventral Hernias : CHRF by experts Wound problems 16/140 Infection 11 Seroma 3 Hematoma 2
  • Group #1 Ventral Hernias : CHRF by experts Postoperative events 2/140 Resuming forceful activity too soon 2
  • Group #1 Incisional Hernias : CHRF by experts Surgeon’s personal preparation 16/149 Surgeon underestimating extent of hernia 11 Poor understanding of anatomy and Physiology 3 Surgeon’s limited knowledge, experience, and skill 2
  • Group #1 Incisional Hernias : CHRF by experts Patient profile and habits 19/149 Obesity 7 Genetic factors 6 Smoking 3 Collagen disorders 1 Previous contaminated or infected wound 1 Not fully prepared preoperative. 1
  • Group #1 Incisional Hernias : CHRF by experts Intraoperative factors 98/149 Mesh too small 15 Inadequate fixation of mesh 13 Inadequate overlap of mesh 11 Tension on repair 10 Inadequate exposure 9 Inadequate dissection 8 Overlooked multiple defects 8 Using onlay method of mesh repair 8 Fascia not strong enough for tissue repair 3 Failure to use mesh 3 Fixation failure at iliac crest and/or pubis 2 Lap hernia inadequate lysis of adhesions 2 Inadequate lysis of adhesions open procedure 2 Rapidly absorbing suture material 1 Lap hernia sutures breaking or tearing tissue 1 Bowel injury 1 Failure to use component separation tissue repairs 1
  • Group #1 Incisional Hernias : CHRF by experts Wound problems 13/149 Infection 9 Hematoma 3 Mesh shrinkage 1
  • Group #1 Incisional Hernias : CHRF by experts Postoperative events 3/149 Resuming forceful activity too soon 2 Drains removed too soon 1
  • Group #1 Hiatal Hernias : CHRF by experts Surgeon’s personal preparation 15/133 Surgeon’s limited knowledge, experience, and skill 9 Poor understanding of anatomy and physiology 2 Surgeon underestimating extent of hernia 4 No. Surgeons that don’t do this operation 11 of 46
  • Group #1 Hiatal Hernias : CHRF by experts Patient profile and habits 9/133 Obesity 4 Collagen disorders 3 Poor Preop evaluation 2
  • Group #1 Hiatal Hernias : CHRF by experts Intraoperative factors 76/133 Inadequate fixation of mesh 13 Failure to use mesh 9 Inadequate dissection 8 Tension on repair 8 Crura too tight or too loose 8 Short esophagus 4 Failure to remove hernia sac 3 Inadequate exposure 3 Fascia not strong enough for tissue repair 3 Lap Division of the Short gastric vessels 3 Not approximating crura 2 Suture tear through 2 Fixation failure at iliac crest and/or pubis 2 Lap hernia inadequate lysis of adhesions 2 Inadequate lysis of adhesions open procedure 2 Mesh too small 1 Rapidly absorbing suture material 1 Lap hernia sutures breaking or tearing tissue 1 Bowel injury 1
  • Group #1 Hiatal Hernias : CHRF by experts Wound problems 16/133 Infection 9 Hematoma 3 Not anchoring fundoplasty 2 Mesh shrinkage 1 Slipped Nisson 1
  • Group #1 Hiatal Hernias : CHRF by experts Postoperative events 6/133 Vomiting or gagging 4 Resuming forceful activity too soon 2
  • Group #2: (Invitees to this Suvretta meeting) 14 of 62 responders Causes of Hernia Repair Failure (CHRF) related to specific techniques [only 4 of 14 provided personal information]
    • Onlay mesh repair
    • Mesh plug repair
    • Underlay (Laparoscopic and Open)
  • Group #2: (Invitees to this Suvretta meeting) 14 of 62 responders “ What do believe are the main causes of failure in the hernias you’ve repaired?” [ 1 of 14 declined personal information]
    • Onlay mesh repair
    • Mesh plug repair
    • Underlay (Laparoscopic and Open)
  • Group #2 surgeons: Groin Hernia CHRF by experts
    • Onlay mesh hernioplasty(10)
      • Mesh too narrow
      • Insufficient mesh coverage of pubic tubercle
      • Mesh kept too flat creating tension in repair
      • Fixing upper edge of mesh with continuous suture
      • Passing the lesser cord through lower suture line
      • Not satisfactory for recurrent groin hernias
      • Medial detachment of mesh
      • Missed indirect sacs
      • Mesh avulsed from pubic tubercle
      • Vypro mesh rolled up
  • Group #2 surgeons: Groin Hernia CHRF by experts
    • Plug hernioplasty (4)
      • Doesn't fully protect direct space
      • Shrinkage of plug
      • Unusual incidence of postoperative neuralgia
      • Doesn't fully protect lateral to internal ring
  • Group #2 surgeons: Groin Hernia CHRF by experts
    • Laparoscopic/Open posterior repairs (8)
      • Overlooked lipomas
      • Not fixing mesh to Cooper ligament in femoral hernia
      • Mesh slit not overlapped sufficiently
      • Mesh contraction
      • Inadequate dissection near iliac vessels
      • Inadequate mesh coverage laterally
      • Mesh roll-up
      • Inadequate inferior dissection
  • Group #2 surgeons: Ventral / Incisional CHRF by experts (12)
    • Laparoscopic and Open
      • Not using mesh for umbilical or ventral hernias
      • Associated with gastric bypass surgery
      • Inadequate size mesh
      • Not identifying multiple weakness
      • Limited dissection
      • Insufficient suture fixation
      • Depending on tack fixation alone
      • Button-hole hernias related to suture fixation
      • Infection following undetected bowel injury
      • Infection following recognized bowel injury
      • Infection in mesh from old suture abscess
      • Suture pullout
  • Group #2 surgeons: Hiatal Hernia CHRF by experts (5)
    • Laparoscopic and Open
      • Failure to use mesh
      • Inappropriate use or tacks and staples
      • Stenosis
      • Emesis
      • Crura closed too loosely
    •   99.00% 98.00% 97.00% 96.00% 95.00% 94.00% 93.00%
    • 0.9900 0.9800 0.9700 0.9600 0.9500 0.9400 0.9300
    • 0.9801 0.9604 0.9409 0.9216 0.9025 0.8836 0.8649
    • 0.9703 0.9412 0.9127 0.8847 0.8574 0.8306 0.8044
    • 0.9606 0.9224 0.8853 0.8493 0.8145 0.7807 0.7481
    • 0.9510 0.9039 0.8587 0.8154 0.7738 0.7339 0.6957
    • 0.9415 0.8858 0.8330 0.7828 0.7351 0.6899 0.6470
    • 0.9321 0.8681 0.8080 0.7514 0.6983 0.6485 0.6017
    • 0.9227 0.8508 0.7837 0.7214 0.6634 0.6096 0.5596
    • 0.9135 0.8337 0.7602 0.6925 0.6302 0.5730 0.5204
    • 0.9044 0.8171 0.7374 0.6648 0.5987 0.5386 0.4840
    #Steps Probability Table of Successful Results Red is the probability of successful completion of each step . Percentages in the table represent the probability of successfully completing the entire process Example: In a 5-step process, if probability of success in each is step 95%, the probability of a successful outcome is .7738 .
  • “ Expert surgeons become expert based on repetitive experience, enthusiasm and dedication to a particular field of expertise, hand-eye coordination skills, and intellectual stimulation. Eventual failure of technique is inherent with age, as enthusiasm tends to wane over time, hand-eye coordination skills can diminish, and the fatigue factor plays more of a role with age. (con’t) A final undeniable thought : :
  • As the expert surgeon becomes more known for his/her skills, more work is thrust upon them, which may cause them to rush through their cases, take short cuts that may be inadvisable, and have mental lapses simply due to fatigue which takes more of a toll as we age. (con’t)
  • Being the expert lends itself to a failure in the expertise, not due to wanton carelessness or overconfidence, but due to the volume of cases and the imperfection of the human being. If you walk a high wire enough times, you will fall. I believe this general statement is applicable for each of the operations requested.” Donn Schroder, 2005
  • On becoming an Expert Expect success: Always look for your own failures. From your failures come your expertise.
  • Conclusions
    • Gathering information from experts is not easy.
    • Gather information about failure is not easy.
    • Causes of failure by experts is no different than for non-experts – attention to detail and principles
    • Probability : More steps, rather than fewer, dispose to greater chance of failure.
    • There comes a time in every expert’s career when technical failures are related to natural factors.