Dr. Feras Aalam Introduction to Pediatric Dentistry
Pediatric Dentistry/ Pedodontics <ul><li>A branch of dentistry that is concerned with the dental care and treatment of chi...
Objectives of Pediatric Dentistry <ul><li>Giving comfort, relieving pain, removing infection, and restoring functions </li...
Objectives of Pediatric Dentistry <ul><li>4. To develop a positive attitude and behavior towards oral health </li></ul><ul...
Objectives of Pediatric Dentistry <ul><li>7. Early diagnosis of the disease and treatment  </li></ul><ul><li>8. Occlusal g...
Most common dental diseases in children <ul><li>Baby bottle caries </li></ul><ul><li>Sucking of a finger or thumb  </li></...
1. Baby bottled caries
Baby bottled caries <ul><li>Prolonged use of a bottle at bedtime containing: </li></ul><ul><li>Cow's milk </li></ul><ul><l...
Baby bottled caries <ul><li>Early stages of tooth decay appear as chalky white </li></ul><ul><li>Later on brown staining a...
Tips for prevention of baby bottled caries <ul><li>Clean by gauze.  </li></ul><ul><li>Don't dip soothers in sugar or honey...
2. Sucking of a finger or thumb <ul><li>  There is no evidence that sucking habits can be prevented </li></ul><ul><li>Earl...
Habit Braking Appliances A reminder appliance (cribs) to prevent thumb sucking habit
Most common dental diseases in children <ul><li>Baby bottle caries </li></ul><ul><li>Sucking of a finger or thumb  </li></...
3. Trauma
4. Malocclusion   <ul><li>Mixed dention </li></ul><ul><li>Consult Orthodontics </li></ul><ul><li>Early loose of primary te...
 
Elements of Comprehensive Pediatric Dental Care <ul><li>Patient record </li></ul><ul><li>Parent consent </li></ul><ul><li>...
A. Patient record <ul><li>The dental record should provide an accurate picture of the patient’ status. </li></ul><ul><li>T...
<ul><li>Parent consent:   </li></ul><ul><li>An explanation of any treatment procedure must be provided to the parents </li...
D. Delivery of dental care: <ul><li>Education regarding etiology of dental diseases and oral hygiene measures </li></ul><u...
1. OHI
2. Dental prophelaxis <ul><li>What do we need?? </li></ul><ul><li>Prophylactic paste </li></ul><ul><li>Low speed hand piec...
Dental prophylaxis using prophylactic paste and rubber cup
3. Appropriate fluoride therapy <ul><li>Topical application </li></ul><ul><li>Act by inhibiting acid demineralization of t...
Fluoride Gel and Trays
 
Insertion into the patient’s mouth with the saliva ejector for 4 minutes.
 
Fluoride varnish
Fluoride mouth wash tooth paste
4. Pit and fissure sealants <ul><li>Pit and Fissure sealants prevent cavity causing bacteria from invading the deep pits a...
 
 
Armamentarium Prophylactic paste Acid etching gel Sealant Brush for prophylaxis Cup and
5. Dietary analysis and counseling
6. Preventive recall system <ul><li>Visit the dental clinic twice/ year </li></ul>
Elements of Comprehensive Pediatric Dental Care <ul><li>Patient record </li></ul><ul><li>Parent consent </li></ul><ul><li>...
E. Behavior management: <ul><li>It is a comprehensive methodology meant to develop a relationship between the child patien...
Behavior management techniques  <ul><li>tell-show-do </li></ul><ul><li>Modeling  </li></ul><ul><li>Positive and negative r...
1. Tell-Show-Do (TSD)
<ul><li>The dentist should use the TSD technique to create new and pleasant associations with every anxiety provoking dent...
Tell-Show-Do (TSD) <ul><li>(Tell) describe to the child </li></ul><ul><li>( Show ) demonstration for the patient of differ...
2. Modeling <ul><li>The method allows the child to observe one individual who demonstrate appropriate behavior in the dent...
Behavior management techniques  <ul><li>tell-show-do </li></ul><ul><li>Modeling  </li></ul><ul><li>Positive and negative r...
3. Positive and Negative Reinforcement <ul><li>Reinforcers can be: </li></ul><ul><li>Material- toys </li></ul><ul><li>Soci...
Positive and Negative Reinforcement <ul><li>Positive reinforcement- presentation of reinforces which increases the frequen...
4. Distraction <ul><li>It is a technique used to divert the patient’s attention during the unpleasant procedures such as v...
5. Voice Control <ul><li>It is a controlled alteration of voice volume, tone, and pace to: </li></ul><ul><li>- Gain the pa...
6. Hand Over Mouth Technique <ul><li>This method is used to establish communication with children who are able to cooperat...
Behavior management techniques  <ul><li>tell-show-do </li></ul><ul><li>Modeling  </li></ul><ul><li>Positive and negative r...
Behavior Management Techniques cont. <ul><li>7.  Treatment immobilization: </li></ul><ul><li>a- immobilization by dentist ...
Treatment immobilization:   a- immobilization by dentist / staff / parents
b- physical restraints
papoose board
Physical Restraints <ul><li>Are used to provide partial or complete immobilization of the patient to protect the patient a...
Behavior Management Techniques cont. <ul><li>8. Pharmacological approach: </li></ul><ul><li>- Nitrous oxide / oxygen inhal...
i. Nitrous oxide <ul><li>Oxygen and nitrous oxide.  </li></ul><ul><li>Nitrous oxide/oxygen is given through a small breath...
ii. Conscious Sedation <ul><li>Tablets  </li></ul><ul><li>Syrup </li></ul><ul><li>Quite drowsy, and may even fall asleep, ...
iii. General anethesia
Elements of Comprehensive Pediatric Dental Care <ul><li>Patient record </li></ul><ul><li>Parent consent </li></ul><ul><li>...
F. Guidance of developing occlusion: <ul><li>- intra oral and extra oral radiographs  </li></ul><ul><li>- use of study mod...
Stainless Steel Crown
Study models Space analysis
<ul><li>Space maintainers </li></ul>
<ul><li>Band and loop space maintainer: </li></ul>Space maintainer for the  1 st  primary Molar area:
Loss of space for 2 nd  premolar due to  early extraction of 2 nd  primary molar
<ul><li>A-Lingual arch : For mandibular arch </li></ul>Space maintainer for multiple loss of teeth:
<ul><li>Nance Space Maintainer : </li></ul><ul><li>for  maxillary arch </li></ul>
Elements of Comprehensive Pediatric Dental Care <ul><li>Patient record </li></ul><ul><li>Parent consent </li></ul><ul><li>...
G.  Types of treatment in pedodontics patients <ul><ul><li>Restorative treatment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pulp therapy <...
i. Restorative treatment
Types of dental restorations for primary teeth <ul><li>Amalgam restorations </li></ul><ul><li>Composite resin restorations...
Strip Crown Composite Restoration  For Primary Anterior Teeth
Strip crowns Trimming of the crown Crown selection Trial fitting of the crowns Filling the crown with composite
Positioning of the filled crown and removal of the excess composite resin Light cure the composite resin then peel the cro...
Before  After
Stainless steel crowns for primary molars
Stainless steel crowns
Stainless steel crowns
Full mouth rehabilitation using stainless steel crowns and composite restorations
ii. Pulp therapy   <ul><li>a. Pulpotomy </li></ul><ul><li>b. Pulpectomy  </li></ul>
a. Pulpotomy ( Primary and Permanent teeth) <ul><li>It is the surgical removal of the coronal portion of the pulp which ha...
Pulpotomy   <ul><li>1. opening </li></ul><ul><li>2. application of medication </li></ul><ul><li>3. temporary filling </li>...
b. Pulpectomy= RCT
iii. Extraction of hopeless teeth
 
Armamentarium for placement of S.S crowns <ul><li>From right to left: </li></ul><ul><li>Crown cutting scissors </li></ul><...
Rubber Dam For Tooth Isolation
Instruments of RD Rubber dam clamps Rubber dam punch Rubber dam holders Rubber dam material
Instruments for fitting space maintainer band Band remover pliers  Band seater band pusher
Summary  <ul><li>Definition and objectives of pedodontics </li></ul><ul><li>Most common dental diseases in children </li><...
 
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Introduction to pediatric dentistry 2009(new)

  1. 1. Dr. Feras Aalam Introduction to Pediatric Dentistry
  2. 2. Pediatric Dentistry/ Pedodontics <ul><li>A branch of dentistry that is concerned with the dental care and treatment of children </li></ul><ul><li>Pediatric dentistry is one of the most important branches of dentistry </li></ul>
  3. 3. Objectives of Pediatric Dentistry <ul><li>Giving comfort, relieving pain, removing infection, and restoring functions </li></ul><ul><li>Allaying fear and anxiety and modifying the child behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Promoting optimal oral health by prevention and education </li></ul>
  4. 4. Objectives of Pediatric Dentistry <ul><li>4. To develop a positive attitude and behavior towards oral health </li></ul><ul><li>5. Implement the principles of preventive dentistry from birth </li></ul><ul><li>6. Parental guidance and counseling regarding different facets of preventive dentistry and treatment modalities </li></ul>
  5. 5. Objectives of Pediatric Dentistry <ul><li>7. Early diagnosis of the disease and treatment </li></ul><ul><li>8. Occlusal guidance and early treatment of developing mal-occlusion </li></ul><ul><li>9. Managing children with special needs (physically, mentally and medically) </li></ul>
  6. 6. Most common dental diseases in children <ul><li>Baby bottle caries </li></ul><ul><li>Sucking of a finger or thumb </li></ul><ul><li>Trauma </li></ul><ul><li>Malocclusion </li></ul>
  7. 7. 1. Baby bottled caries
  8. 8. Baby bottled caries <ul><li>Prolonged use of a bottle at bedtime containing: </li></ul><ul><li>Cow's milk </li></ul><ul><li>breast milk </li></ul><ul><li>formula </li></ul><ul><li>fruit juice </li></ul><ul><li>soft drinks </li></ul>
  9. 9. Baby bottled caries <ul><li>Early stages of tooth decay appear as chalky white </li></ul><ul><li>Later on brown staining and the enamel could be eroded or pitted. </li></ul><ul><li>Infection may be present in the form of a bubble or abscess, on the &quot;gum&quot; near the decayed tooth </li></ul>
  10. 10. Tips for prevention of baby bottled caries <ul><li>Clean by gauze. </li></ul><ul><li>Don't dip soothers in sugar or honey. </li></ul><ul><li>Brush teeth as soon as they appear. </li></ul><ul><li>Check your baby's mouth regularly </li></ul><ul><li>Don't put your baby to bed with a bottle </li></ul><ul><li>If you notice discoloration or white spots go to the dentist </li></ul>
  11. 11. 2. Sucking of a finger or thumb <ul><li> There is no evidence that sucking habits can be prevented </li></ul><ul><li>Early intervention is usually not recommended. </li></ul><ul><li>When the permanent teeth start to erupt, at age five to six intervention is indicated. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Habit Braking Appliances A reminder appliance (cribs) to prevent thumb sucking habit
  13. 13. Most common dental diseases in children <ul><li>Baby bottle caries </li></ul><ul><li>Sucking of a finger or thumb </li></ul><ul><li>Trauma </li></ul><ul><li>Malocclusion </li></ul>
  14. 14. 3. Trauma
  15. 15. 4. Malocclusion <ul><li>Mixed dention </li></ul><ul><li>Consult Orthodontics </li></ul><ul><li>Early loose of primary teeth leads to malocclusion </li></ul>
  16. 17. Elements of Comprehensive Pediatric Dental Care <ul><li>Patient record </li></ul><ul><li>Parent consent </li></ul><ul><li>Diagnosis and treatment planning </li></ul><ul><li>Delivery of dental care </li></ul><ul><li>Behavior management </li></ul><ul><li>Guidance of developing occlusion </li></ul><ul><li>Types of treatment in pedodontics patients </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Restorative treatment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pulp therapy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extraction Restorative treatment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gingival and surgical procedures </li></ul></ul>
  17. 18. A. Patient record <ul><li>The dental record should provide an accurate picture of the patient’ status. </li></ul><ul><li>The following data should be included: </li></ul><ul><li>Medical history </li></ul><ul><li>Chief complaint </li></ul><ul><li>History of present illness </li></ul><ul><li>Oral hygiene habits </li></ul><ul><li>Clinical examination data </li></ul><ul><li>- Extra oral </li></ul><ul><li>- Intra oral </li></ul><ul><li>Diagnostic aids : </li></ul><ul><li>- Radiographs </li></ul><ul><li>- Other aids such as study models </li></ul>
  18. 19. <ul><li>Parent consent: </li></ul><ul><li>An explanation of any treatment procedure must be provided to the parents </li></ul><ul><li>Diagnosis and treatment planning: </li></ul><ul><li>- Emergency treatment should be carried </li></ul><ul><li>out first. </li></ul><ul><li>- Non emergency treatment should </li></ul><ul><li>progress from simpler procedures to </li></ul><ul><li>more complex ones. </li></ul>
  19. 20. D. Delivery of dental care: <ul><li>Education regarding etiology of dental diseases and oral hygiene measures </li></ul><ul><li>Prophylaxis </li></ul><ul><li>Appropriate fluoride therapy </li></ul><ul><li>Pit and fissure sealants </li></ul><ul><li>Dietary analysis and counseling </li></ul><ul><li>Preventive recall system. </li></ul>
  20. 21. 1. OHI
  21. 22. 2. Dental prophelaxis <ul><li>What do we need?? </li></ul><ul><li>Prophylactic paste </li></ul><ul><li>Low speed hand piece </li></ul><ul><li>Rubber cup or brushes </li></ul>
  22. 23. Dental prophylaxis using prophylactic paste and rubber cup
  23. 24. 3. Appropriate fluoride therapy <ul><li>Topical application </li></ul><ul><li>Act by inhibiting acid demineralization of tooth enamel and promoting remineralization. </li></ul><ul><li>Types : </li></ul><ul><li>F gel </li></ul><ul><li>F varnish </li></ul><ul><li>F mouth wash, toothpaste </li></ul><ul><li>Systemic administration </li></ul><ul><li>Fluoride is absorbed by the developing teeth in the jaw </li></ul><ul><li>from before birth to 13 years </li></ul><ul><li>of age </li></ul><ul><li>Water dose 0.7-1 ppm </li></ul><ul><li>Tablets dose 0.25-0.5mg </li></ul>
  24. 25. Fluoride Gel and Trays
  25. 27. Insertion into the patient’s mouth with the saliva ejector for 4 minutes.
  26. 29. Fluoride varnish
  27. 30. Fluoride mouth wash tooth paste
  28. 31. 4. Pit and fissure sealants <ul><li>Pit and Fissure sealants prevent cavity causing bacteria from invading the deep pits and grooves. </li></ul><ul><li>Sealants are clear or shaded plastic material that is applied to the chewing surfaces of the molars to form a protective barrier to bacteria.  </li></ul><ul><li>Age of 6 and 12. </li></ul><ul><li>Last for years. </li></ul>
  29. 34. Armamentarium Prophylactic paste Acid etching gel Sealant Brush for prophylaxis Cup and
  30. 35. 5. Dietary analysis and counseling
  31. 36. 6. Preventive recall system <ul><li>Visit the dental clinic twice/ year </li></ul>
  32. 37. Elements of Comprehensive Pediatric Dental Care <ul><li>Patient record </li></ul><ul><li>Parent consent </li></ul><ul><li>Diagnosis and treatment planning </li></ul><ul><li>Delivery of dental care </li></ul><ul><li>Behavior management </li></ul><ul><li>Guidance of developing occlusion </li></ul><ul><li>Types of treatment in pedodontics patients </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Restorative treatment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pulp therapy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extraction Restorative treatment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gingival and surgical procedures </li></ul></ul>
  33. 38. E. Behavior management: <ul><li>It is a comprehensive methodology meant to develop a relationship between the child patient and the dentist which builds trust and diminishes fear and anxiety. </li></ul><ul><li>Objectives: </li></ul><ul><li>Establishes effective communication with the child. </li></ul><ul><li>Gains child’s confidence and acceptance of dental treatment. </li></ul><ul><li>Provides a comfortable environment for the dental team to work in. </li></ul>
  34. 39. Behavior management techniques <ul><li>tell-show-do </li></ul><ul><li>Modeling </li></ul><ul><li>Positive and negative reinforcement </li></ul><ul><li>Distraction </li></ul><ul><li>Voice control </li></ul><ul><li>Hand over mouth technique </li></ul><ul><li>Physical immobilization </li></ul><ul><li>Pharmacological approach: </li></ul><ul><li>oral premedication (conscious sedation); </li></ul><ul><li>nitrous oxide sedation; </li></ul><ul><li>general anesthesia . </li></ul>
  35. 40. 1. Tell-Show-Do (TSD)
  36. 41. <ul><li>The dentist should use the TSD technique to create new and pleasant associations with every anxiety provoking dental procedure. </li></ul>
  37. 42. Tell-Show-Do (TSD) <ul><li>(Tell) describe to the child </li></ul><ul><li>( Show ) demonstration for the patient of different aspects of the procedure in a non-threatening setting </li></ul><ul><li>(Do) then proceed to complete the procedure </li></ul>
  38. 43. 2. Modeling <ul><li>The method allows the child to observe one individual who demonstrate appropriate behavior in the dental setting. </li></ul><ul><li>Simulated models as films clips or video shows can be used to reinforce the desired behavior </li></ul>
  39. 44. Behavior management techniques <ul><li>tell-show-do </li></ul><ul><li>Modeling </li></ul><ul><li>Positive and negative reinforcement </li></ul><ul><li>Distraction </li></ul><ul><li>Voice control </li></ul><ul><li>Hand over mouth technique </li></ul><ul><li>Physical immobilization </li></ul><ul><li>Pharmacological approach: </li></ul><ul><li>oral premedication (conscious sedation); </li></ul><ul><li>nitrous oxide sedation; </li></ul><ul><li>general anesthesia . </li></ul>
  40. 45. 3. Positive and Negative Reinforcement <ul><li>Reinforcers can be: </li></ul><ul><li>Material- toys </li></ul><ul><li>Social- praising, positive facial expression </li></ul>
  41. 46. Positive and Negative Reinforcement <ul><li>Positive reinforcement- presentation of reinforces which increases the frequency of desired behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Negative reinforcement- withdrawal of reinforces which increases the frequency of desired behavior </li></ul>
  42. 47. 4. Distraction <ul><li>It is a technique used to divert the patient’s attention during the unpleasant procedures such as video tapes. </li></ul>
  43. 48. 5. Voice Control <ul><li>It is a controlled alteration of voice volume, tone, and pace to: </li></ul><ul><li>- Gain the patient’s attention. </li></ul><ul><li>- establish authority. </li></ul><ul><li>It is indicated for uncooperative children. </li></ul>
  44. 49. 6. Hand Over Mouth Technique <ul><li>This method is used to establish communication with children who are able to cooperate but who exhibit a hysterical behavior to avoid treatment. </li></ul><ul><li>A hand is placed over the child’s mouth and is told that the hand will be removed as soon as appropriate behavior begins. </li></ul><ul><li>When the child responds, the hand is removed and the praised for his appropriate behavior </li></ul>
  45. 50. Behavior management techniques <ul><li>tell-show-do </li></ul><ul><li>Modeling </li></ul><ul><li>Positive and negative reinforcement </li></ul><ul><li>Distraction </li></ul><ul><li>Voice control </li></ul><ul><li>Hand over mouth technique </li></ul><ul><li>Physical immobilization </li></ul><ul><li>Pharmacological approach: </li></ul><ul><li>oral premedication (conscious sedation); </li></ul><ul><li>nitrous oxide sedation; </li></ul><ul><li>general anesthesia . </li></ul>
  46. 51. Behavior Management Techniques cont. <ul><li>7. Treatment immobilization: </li></ul><ul><li>a- immobilization by dentist / staff / parents </li></ul><ul><li>b- physical restraints </li></ul>
  47. 52. Treatment immobilization: a- immobilization by dentist / staff / parents
  48. 53. b- physical restraints
  49. 54. papoose board
  50. 55. Physical Restraints <ul><li>Are used to provide partial or complete immobilization of the patient to protect the patient and the dental staff from injury while providing dental care </li></ul>
  51. 56. Behavior Management Techniques cont. <ul><li>8. Pharmacological approach: </li></ul><ul><li>- Nitrous oxide / oxygen inhalation. </li></ul><ul><li>- Conscious sedation. </li></ul><ul><li>- General anesthesia. </li></ul>
  52. 57. i. Nitrous oxide <ul><li>Oxygen and nitrous oxide. </li></ul><ul><li>Nitrous oxide/oxygen is given through a small breathing mask </li></ul><ul><li>relax, but without putting them to sleep. </li></ul><ul><li>Very safe, effective </li></ul>
  53. 58. ii. Conscious Sedation <ul><li>Tablets </li></ul><ul><li>Syrup </li></ul><ul><li>Quite drowsy, and may even fall asleep, but they will not become unconscious. </li></ul>
  54. 59. iii. General anethesia
  55. 60. Elements of Comprehensive Pediatric Dental Care <ul><li>Patient record </li></ul><ul><li>Parent consent </li></ul><ul><li>Diagnosis and treatment planning </li></ul><ul><li>Delivery of dental care </li></ul><ul><li>Behavior management </li></ul><ul><li>Guidance of developing occlusion </li></ul><ul><li>Types of treatment in pedodontics patients </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Restorative treatment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pulp therapy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extraction Restorative treatment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gingival and surgical procedures </li></ul></ul>
  56. 61. F. Guidance of developing occlusion: <ul><li>- intra oral and extra oral radiographs </li></ul><ul><li>- use of study models </li></ul><ul><li>- space analysis </li></ul><ul><li>- space maintainers </li></ul><ul><li>- habit braking appliances </li></ul><ul><li>- consultation with specialists </li></ul>
  57. 62. Stainless Steel Crown
  58. 63. Study models Space analysis
  59. 64. <ul><li>Space maintainers </li></ul>
  60. 65. <ul><li>Band and loop space maintainer: </li></ul>Space maintainer for the 1 st primary Molar area:
  61. 66. Loss of space for 2 nd premolar due to early extraction of 2 nd primary molar
  62. 67. <ul><li>A-Lingual arch : For mandibular arch </li></ul>Space maintainer for multiple loss of teeth:
  63. 68. <ul><li>Nance Space Maintainer : </li></ul><ul><li>for maxillary arch </li></ul>
  64. 69. Elements of Comprehensive Pediatric Dental Care <ul><li>Patient record </li></ul><ul><li>Parent consent </li></ul><ul><li>Diagnosis and treatment planning </li></ul><ul><li>Delivery of dental care </li></ul><ul><li>Behavior management </li></ul><ul><li>Guidance of developing occlusion </li></ul><ul><li>Types of treatment in pedodontics patients </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Restorative treatment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pulp therapy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extraction Restorative treatment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gingival and surgical procedures </li></ul></ul>
  65. 70. G. Types of treatment in pedodontics patients <ul><ul><li>Restorative treatment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pulp therapy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extraction of hopeless teeth </li></ul></ul>
  66. 71. i. Restorative treatment
  67. 72. Types of dental restorations for primary teeth <ul><li>Amalgam restorations </li></ul><ul><li>Composite resin restorations </li></ul><ul><li>Glass ionomer restorations </li></ul><ul><li>Strip crowns: full coverage restoration for anterior teeth </li></ul><ul><li>Stainless steel crowns for primary molars </li></ul>
  68. 73. Strip Crown Composite Restoration For Primary Anterior Teeth
  69. 74. Strip crowns Trimming of the crown Crown selection Trial fitting of the crowns Filling the crown with composite
  70. 75. Positioning of the filled crown and removal of the excess composite resin Light cure the composite resin then peel the crown form away Strip crowns
  71. 76. Before After
  72. 77. Stainless steel crowns for primary molars
  73. 78. Stainless steel crowns
  74. 79. Stainless steel crowns
  75. 80. Full mouth rehabilitation using stainless steel crowns and composite restorations
  76. 81. ii. Pulp therapy <ul><li>a. Pulpotomy </li></ul><ul><li>b. Pulpectomy </li></ul>
  77. 82. a. Pulpotomy ( Primary and Permanent teeth) <ul><li>It is the surgical removal of the coronal portion of the pulp which has been judged to be inflamed or infected. </li></ul>
  78. 83. Pulpotomy <ul><li>1. opening </li></ul><ul><li>2. application of medication </li></ul><ul><li>3. temporary filling </li></ul>
  79. 84. b. Pulpectomy= RCT
  80. 85. iii. Extraction of hopeless teeth
  81. 87. Armamentarium for placement of S.S crowns <ul><li>From right to left: </li></ul><ul><li>Crown cutting scissors </li></ul><ul><li>Adams pliers </li></ul><ul><li>Johnson 114 pliers </li></ul><ul><li>Crimping pliers </li></ul><ul><li>(Unitek 800-108) </li></ul>
  82. 88. Rubber Dam For Tooth Isolation
  83. 89. Instruments of RD Rubber dam clamps Rubber dam punch Rubber dam holders Rubber dam material
  84. 90. Instruments for fitting space maintainer band Band remover pliers Band seater band pusher
  85. 91. Summary <ul><li>Definition and objectives of pedodontics </li></ul><ul><li>Most common dental diseases in children </li></ul><ul><li>Elements of comprehensive pediatric dental care </li></ul><ul><li>Types of treatment in pedodontics patients </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Restorative treatment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pulp therapy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extraction </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Etiology of dental caries </li></ul>
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