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Digestion system2011
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Digestion system2011



Here is the digestive system thought I would share :)

Here is the digestive system thought I would share :)



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    Digestion system2011 Digestion system2011 Presentation Transcript

    • Digestive System
      Chapter 17
    • Digestion:
      Breaking down food into the smallest end products
      Small particles, small enough to pass through cell membrane
      Getting products into the circulation for cells to use
      Bowel Movement
    • AlimentaryCanal
      (Gastrointestinal Tract)
      Open tube from the mouth to the anus,
      all lines with mucous membrane, in total about 30 ft long.
      Add secretions to the canals.
      • Liver
      • Gall Bladder
      • Pancreas
    • Layers of the Digestive System
      Mucus membrane lining. Specialized call to secrete mucus and digestive enzymes
      Connective tissue, blood & lymph tissue. Have parasympathetic & Sympathetic nerve ending
      • Parasympathetic~ increase digestive secretion
      • Sympathetic~ Decrease digestive secretions
      (2) Layers of smooth muscle run in different directions when the contract causes a wave like motion to push food through digestive system called peristalsis
    • Layers of the Digestive System
      Sirius membrane lining of abdominal cavity and covers digestive organs allows for movement
      A. Parietal:
      Lines entire cavity
      B. Visceral:
      Internal layer cover over organs in the cavity
      1.) Omentum:
      Towards front fold of membrane start at stomach to the intestine, like an apron covers & helps support.
      2.) Mesentery:
      Covers and attaches to intestine and attaches to posterior abdominal wall supports and holds loops of bowl in place
    • Mouth-Oral Cavity
    • Definitions
      Roof of the mouth or oral cavity is made of the HARD (anterior) and SOFT (posterior) Palates
      Hangs down from the soft palate is a V-shaped structure, which assist with swallowing
      Located on the floor of the mouth. The tongue has Three functions 1. Swallowing- Deglutition 2. Taste 3. Production of sound
      Fold of mucous membrane under the tongue
      Rough elevations on the tongue which contain the taste buds.
      Allows us to perform MASTICATION or chewing. Calcium is the most important mineral for tooth growth.
    • Deciduous:
      Baby teeth we develop 20 starting at 6 month of and begin to shed at 6 years old. They are replaced by 32 permanent (adult) teeth.
      Pulp Cavity:
      Inner area of a tooth which contains nerves and blood supply
      Covers the part of the tooth above the Gingiva (gum) is the hardest substance in the body.
      Entire tooth under the gum line
      Tooth above the gum line
    • Salivary Glands
      Produce saliva which is made of and a digestive enzyme called Amylase.
      1. Parotid:
      Back of mandible in front of ear
      2. Submandibular:
      Under mandible
      3. Sublingual:
      Under the tongue, floor of mouth
    • The Pharnyx or throat transports food after deglutition or swallowing. The epiglottis closes off the trachea during swallowing
      Esophagus :
      10 inch long tube carrying food away from the pharynx to the stomach. It is lined with mucous membrane and has a muscular wall which performs “peristalsis” (wave like motion to propel food)
    • Stomach
      • Collapsible pouch, muscular wall is capable of great distention.
      • Located in LUQ, below the diaphragm
      • Lined with mucous membrane that lays in the fold or Rugae when empty.
      Upper section
      Central Portion
      Lower narrow end
    • Sphincters
      Cardiac/Lower Esophageal Sphincter:
      Between the esophagus and stomach.
      Between the stomach and small intestines.
      Pyloric Sphincter:
    • Chyme:
      When liquid food mixture enters the small intestine
    • Stomach Functions
      1.Reservoir: Stores food
      2.Secretion: Mucus, HCL, Pepsin(and enzyme that digests protein) and intrinsic factor for absorption of Vit B12 for RBC production.
      3. Churns Food- Breaks down food into smaller pieces
      4. Absorption- small amounts of water, alcohol(much faster absorption) and some medications.
      • 20 foot long tube with a diameter of 1inch. Coiled loops fill most abdominal cavity.
      1st Section about one foot long, joins the stomach and is called the duodenum. The next section is the jejunum, about 8 ft long. Finals section, the ileum, is 11ft long. All lined with mucous membrane
    • Villi
      Small projections or villi extends into the lumen. Single cell thick wall. !st function of small intestine- absorption of nutrients from the food we eat. Some end products of digestion pass into the capillaries where they join the venous system. End products of fats are absorbed by lacteals and enter the lymph system for transport to the bloodstream. Glands in the mucous lining of the small intestine secrete mucus and enzyme which help food digestion. (the 2nd function of small intestine) its smooth muscle wall performs peristalsis, pushing digested food to the next structure.
    • Large Intestine
      Aka Colon
      • 5-6ft long
      • 2 ½ inch diameter
      Cecum- 1st section 3 inches long. Small pouch off the bottom of the cecum is the appendix. (no digestive function but contains lymphatic tissue and plays a small role in the body’s immune system.) Ileocecal valve prevents backflow from the cecum of the large intestines into the ileum of the small intestines.
      Ascending colon: runs upward along the right side of the abdomen
      Transverse colon: runs across the abdomen
      Descending colon: runs down the left side into the pelvis
      Sigmoid colon: is an s-shaped portion of the colon.
      Rectum: final 6-8 inch section serves as a temporary storage area for undigestible or unabsorbable food.
      Anus: external opening it is composed of the anal sphincter (involuntary) and an external anal sphincter (voluntary)
      Functions: No digestion
      • Absorbtion of water , some minerals and some vitamins (vit k is produced by normal flora in the intestines)
      • Secretion of mucus
      • Elimination of waste (feces)
    • Accessory Organs of Digestion
    • Liver-Hepato
      Location: RUQ
      • Produce bile(1 qt/day)
      • Stores glucose as glycogen and released prn
      • Stores fat-solube vitamins-A,D,E,K (Carried around on fat particles)
      • Makes plasma protein-albumin for water balance globulins for immunity (antibodies) fibrinogen & prothrombin for clotting
      • Filters blood-filter out toxins
      • Hemolysis-break down of old blood cells
      Bile contains: bile salts, bile rouben(break down of RBC) cholesterol
      Function of bile: Emulsification fats
      Flow: Out of liver through hepatic ducts and common bile duct. Backs up at sphincter and drains empties into gallbladder.
    • Gallbladder-Cholecyst
      Location: RUQ under(behind) liver
      1. Stores and concentrates bile after produced in liver
      2. When chyme enters the small intestines, the gallbladder contracts to eject bile through the cystic duct, into the common bile and then into the duodenum
    • Pancreas
      -most important organ for digestive enzyme
      Location: LUQ posterior to stomach
      Beta cells in the illets of langerhauns secrete insulin to decrease blood glucose. Alpha cells secrete glucagon to increase blood glucose.
      2. Exocrine
      Digestive secretions empty into the pancreatic duct then into the duodenum.
      HCO3- alkaline substance
      Enzymes – breakdown all three major nutrients
    • Digestive process
      Breaking down food into end products
      Mechanical-physically breaking down moving food
      chewing- mastication decrease size of food. Swallowing- deglutition- physically propel food toward stomach
      Churning –turning in stomach mix food up with enzyme & HCL
      Peristalsis- wave like motion to churn food around in stomach
      2. Chemical – changing chemical composition of the food. Breaking down large molecules into small molecules that make up end products.
      Bile – emulsify fats
      • 3 nutrients that do not require chem digestion > vitamin, minerals, water, already in the smallest form.
      b. Enzyme < need to break down other major nutrients carbs, proteins, fats > secreted in mouth, stomach, small intestine, pancreas
      c. End products: smallest particles from major nutrients
      Proteins>amino acids
      Fats>fatty acids glycerol
    • Digestive process
      B. Absorption: most takes place in small intestine
      1.)stomach- alcohol some medications
      2.)small intestine- absorption mostly takes place here
      villi-Blood capillaries through circulation< carbs, proteins
      Fats- lacteals- lymp- blood
      3.) large intestines water is reabsorbed, absorbs vitamins and minerals
      c. Elimination- eliminate feces
      Bulk – fiber indigestible substance a. cellulose-(seeds, shells, skins off fruits)
      Also in feces
      Bile pigments – cause stool to have a dark color
    • THE END!