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  • 1. Translation
  • 2. Translation
    • decoding info.
    • Involves the interactions of mRNA, tRNA, ribosomes and several transciption factors.
    • Some ribosomes attached to membranes (rough endoplasmic reticulum), others not attached (free ribosomes)
  • 3.
    • mRNA leaves the Nucleus and Looks for a Ribosome
    • After the code is transcribed the m-RNA is further processed: special head and tail regions are added and some parts are spliced out
    • RNA leaves the nucleus and carries the code into the cytoplasm, then attaches to a ribosome
  • 4. Translation
    • The RNA Code is Translated into Protein
    • Ribosome finds start codon (AUG), then decodes the message, 3 bases at a time
    • When the ribosome reaches the stop codon the protein is released and the decoding can start over to make another protein
  • 5.
    • mRNA carries the genes.
    • The sequence of mRNA strand is complementary to that of DNA.
    • Leaves the nuc – cyto to encounter ribosomes.
    • Triplet codon specifies a certain protein in the sequence of amino acids
    • Dictates the production of proteins by ribosomes .
  • 6. Translation...
    • Anticodon is complementary to the codons on mRNA held by H+ bonds.
    • Peptidyl transferase catalyses the formation of peptide bond between 2 amino acids.
    • Once the amino acids have joined, tRNA molecules are released
    • Base pairing between the codons of mRNA and the anticodons on tRNA mol ensures that the transcribed info is translated into the correct sequence of amino acid.
  • 7.
    • ribosomes move along the mRNA molecule and "read" its sequence 3 nucleotides at a time (codon) from the 5' end to the 3' end.
    • Each amino acid is specified by the mRNA's codon, and then pairs with a sequence of three complementary nucleotides carried by a particular tRNA (anticodon).
  • 8. Polysomes..
    • Several ribosomes can attach to an mRNA strand simultaneously, forming polysomes .
    • This speeds up the generation of large number of polypeptides.
  • 9.  
  • 10. Summary   Ribosome decodes the m-RNA and makes the correct protein.   m-RNA Ribosomes Peptidyl transferase enzyme Transfer RNAs   In the cytoplasm, on the ribosomes   Translation   Gene is activated. A copy of the code is made from RNA (m-RNA) m-RNA leaves the nucleus, goes to cytoplasm.   DNA gene RNA polymerase   In the nucleus   Transcription   Notes   Major Components   Where   Process
  • 11. Protein structure
    • 20 a2 serve as subunits
    • Each amino acid has a carboxyl group, amino group, and a radical group R
    • All bound covalently to a central C.
    • R group gives each a2 its chemical identity.
    • R = CH3 (alanine), CHCH3CH3 = Valine
    • 4 main classes = polar (hydrophilic), non polar (hydrophobic), -ve, +ve charged.
  • 12. structure
    • Primary
    • Secondary
    • Tertiary
    • Quaternary structure
    • H+ bonds
    • Disulphide bridges
    • Beta pleated sheets
    • Hydrophobicc interactions