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    Translation Translation Presentation Transcript

    • Translation
    • Translation
      • decoding info.
      • Involves the interactions of mRNA, tRNA, ribosomes and several transciption factors.
      • Some ribosomes attached to membranes (rough endoplasmic reticulum), others not attached (free ribosomes)
      • mRNA leaves the Nucleus and Looks for a Ribosome
      • After the code is transcribed the m-RNA is further processed: special head and tail regions are added and some parts are spliced out
      • RNA leaves the nucleus and carries the code into the cytoplasm, then attaches to a ribosome
    • Translation
      • The RNA Code is Translated into Protein
      • Ribosome finds start codon (AUG), then decodes the message, 3 bases at a time
      • When the ribosome reaches the stop codon the protein is released and the decoding can start over to make another protein
      • mRNA carries the genes.
      • The sequence of mRNA strand is complementary to that of DNA.
      • Leaves the nuc – cyto to encounter ribosomes.
      • Triplet codon specifies a certain protein in the sequence of amino acids
      • Dictates the production of proteins by ribosomes .
    • Translation...
      • Anticodon is complementary to the codons on mRNA held by H+ bonds.
      • Peptidyl transferase catalyses the formation of peptide bond between 2 amino acids.
      • Once the amino acids have joined, tRNA molecules are released
      • Base pairing between the codons of mRNA and the anticodons on tRNA mol ensures that the transcribed info is translated into the correct sequence of amino acid.
      • ribosomes move along the mRNA molecule and "read" its sequence 3 nucleotides at a time (codon) from the 5' end to the 3' end.
      • Each amino acid is specified by the mRNA's codon, and then pairs with a sequence of three complementary nucleotides carried by a particular tRNA (anticodon).
    • Polysomes..
      • Several ribosomes can attach to an mRNA strand simultaneously, forming polysomes .
      • This speeds up the generation of large number of polypeptides.
    • Summary   Ribosome decodes the m-RNA and makes the correct protein.   m-RNA Ribosomes Peptidyl transferase enzyme Transfer RNAs   In the cytoplasm, on the ribosomes   Translation   Gene is activated. A copy of the code is made from RNA (m-RNA) m-RNA leaves the nucleus, goes to cytoplasm.   DNA gene RNA polymerase   In the nucleus   Transcription   Notes   Major Components   Where   Process
    • Protein structure
      • 20 a2 serve as subunits
      • Each amino acid has a carboxyl group, amino group, and a radical group R
      • All bound covalently to a central C.
      • R group gives each a2 its chemical identity.
      • R = CH3 (alanine), CHCH3CH3 = Valine
      • 4 main classes = polar (hydrophilic), non polar (hydrophobic), -ve, +ve charged.
    • structure
      • Primary
      • Secondary
      • Tertiary
      • Quaternary structure
      • H+ bonds
      • Disulphide bridges
      • Beta pleated sheets
      • Hydrophobicc interactions