Irregular Verbs

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Irregular Verbs

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Irregular Verbs

  1. 1. Irregular Verbs Andrew Ernest Ritz May 8, 2011Andrew Ernest Ritz () Irregular Verbs May 8, 2011 1 / 88
  2. 2. awake awoke awoken verb –. (7) wake up, awake, arouse, awaken, wake, come alive, waken – (stop sleeping; ”She woke up to the sound of the alarm clock”) Andrew Ernest Ritz () Irregular Verbs May 8, 2011 2 / 88
  3. 3. be was been verb –1. (10742) be – (have the quality of being; (copula, used with an adjective or a predicate noun); ”John is rich”; ”This is not a good answer”) Andrew Ernest Ritz () Irregular Verbs May 8, 2011 3 / 88
  4. 4. beat beat beaten verb –1. (18) beat, beat out, crush, shell, trounce, vanquish – (come out better in a competition, race, or conflict; ”Agassi beat Becker in the tennis championship”; ”We beat the competition”; ”Harvard defeated Yale in the last football game”) Andrew Ernest Ritz () Irregular Verbs May 8, 2011 4 / 88
  5. 5. become became become verb –1. (327) become, go, get – (enter or assume a certain state or condition; ”He became annoyed when he heard the bad news”; ”It must be getting more serious”; ”her face went red with anger”; ”She went into ecstasy”; ”Get going!”) Andrew Ernest Ritz () Irregular Verbs May 8, 2011 5 / 88
  6. 6. begin began begun verb –1. (375) get down, begin, get, start out, start, set about, set out, commence – (take the first step or steps in carrying out an action; ”We began working at dawn”; ”Who will start?”; ”Get working as soon as the sun rises!”; ”The first tourists began to arrive in Cambodia”; ”He began early in the day”; ”Let’s get down to work now”) Andrew Ernest Ritz () Irregular Verbs May 8, 2011 6 / 88
  7. 7. bend bent bent verb –1. (23) bend, flex – (form a curve; ”The stick does not bend”) Andrew Ernest Ritz () Irregular Verbs May 8, 2011 7 / 88
  8. 8. bet bet bet verb –1. (19) bet, wager – (maintain with or as if with a bet; ”I bet she will be there!”) Andrew Ernest Ritz () Irregular Verbs May 8, 2011 8 / 88
  9. 9. bite bit bitten verb –1. (12) bite, seize with teeth – (to grip, cut off, or tear with or as if with the teeth or jaws; ”Gunny invariably tried to bite her”) Andrew Ernest Ritz () Irregular Verbs May 8, 2011 9 / 88
  10. 10. blow blew blown verb –1. (6) blow – (exhale hard; ”blow on the soup to cool it down”) Andrew Ernest Ritz () Irregular Verbs May 8, 2011 10 / 88
  11. 11. break broke broken verb –1. (15) interrupt, break – (terminate; ”She interrupted her pregnancy”; ”break a lucky streak”; ”break the cycle of poverty”) Andrew Ernest Ritz () Irregular Verbs May 8, 2011 11 / 88
  12. 12. bring brought brought verb –1. (122) bring, convey, take – (take something or somebody with oneself somewhere; ”Bring me the box from the other room”; ”Take these letters to the boss”; ”This brings me to the main point”) Andrew Ernest Ritz () Irregular Verbs May 8, 2011 12 / 88
  13. 13. broadcast broadcast broadcast verb –1. (2) air, send, broadcast, beam, transmit – (broadcast over the airwaves, as in radio or television; ”We cannot air this X-rated song”) Andrew Ernest Ritz () Irregular Verbs May 8, 2011 13 / 88
  14. 14. build built built verb –1. (123) construct, build, make – (make by combining materials and parts; ”this little pig made his house out of straw”; ”Some eccentric constructed an electric brassiere warmer”) Andrew Ernest Ritz () Irregular Verbs May 8, 2011 14 / 88
  15. 15. burn burnt burnt verb –1. (11) burn, fire, burn down – (destroy by fire; ”They burned the house and his diaries”) Andrew Ernest Ritz () Irregular Verbs May 8, 2011 15 / 88
  16. 16. buy bought bought verb –1. (102) buy, purchase – (obtain by purchase; acquire by means of a financial transaction; ”The family purchased a new car”; ”The conglomerate acquired a new company”; ”She buys for the big department store”) Andrew Ernest Ritz () Irregular Verbs May 8, 2011 16 / 88
  17. 17. catch caught caught verb –1. (19) catch – (discover or come upon accidentally, suddenly, or unexpectedly; catch somebody doing something or in a certain state; ”She caught her son eating candy”; ”She was caught shoplifting”) Andrew Ernest Ritz () Irregular Verbs May 8, 2011 17 / 88
  18. 18. choose chose chosen verb –1. (80) choose, take, select, pick out – (pick out, select, or choose from a number of alternatives; ”Take any one of these cards”; ”Choose a good husband for your daughter”; ”She selected a pair of shoes from among the dozen the salesgirl had shown her”) Andrew Ernest Ritz () Irregular Verbs May 8, 2011 18 / 88
  19. 19. cut cut cut verb –1. (58) cut – (separate with or as if with an instrument; ”Cut the rope”) Andrew Ernest Ritz () Irregular Verbs May 8, 2011 19 / 88
  20. 20. dig dug dug verb –1. (9) dig, delve, cut into, turn over – (turn up, loosen, or remove earth; ”Dig we must”; ”turn over the soil for aeration”) Andrew Ernest Ritz () Irregular Verbs May 8, 2011 20 / 88
  21. 21. do did done verb –1. (526) make, do – (engage in; ”make love, not war”; ”make an effort”; ”do research”; ”do nothing”; ”make revolution”) Andrew Ernest Ritz () Irregular Verbs May 8, 2011 21 / 88
  22. 22. draw drew drawn verb –1. (13) pull, draw, force – (cause to move by pulling; ”draw a wagon”; ”pull a sled”) Andrew Ernest Ritz () Irregular Verbs May 8, 2011 22 / 88
  23. 23. dream dreamt dreamt verb –1. (15) dream, daydream, woolgather, stargaze – (have a daydream; indulge in a fantasy) Andrew Ernest Ritz () Irregular Verbs May 8, 2011 23 / 88
  24. 24. drive drove driven verb –1. (56) drive – (operate or control a vehicle; ”drive a car or bus”; ”Can you drive this four-wheel truck?”) Andrew Ernest Ritz () Irregular Verbs May 8, 2011 24 / 88
  25. 25. drink drank drunk verb –1. (30) drink, imbibe – (take in liquids; ”The patient must drink several liters each day”; ”The children like to drink soda”) Andrew Ernest Ritz () Irregular Verbs May 8, 2011 25 / 88
  26. 26. eat ate eaten verb –1. (61) eat – (take in solid food; ”She was eating a banana”; ”What did you eat for dinner last night?”) Andrew Ernest Ritz () Irregular Verbs May 8, 2011 26 / 88
  27. 27. fall fell fallen verb –1. (43) fall – (descend in free fall under the influence of gravity; ”The branch fell from the tree”; ”The unfortunate hiker fell into a crevasse”) Andrew Ernest Ritz () Irregular Verbs May 8, 2011 27 / 88
  28. 28. feel felt felt verb –1. (181) feel, experience – (undergo an emotional sensatio n or be in a particular state of mind; ”She felt resentful”; ”He felt regret”) Andrew Ernest Ritz () Irregular Verbs May 8, 2011 28 / 88
  29. 29. fight fought fought verb –1. (112) contend, fight, struggle – (be engaged in a fight; carry on a fight; ”the tribesmen fought each other”; ”Sibling s are always fighting”; ”Militant groups are contending for control of the country”) Andrew Ernest Ritz () Irregular Verbs May 8, 2011 29 / 88
  30. 30. find found found verb –1. (159) find, happen, chance, bump, encounter – (come upon, as if by accident; meet with; ”We find this idea in Plato”; ”I happened upon the most wonderful bakery not very far from here”; ”She chanced upon an interesting book in the bookstore the other day”) Andrew Ernest Ritz () Irregular Verbs May 8, 2011 30 / 88
  31. 31. fly flew flown verb –1. (33) fly, wing – (travel through the air; be airborne; ”Man cannot fly”) Andrew Ernest Ritz () Irregular Verbs May 8, 2011 31 / 88
  32. 32. forget forgot forgotten verb –1. (61) forget, bury – (dismiss from the mind; stop remembering; ”I tried to bury these unpleasant memories”) Andrew Ernest Ritz () Irregular Verbs May 8, 2011 32 / 88
  33. 33. forgive forgave forgiven verb –1. (24) forgive – (stop blaming or grant forgiveness; ”I forgave him his infidelity”; ”She cannot forgive him for forgetting her birthday”) Andrew Ernest Ritz () Irregular Verbs May 8, 2011 33 / 88
  34. 34. freeze froze frozen verb –1. (5) freeze, stop dead – (stop moving or become immobili zed; ”When he saw the police car he froze”) Andrew Ernest Ritz () Irregular Verbs May 8, 2011 34 / 88
  35. 35. get got gotten verb –1. (235) get, acquire – (come into the possession of something concrete or abstract; ”She got a lot of paintings from her uncle”; ”They acquired a new pet”; ”Get your results the next day”; ”Get permission to take a few days off from work”) Andrew Ernest Ritz () Irregular Verbs May 8, 2011 35 / 88
  36. 36. give gave given verb –1. (179) give – (cause to have, in the abstract sense or physical sense; ”She gave him a black eye”; ”The draft gave me a cold”) Andrew Ernest Ritz () Irregular Verbs May 8, 2011 36 / 88
  37. 37. go went gone verb –1. (343) travel, go, move, locomote – (change location; move, travel, or proceed, also metaphorically; ”How fast does your new car go?”; ”We travelled from Rome to Naples by bus”; ”The policeme n went from door to door looking for the suspect”; ”The soldiers moved towards the city in an attempt to take it before night fell”; ”news travelled fast”) Andrew Ernest Ritz () Irregular Verbs May 8, 2011 37 / 88
  38. 38. grow grew grown verb –1. (70) turn, grow – (pass into a condition gradually, take on a specific property or attribute; become; ”The weather turned nasty”; ”She grew angry”) Andrew Ernest Ritz () Irregular Verbs May 8, 2011 38 / 88
  39. 39. hang hung hung verb –1. (35) hang – (be suspended or hanging; ”The flag hung on the wall”) Andrew Ernest Ritz () Irregular Verbs May 8, 2011 39 / 88
  40. 40. hear heard heard verb –1. (275) hear – (perceive (sound) via the auditory sense) Andrew Ernest Ritz () Irregular Verbs May 8, 2011 40 / 88
  41. 41. hide hid hidden verb –1. (28) hide, conceal – (prevent from being seen or discovered; ”Muslim women hide their faces”; ”hide the money”) Andrew Ernest Ritz () Irregular Verbs May 8, 2011 41 / 88
  42. 42. hit hit hit verb –1. (25) hit – (cause to move by striking; ”hit a ball”) Andrew Ernest Ritz () Irregular Verbs May 8, 2011 42 / 88
  43. 43. hold held held verb –1. (79) keep, maintain, hold – (keep in a certain state, position, or activity; e.g., ”keep clean”; ”hold in place”; ”She always held herself as a lady”; ”The students keep me on my toes”) Andrew Ernest Ritz () Irregular Verbs May 8, 2011 43 / 88
  44. 44. hurt hurt hurt verb –1. (8) ache, smart, hurt – (be the source of pain) Andrew Ernest Ritz () Irregular Verbs May 8, 2011 44 / 88
  45. 45. keep kept kept verb –1. (206) keep, maintain, hold – (keep in a certain state, position, or activity; e.g., ”keep clean”; ”hold in place”; ”She always held herself as a lady”; ”The students keep me on my toes”) Andrew Ernest Ritz () Irregular Verbs May 8, 2011 45 / 88
  46. 46. know knew known verb –1. (585) know, cognize, cognise – (be cognizant or aware of a fact or a specific piece of information; possess knowledge or information about; ”I know that the President lied to the people”; ”I want to know who is winning the game!”; ”I know it’s time”) Andrew Ernest Ritz () Irregular Verbs May 8, 2011 46 / 88
  47. 47. lay laid laid verb –1. (24) put, set, place, pose, position, lay – (put into a certain place or abstract location; ”Put your things here”; ”Set the tray down”; ”Set the dogs on the scent of the missing children”; ”Place emphasis on a certain point”) Andrew Ernest Ritz () Irregular Verbs May 8, 2011 47 / 88
  48. 48. lead led led verb –1. (40) lead, take, direct, conduct, guide – (take somebody somewhere; ”We lead him to our chief”; ”can you take me to the main entrance?”; ”He conducted us to the palace”) Andrew Ernest Ritz () Irregular Verbs May 8, 2011 48 / 88
  49. 49. learn learnt learnt verb –1. (90) learn, larn, acquire – (gain knowledge or skills; ”She learned dancing from her sister”; ”I learned Sanskrit”; ”Children acquire language at an amazing rate”) Andrew Ernest Ritz () Irregular Verbs May 8, 2011 49 / 88
  50. 50. leave left left verb –1. (146) leave, go forth, go away – (go away from a place; ”At what time does your train leave?”; ”She didn’t leave until midnight”; ”The ship leaves at midnight”) Andrew Ernest Ritz () Irregular Verbs May 8, 2011 50 / 88
  51. 51. lend lent lent verb –1. (7) lend, impart, bestow, contribute, add, bring – (bestow a quality on; ”Her presence lends a certain cachet to the company”; ”The music added a lot to the play”; ”She brings a special atmosphere to our meetings”; ”This adds a light note to the program”) Andrew Ernest Ritz () Irregular Verbs May 8, 2011 51 / 88
  52. 52. let let let verb –1. (219) let, allow, permit – (make it possible through a specific action or lack of action for something to happen; ”This permits the water to rush in”; ”This sealed door won’t allow the water come into the basement”; ”This will permit the rain to run off”) Andrew Ernest Ritz () Irregular Verbs May 8, 2011 52 / 88
  53. 53. lie lay lain verb –1. (88) lie – (be located or situated somewhere; occupy a certain position) Andrew Ernest Ritz () Irregular Verbs May 8, 2011 53 / 88
  54. 54. lose lost lost verb –1. (123) lose – (fail to keep or to maintain; cease to have, either physically or in an abstract sense; ”She lost her purse when she left it unattended on her seat”) Andrew Ernest Ritz () Irregular Verbs May 8, 2011 54 / 88
  55. 55. make made made verb –1. (508) make, do – (engage in; ”make love, not war”; ”make an effort”; ”do research”; ”do nothing”; ”make revolution”) Andrew Ernest Ritz () Irregular Verbs May 8, 2011 55 / 88
  56. 56. mean meant meant verb –1. (93) mean, intend – (mean or intend to express or convey; ”You never understand what I mean!”; ”what do his words intend?”) Andrew Ernest Ritz () Irregular Verbs May 8, 2011 56 / 88
  57. 57. meet met met verb –1. (49) meet, run into, encounter, run across, come across, see – (come together; ”I’ll probably see you at the meeting”; ”How nice to see you again!”) Andrew Ernest Ritz () Irregular Verbs May 8, 2011 57 / 88
  58. 58. pay paid paid verb –1. (138) pay – (give money, usually in exchange for goods or services; ”I paid four dollars for this sandwich”; ”Pay the waitress, please”) Andrew Ernest Ritz () Irregular Verbs May 8, 2011 58 / 88
  59. 59. put put put verb –1. (138) put, set, place, pose, position, lay – (put into a certain place or abstract location; ”Put your things here”; ”Set the tray down”; ”Set the dogs on the scent of the missing children”; ”Place emphasis on a certain point”) Andrew Ernest Ritz () Irregular Verbs May 8, 2011 59 / 88
  60. 60. read read read verb –1. (115) read – (interpret something that is written or printed; ”read the advertisement”; ”Have you read Salman Rushdie?”) Andrew Ernest Ritz () Irregular Verbs May 8, 2011 60 / 88
  61. 61. ride rode ridden verb –1. (53) ride, sit – (sit and travel on the back of animal, usually while controlling its motions; ”She never sat a horse!”; ”Did you ever ride a camel?”; ”The girl liked to drive the young mare”) Andrew Ernest Ritz () Irregular Verbs May 8, 2011 61 / 88
  62. 62. ring rang rung verb –1. (15) ring, peal – (sound loudly and sonorously; ”the bells rang”) Andrew Ernest Ritz () Irregular Verbs May 8, 2011 62 / 88
  63. 63. rise rose risen verb –1. (26) rise, lift, arise, move up, go up, come up, uprise – (move upward; ”The fog lifted”; ”The smoke arose from the forest fire”; ”The mist uprose from the meadows”) Andrew Ernest Ritz () Irregular Verbs May 8, 2011 63 / 88
  64. 64. run ran run verb –1. (106) run – (move fast by using one’s feet, with one foot off the ground at any given time; ”Don’t run–you’ll be out of breath”; ”The children ran to the store”) Andrew Ernest Ritz () Irregular Verbs May 8, 2011 64 / 88
  65. 65. say said said verb –1. (1861) state, say, tell – (express in words; ”He said that he wanted to marry her”; ”tell me what is bothering you”; ”state your opinion”; ”state your name”) Andrew Ernest Ritz () Irregular Verbs May 8, 2011 65 / 88
  66. 66. see saw seen verb –1. (613) see – (perceive by sight or have the power to perceive by sight; ”You have to be a good observer to see all the details”; ”Can you see the bird in that tree?”; ”He is blind–he cannot see”) Andrew Ernest Ritz () Irregular Verbs May 8, 2011 66 / 88
  67. 67. sell sold sold verb –1. (73) sell – (exchange or deliver for money or its equivalent; ”He sold his house in January”; ”She sells her body to survive and support her drug habit”) Andrew Ernest Ritz () Irregular Verbs May 8, 2011 67 / 88
  68. 68. send sent sent verb –1. (79) send, direct – (cause to go somewhere; ”The explosion sent the car flying in the air”; ”She sent her children to camp”; ”He directed all his energies into his dissertation”) Andrew Ernest Ritz () Irregular Verbs May 8, 2011 68 / 88
  69. 69. show showed shown verb –1. (136) show, demo, exhibit, present, demonstrate – (give an exhibition of to an interested audience; ”She shows her dogs frequently”; ”We will demo the new software in Washington”) Andrew Ernest Ritz () Irregular Verbs May 8, 2011 69 / 88
  70. 70. shut shut shut verb –1. (10) close, shut – (move so that an opening or passage is obstructed; make shut; ”Close the door”; ”shut the window”) Andrew Ernest Ritz () Irregular Verbs May 8, 2011 70 / 88
  71. 71. sing sang sung verb –1. (46) sing – (deliver by singing; ”Sing Christmas carols”) Andrew Ernest Ritz () Irregular Verbs May 8, 2011 71 / 88
  72. 72. sit sat sat verb –1. (134) sit, sit down – (be seated) Andrew Ernest Ritz () Irregular Verbs May 8, 2011 72 / 88
  73. 73. sleep slept slept verb –1. (58) sleep, kip, slumber, log Z’s, catch some Z’s – (be asleep) Andrew Ernest Ritz () Irregular Verbs May 8, 2011 73 / 88
  74. 74. speak spoke spoken verb –1. (86) talk, speak, utter, mouth, verbalize, verbalise – (express in speech; ”She talks a lot of nonsense”; ”This depressed patient does not verbalize”) Andrew Ernest Ritz () Irregular Verbs May 8, 2011 74 / 88
  75. 75. spend spent spent verb –1. (98) spend, pass – (pass time in a specific way; ”how are you spending your summer vacation?”) Andrew Ernest Ritz () Irregular Verbs May 8, 2011 75 / 88
  76. 76. stand stood stood verb –1. (169) stand, stand up – (be standing; be upright; ”We had to stand for the entire performance!”) Andrew Ernest Ritz () Irregular Verbs May 8, 2011 76 / 88
  77. 77. swim swam swum verb –1. (12) swim – (travel through water; ”We had to swim for 20 minutes to reach the shore”; ”a big fish was swimming in the tank”) Andrew Ernest Ritz () Irregular Verbs May 8, 2011 77 / 88
  78. 78. take took taken verb –1. (92) take – (carry out; ”take action”; ”take steps”; ”take vengeance”) Andrew Ernest Ritz () Irregular Verbs May 8, 2011 78 / 88
  79. 79. teach taught taught verb –1. (86) teach, learn, instruct – (impart skills or knowledge to; ”I taught them French”; ”He instructed me in building a boat”) Andrew Ernest Ritz () Irregular Verbs May 8, 2011 79 / 88
  80. 80. tear tore torn verb –1. (19) tear, rupture, snap, bust – (separate or cause to separate abruptly; ”The rope snapped”; ”tear the paper”) Andrew Ernest Ritz () Irregular Verbs May 8, 2011 80 / 88
  81. 81. tell told told verb –1. (196) state, say, tell – (express in words; ”He said that he wanted to marry her”; ”tell me what is bothering you”; ”state your opinion”; ”state your name”) Andrew Ernest Ritz () Irregular Verbs May 8, 2011 81 / 88
  82. 82. think thought thought verb –1. (274) think, believe, consider, conceive – (judge or regard; look upon; judge; ”I think he is very smart”; ”I believe her to be very smart”; ”I think that he is her boyfriend”; ”The racist conceives such people to be inferior”) Andrew Ernest Ritz () Irregular Verbs May 8, 2011 82 / 88
  83. 83. throw threw thrown verb –1. (53) throw – (propel through the air; ”throw a frisbee” ) Andrew Ernest Ritz () Irregular Verbs May 8, 2011 83 / 88
  84. 84. understand understood understood verb –1. (110) understand – (know and comprehend the nature or meaning of; ”She did not understand her husband”; ”I understand what she means”) Andrew Ernest Ritz () Irregular Verbs May 8, 2011 84 / 88
  85. 85. wake woke woken verb –1. (7) wake – (be awake, be alert, be there) Andrew Ernest Ritz () Irregular Verbs May 8, 2011 85 / 88
  86. 86. wear wore worn verb –1. (83) wear, have on – (be dressed in; ”She was wearing yellow that day”) Andrew Ernest Ritz () Irregular Verbs May 8, 2011 86 / 88
  87. 87. win won won verb –1. (71) win – (be the winner in a contest or competition; be victorious; ”He won the Gold Medal in skating”; ”Our home team won”; ”Win the game”) Andrew Ernest Ritz () Irregular Verbs May 8, 2011 87 / 88
  88. 88. write wrote written verb –1. (112) write, compose, pen, indite – (produce a literary work; ”She composed a poem”; ”He wrote four novels”) Andrew Ernest Ritz () Irregular Verbs May 8, 2011 88 / 88

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