• Fire Rocks
• Formed underground by trapped, cooled
• Formed above ground when volcanoes
erupt and magma cools
• The oldest type of all rocks is the igneous rock
• Deep inside the earth, the temperature is very high
and the minerals there are in liquid form called
magma. As the magma pushes towards the earth's
surface, it starts to cool and turns into solid igneous
Types of Igneous Rocks
• Wind and water break down the earth
• Bits of earth settle in lakes and rivers
• Layers are formed and build up
• Pressure and time turn the layers to rock
• Erosion means that rocks are broken up into smaller
pieces by wind, water, and ice. These small pieces of rock
turn into pebbles, gravel, sand, and clay.
• These pieces settle in a new place and begin to pile up
and the sediments form flat layers. Over a long period of
time, the pieces become pressed together and form solid
rock called sedimentary rock.
• Rocks that have changed
• They were once igneous or sedimentary
• Pressure and heat changed the rocks
Metamorphic rocks form deep in the earth
where high temperature,
and chemical reactions cause one type of rock to
change into another type of rock over time.
Types of Metamorphic Rocks
Famous Rocks Scavenger Hunt
Let the Hunt Begin! How many
of these rocks do you know?
The faces of four great American
presidents are carved in this granite
mountain in South Dakota?
This was an important landmark for the pioneers
traveling out west.
Many of the travelers carved or painted their
names on this rock.
Mount Saint Helen
There are about 500 active volcanoes in the
world today. The most famous volcano in the
United States is?
(hint: it is in the state of Washington)
You can see many layers of colorful
sedimentary rock in this canyon in Arizona.
A long time ago, it was under water.
This famous diamond is the largest stone
found of this type.
The world's largest mass of exposed
granite is located in Georgia. This mass is
“The Eighth Wonder of the World".
Garden of the Gods
This famous rock formation is a region of huge
red and white sandstone rock masses that rise
in strange shapes. This rock formation is
located near Colorado Springs, Colorado.
Uses of Rock and Minerals
The Importance of Rocks and Minerals
Name Type of Rock Use
Used in road building
Calcite Mineral Used in cements and mortars and the production of lime
Granite Igneous Used for buildings, monuments, and tombstones
Marble Metamorphic Used in building, floors, tile in bathrooms
Obsidian Igneous Used in making arrowheads and knives
Pumice Igneous Used in scouring, scrubbing, and polishing materials
Quartz Mineral Used in making glass, electrical components, and optical lenses
Used in the building
industry for houses
8/4/2010 Metamorphic Used for roofs, chalkboards, and patio walks
Has been formed in layers
Often found near water sources
With fossils from decayers
Then there's IGNEOUS rock
Here since Earth was born
Molten Lava, cooled and hardened
That's how it is formed
These two types of rocks
Can also be transformed
With pressure, heat and chemicals
8/4/2010 METAMORPHIC they'll become.
• Rocks is a natural material called minerals.
• Some types of rock, such as granite, are
• Some types of rock, such as chalk, are
• Rocks come in many different colors.
• Rocks have different patterns in them.
• Rock does not burn when it is heated.
• Rock does not let electricity flow through it.
• Rock is not attracted by magnets.
Rocks: The Solid Earth Materials #1 (clips)
Magic School Bus Rocks and Rolls
A particular slide catching your eye?
Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.