Research QuestionHow does standardized testing affect publicschooling?
Sources1 Schools in Atlanta are being watchedbecause school officials believe there has been cheating going on (teachers changinganswers after students leave the room)2 Students in higher income states are doingbetter on standardized tests while students from lower income states are doing worse
3 Educational reform is happening for threereasons: because of the economy, to reduce educational inequality, and to increaseassessment objectivity. The author concludes current efforts to reform are useless becausethey don’t work
4 No Child Left Behind Act stresses testing tosee what students are learning and what teachers are teaching. Funding for schools isbased on test performance. Test scores in the Denver Metro Region are being used asthe sole basis for the relationship betweenschool characteristics and student performance
Use one source to critique anotherPresent reforms are so useless and ineffective(source 3) that the system is turning againstitself with teachers being accused of changinganswers (source 1) and inequality rising(maybe?) (source 2)
Use one source as a "lens" forinterpreting anotherBecause school characteristics are now solelybased on test scores (source 4), teachers arebeing tempted, accused, pressured to haveclasses with high test scores; therefore,accusations of cheating are becoming moreprevalent (source 1)
Establish a connection betweensources that may seem unrelatedThe economic pressures that are causingeducational reform (source 3) are affectinghigher income states less than lower incomestates (source 2); giving students from higherincome states an added advantage on theirtesting.
Examples Research question What factors influence the development process for gay male youth?
Example of connecting two sourcesIn his qualitative exploration Charles Joseph Lattarulo found that gay maleyouth have a difficult time with their identity development because they have tobalance their own expectations and self image with those of their parents,peers and society at large. He then goes on to note that “according to Erikson(1968), the resolution of the identity crisis is that the adolescent attains his orher own expectation in addition to those of society, and that in the process heor she finds sense of sameness and continuity of experience”(Lattarulo,2005).Tellingator compliments this; she states that young men may“compartmentalize” some of the feelings of rejection that they get from theirfamilies and communities. She asserts, “Compartmentalizing may be aconscious or unconscious mechanism that helps sexual minority adolescentscope with rejection by family members, peers, communities, and religiousaffiliations. They may fear harm or may already have been the target ofviolence and emotional abuse”(Telingator, 2011).
Another exampleIf location plays a huge role in the identity development of sexual minorityyoung males, then the messages and culture of a college campus would havesimilar effects on these young people as their communities would. A studyconducted by Richard Steven Jr., set out to confirm just that. His study foundthat on a college campus ones sexual identity is complexly integrated andoften at odds with other aspects of the individuals identity (Stevens, 2004). Thestudy also stated that “ones sexual identity is complexly integrated and often atodds with other aspects of the individuals identity”(Steven,2004). Thiscomplicates what have been stated before about identity development processwithin a community, because if those findings stated by the other experts weretrue, then it would mean that being outside of one’s own cultural environmentcan in turn slightly disturb the identity development process. This however alsomeans that this time in their lives can be influenced by the messages andclimate of the campus itself.