"Opportunities are usually disguised by hard work, so most people don't recognize them." - Ann Landers
INFLAMMATI0N Dr. EJAZ WARIS , FCPS Assistant Professor Histopathology,FMHC
Introduction:  <ul><li>“ Inflame” – to set fire. </li></ul><ul><li>Inflammation  is “dynamic response of vascularised tiss...
Lewis Triple Response: <ul><li>Flush :  capillary dilatation. </li></ul><ul><li>Flare :  arteriolar dilatation. </li></ul>...
Gastric Ulcer:
Laryngitis:
Acute Enteritis:
Pneumonia
Cardinal Signs of Inflammation <ul><li>Rubor  :  Redness – Hyperaemia. </li></ul><ul><li>Calor   :  Warm – Hyperaemia. </l...
The 5 Cardinal Signs of  Heat  Redness  Swelling  Pain  Loss Of Func.
Inflammation <ul><li>Two main components: </li></ul><ul><li>vascular reaction </li></ul><ul><li>cellular reaction </li></u...
Cells of inflammation
Circulating cells
 
 
 
 
 
 
Connective tissue matrix <ul><li>Made up of : </li></ul><ul><li>A)collagen fibers </li></ul><ul><li>B)elastic fibers </li>...
Connective tissue cells
 
 
 
 
 
Acute Inflammation - Mechanism 1.Alterations in vascular calibre leading to increased blood flow 2.Microvasculature struct...
Vascular changes <ul><li>A)vascular flow and calibre change </li></ul><ul><li>Inconstant transient vasoconstriction of art...
 
Vascular changes continued <ul><li>B)increased vascular permeability </li></ul><ul><li>vascular leakage leading to escape ...
How does endothelium becomes leaky in inflammation? <ul><li>1)formation of endothelial gaps in venules </li></ul><ul><li>2...
 
Leukocyte emigration/extravasation <ul><li>Sequence of events in the journey of leukocytes from the lumen to the interstit...
Mechanism of Inflammation:
 
Adhesion molecules <ul><li>Play an important role in acute inflammation </li></ul><ul><li>4 families </li></ul><ul><li>Fam...
Adhesion molecules <ul><li>Family no 3:Integrins </li></ul><ul><li>LFA </li></ul><ul><li>MAC-1 </li></ul><ul><li>VLA-4 </l...
 
 
Neutrophil Margination
Vascular changes
Pneumonia - Exudation
&quot;Each time you are honest and conduct yourself with honesty, a success force will drive you toward greater success. E...
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Inflammation Lecture 1 Dr Ejaz Waris

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Transcript of "Inflammation Lecture 1 Dr Ejaz Waris"

  1. 1. &quot;Opportunities are usually disguised by hard work, so most people don't recognize them.&quot; - Ann Landers
  2. 2. INFLAMMATI0N Dr. EJAZ WARIS , FCPS Assistant Professor Histopathology,FMHC
  3. 3. Introduction: <ul><li>“ Inflame” – to set fire. </li></ul><ul><li>Inflammation is “dynamic response of vascularised tissue to injury.” </li></ul><ul><li>Is a protective response. </li></ul><ul><li>Serves to bring defense & healing mechanisms to the site of injury. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Lewis Triple Response: <ul><li>Flush : capillary dilatation. </li></ul><ul><li>Flare : arteriolar dilatation. </li></ul><ul><li>Weal : exudation, edema. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Gastric Ulcer:
  6. 6. Laryngitis:
  7. 7. Acute Enteritis:
  8. 8. Pneumonia
  9. 9. Cardinal Signs of Inflammation <ul><li>Rubor : Redness – Hyperaemia. </li></ul><ul><li>Calor : Warm – Hyperaemia. </li></ul><ul><li>Dolor : Pain – Nerve, Chemical med. </li></ul><ul><li>Tumor : Swelling – Exudation </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of Function : </li></ul>
  10. 10. The 5 Cardinal Signs of Heat Redness Swelling Pain Loss Of Func.
  11. 11. Inflammation <ul><li>Two main components: </li></ul><ul><li>vascular reaction </li></ul><ul><li>cellular reaction </li></ul><ul><li> Two main types: </li></ul><ul><li> acute </li></ul><ul><li> chronic </li></ul><ul><li>Chemical mediators </li></ul>
  12. 12. Cells of inflammation
  13. 13. Circulating cells
  14. 20. Connective tissue matrix <ul><li>Made up of : </li></ul><ul><li>A)collagen fibers </li></ul><ul><li>B)elastic fibers </li></ul><ul><li>C)glycoproteins </li></ul><ul><li>D)proteoglycans </li></ul>
  15. 21. Connective tissue cells
  16. 27. Acute Inflammation - Mechanism 1.Alterations in vascular calibre leading to increased blood flow 2.Microvasculature structural changes 3.Leukocyte emigration
  17. 28. Vascular changes <ul><li>A)vascular flow and calibre change </li></ul><ul><li>Inconstant transient vasoconstriction of arterioles for few seconds </li></ul><ul><li>slowing of circulation (increased permeability of the vasculature) </li></ul><ul><li>stasis </li></ul><ul><li>Leukocyte migration </li></ul>
  18. 30. Vascular changes continued <ul><li>B)increased vascular permeability </li></ul><ul><li>vascular leakage leading to escape of protein rich fluid into the interstitium is the hall mark of acute inflammation </li></ul><ul><li>exudate </li></ul><ul><li>transudate </li></ul><ul><li>edema </li></ul><ul><li>pus </li></ul>
  19. 31. How does endothelium becomes leaky in inflammation? <ul><li>1)formation of endothelial gaps in venules </li></ul><ul><li>2)cytoskeletal reorganization </li></ul><ul><li>3)increased transcytosis </li></ul><ul><li>4)direct endothelial injury </li></ul><ul><li>5)leukocyte dependent injury </li></ul><ul><li>6)delayed prolonged leakage </li></ul><ul><li>7)leakage from new blood vessels </li></ul>
  20. 33. Leukocyte emigration/extravasation <ul><li>Sequence of events in the journey of leukocytes from the lumen to the interstitial tissue </li></ul><ul><li>Margination </li></ul><ul><li>Pavementing </li></ul><ul><li>Rolling </li></ul><ul><li>Adhesion </li></ul><ul><li>Transmigration/diapedesis </li></ul>
  21. 34. Mechanism of Inflammation:
  22. 36. Adhesion molecules <ul><li>Play an important role in acute inflammation </li></ul><ul><li>4 families </li></ul><ul><li>Family no 1: Selectins </li></ul><ul><li>E-selectin,P-selectin,L-selectin </li></ul><ul><li>Family no 2:Ig-family adhesion proteins </li></ul><ul><li>ICAM-I,ICAM-II,PECAM-I,VCAM-I </li></ul>
  23. 37. Adhesion molecules <ul><li>Family no 3:Integrins </li></ul><ul><li>LFA </li></ul><ul><li>MAC-1 </li></ul><ul><li>VLA-4 </li></ul><ul><li>Family no 4:Mucin like glycoproteins </li></ul><ul><li>CD-34 </li></ul><ul><li>Glycam-1 </li></ul>
  24. 40. Neutrophil Margination
  25. 41. Vascular changes
  26. 42. Pneumonia - Exudation
  27. 43. &quot;Each time you are honest and conduct yourself with honesty, a success force will drive you toward greater success. Each time you lie, even with a little white lie, there are strong forces pushing you toward failure.&quot;

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