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Bullying in Academia
Bullying in Academia
Bullying in Academia
Bullying in Academia
Bullying in Academia
Bullying in Academia
Bullying in Academia
Bullying in Academia
Bullying in Academia
Bullying in Academia
Bullying in Academia
Bullying in Academia
Bullying in Academia
Bullying in Academia
Bullying in Academia
Bullying in Academia
Bullying in Academia
Bullying in Academia
Bullying in Academia
Bullying in Academia
Bullying in Academia
Bullying in Academia
Bullying in Academia
Bullying in Academia
Bullying in Academia
Bullying in Academia
Bullying in Academia
Bullying in Academia
Bullying in Academia
Bullying in Academia
Bullying in Academia
Bullying in Academia
Bullying in Academia
Bullying in Academia
Bullying in Academia
Bullying in Academia
Bullying in Academia
Bullying in Academia
Bullying in Academia
Bullying in Academia
Bullying in Academia
Bullying in Academia
Bullying in Academia
Bullying in Academia
Bullying in Academia
Bullying in Academia
Bullying in Academia
Bullying in Academia
Bullying in Academia
Bullying in Academia
Bullying in Academia
Bullying in Academia
Bullying in Academia
Bullying in Academia
Bullying in Academia
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Bullying in Academia

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  • Stand up to the bully and be assertive without being aggressive.Even as adults, bullies prey on those who are weaker than them. Standing up to a bully just once can prove to him that you won't be pushed around.Luckily, I found a great Safety Service which featured a safety app which gets me connected to a Safety Network or escalate my call to the nearest 911 when needed, it has other cool features that are helpful for your kids with just a press of a Panic Button. #SafekidZone, Check it here: http://bit.ly/ZjYchC
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  • 1. AAUP Conference June 10, 2010 Ellen M. Raineri, Ph.D, Dean F. Frear, Ph.D., Jennifer J. Edmonds, Ph.D. Wilkes University Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania
  • 2. - Patreese D. Ingram
  • 3.
    • Faculty as bullies:
      • Sr faculty bullying Jr faculty
      • Jr faculty bullying Sr faculty
      • Faculty bullying staff (non administrators)
    • Faculty as victims:
      • Jr faculty bullied by Sr faculty
      • Sr faculty bullied by Jr faculty
      • Faculty bullied by staff (non administrators)
      • Faculty bullied by gangs
  • 4.
    • Administrators as bullies
    • Administrators as victims
    • Parameters: age, gender, frequencies
  • 5.
    • Persistent, uncivil conduct
    • Personal level: low self-esteem, control, envy
    • External level: high stress environment
    • Ignorance: EI, anger management, stress management
  • 6.
    • Actions directly to victim:
      • Menial tasks
      • With hold info
      • Unrealistic due dates
      • Constant scrutiny
      • Blame for own mistakes
      • Intimidation
      • Encourage victim to leave
  • 7.
    • Public actions:
      • Take credit for work
      • Public criticism
      • Hide talent
      • Discredit commitment
  • 8.
    • Covert actions:
      • Align others against victim
      • Misrepresent victim
      • Cross examine victim
  • 9.
    • Bullies seem not to be motivated by:
      • race
      • age
      • sex
    • Possible cause
      • One person not liking another person
    • Young women or popular employees are likely targets
  • 10.
    • Victim possesses positive attributes
      • Admired by others
      • Highly educated, Confident, Kind
      • Optimistic, Competent
    • Personal qualities and talents threaten the bully
  • 11.
    • Accommodating type of individual
    • Courteous, gentle, and non-confrontational
    • The victim seldom challenges the bully
    • Tends to be quiet about the injustices
  • 12.
    • The victim is noticeable
      • Physical characteristics
      • Represents a minority
      • Have a pronounced physical feature,
      • Have a mental or physical challenge
      • Appear physically attractive or unattractive
  • 13.
    • Emotional, health and well-being problems
    • Stress, humiliation, feelings of worthlessness
    • Shame and isolation
    • The victim may experience physical and psychological health issues
      • headache, nausea, stress, panic attacks,
      • posttraumatic stress disorder, depression,
      • resigned attitude, irritability, and insomnia.
  • 14.
    • Co-workers often experience guilt
    • do not always have the knowledge to solve the problem
    • or the courage to expose the problem.
    • Last, the organization experiences negative consequences as the victim may have low productivity due to fear or absenteeism. In addition, the organization may experience high job turnover costs due to victim or observers’ resignations
  • 15.
    • Admit that there is a bullying problem
    • Document each instance
    • align with a mentor –listener/advisor
    • Maintain
      • high self-esteem
      • a positive attitude
      • stamina
      • perseverance
  • 16.
    • The victim must maintain high job performance.
    • Form strong peer networks for support awareness
  • 17.
    • Develop anti-bullying policies that are reviewed and reinforced.
    • Quickly investigate accusation
    • Consequences for the bully must follow
    • Organizations can also offer counseling through an Employee Assistance Program.
  • 18.
    • Utilize the human resources or personnel department
    • Supervisor’s responsibility to “take a stand” with the bullies to address behavior
    • Have a clear process for filing and receiving complaints.
  • 19.
    • Focuses on the bullying in higher education
    • Faculty and administrators as bullies & victims
    • Examines behavioral displays of academic bullying
    • Queries the roles of faculty and administrators who demonstrate bullying
    • Explores the elements of age, gender, and frequency of bullying
  • 20.
    • Hypothesis 1 : Gender is an indicator of the bully’s identity.
    • Hypothesis 2 : Gender is an indicator of the victim’s identity.
    • Hypothesis 3 : Faculty rank has an impact on bullying tendencies.
    • Hypothesis 4 : More administrators bully faculty than faculty bully administrators.
  • 21.
    • An invitation to participate was emailed to 2,200 Business and Economics faculty
      • Small and midsize colleges and universities
      • Northeast and central locations of the US
      • Public and private.
  • 22.
    • Surveyed Business & Economics Faculty
      • Response rate - 2.7%
      • Sample Size – 60
    • 75% percent observed bullying behavior from faculty in their department
    • 50% percent observed bullying behavior from administrators.
  • 23.
    • Self-report survey
    • Delivered electronically
    • Three invitations over a six week period
    • Questionnaire Design
    • Nine statements each for faculty and administrators describing characteristics of bullies and victims.
  • 24.
    • Not asked whether they were bullied
    • Asked to report on observations of bullying behavior
    • Items on the instrument include observations on the age, gender, rank, and so forth of both the faculty and administrator bully and victim
    • The Questionnaire follows.
  • 25.
    • Attempts to turn others against the victim
    • Blames victim for bully’s mistakes
    • Blocks career goals
    • Constantly scrutinizes
    • Criticizes in public
    • Cross examines victim directly or by soliciting “evidence” from others
    • Discounts accomplishments
    • Erodes physical or mental health of victim
    • Schedules meetings that the victim cannot attend
    • Sets up target for failure
    • Spreads rumors/misperceptions
    • Tries to hide victim’s talent from others
    • Utilizes “Put downs” such as “I thought I asked you to…” or “What did I tell you about…”
    • Utilizes resources needed by the victim (time, people, and so on)
  • 26.
    • Sr. faculty bullying Jr. faculty
    • Jr. faculty bullying Sr. faculty
    • Faculty bullying non faculty
    • Non faculty bullying faculty
    • Faculty participating in gang bullying
    • non-faculty = staff, not administrators
  • 27.
    • Administrators bullying Sr. faculty
    • Administrators bullying Jr. faculty
    • Administrators bullying non faculty
    • Administrators participating in gang bullying
    • Administrators bullying Administrators
    • non-faculty = staff, not administrators
  • 28.
    • Sr. faculty bullying Administrators
    • Jr. faculty bullying Administrators
    • Non faculty bullying Administrators
    • Gangs bullying Administrators
      • non-faculty = staff, not administrators
  • 29.
    • Gender
    • Male to Male
    • Male to Female
    • Female to Female
    • Female to Male
  • 30.
    • Age
    • under 20
    • 20-30
    • 31-40
    • 41-50
    • 51-60
    • 61-70
    • over 70
  • 31.
    • Occurrence of faculty/administrator bullying
    • Daily
    • Weekly
    • Monthly
    • Yearly
    • Does not occur
  • 32.
    • BULLYING TACTICS
    • PERSONAL CHARACTERISTICS
    • Attempts to turn others against the victim
    • Blames victim for bully’s mistakes
    • Blocks career goals
    • Constantly scrutinizes
    • Criticizes in public
    • Cross examines victim
    • Discounts accomplishments
    • Erodes physical or mental health of victim
    • Schedules meetings that the victim cannot attend
    • Sets up target for failure
    • Spreads rumors/misperceptions
    • Tries to hide victim’s talent from others
    • Utilizes “Put downs”
    • Utilizes resources needed by the victim
    • Age
    • Gender
    • Rank
    • Frequency
  • 33.
    • Comparison of Faculty Bullying Tactics
    Discounts accomplishments Attempts to turn others against the victim Criticizes in public Constantly Scrutinizes Spreads rumors Blocks career goals The percentage values report the proportion of participants that responded positively to the characteristic. * Significance at the 0.05 level (1-tailed). 1-tailed significance values are shown.
  • 34.
    • Comparison of Faculty Bullying Tactics
    The percentage values report the proportion of participants that responded positively to the characteristic. * Significance at the 0.05 level (1-tailed). 1-tailed significance values are shown. Discounts accomplishments Attempts to turn others against the victim Criticizes in public Constantly Scrutinizes Spreads rumors Blocks career goals Sets up target for failure
  • 35.
    • Comparison of Administrator Bullying Tactics
    The percentage values report the proportion of participants that responded positively to the characteristic. * Significance at the 0.05 level (1-tailed). 1-tailed significance values are shown. Discounts accomplishments Blocks career goals Sets up target for failure Constantly Scrutinizes Utilizes resources needed by the victim
  • 36.
    • Comparison of Administrator Bullying Tactics
    The percentage values report the proportion of participants that responded positively to the characteristic. * Significance at the 0.05 level (1-tailed). 1-tailed significance values are shown. Blocks career goals
  • 37.
    • 76 faculty bullies were identified by gender
    • 50 administrator bullies were identified
    75% of the bullies observed are male Hypothesis 1: Gender is an indicator of the bully’s identity. 
  • 38.
    • 76 faculty bullies were identified by gender
    • 50 administrator bullies were identified
    25% of the bullies observed are female Hypothesis 1: Gender is an indicator of the bully’s identity. 
  • 39.
    • 76 faculty bullies were identified by gender
    • 50 administrator bullies were identified
    • When a female faculty member is the bully, the victim is significantly more often also female
    Hypothesis 2: Gender is an indicator of the victim’s identity.  42-46% of the victims observed are male
  • 40.
    • 74 faculty bullies were identified by age
    • 15 administrator bullies were identified
    Bullies are seen to be between 41-70
  • 41.
    • Bullies are seen to be between 41-70
    • Victims are seen to be between 31-50
    bullies victims
  • 42. Bullies are seen to be between 41-70 Victims are seen to be between 31-60 bullies victims
  • 43.
    • 118 bullies were identified by rank & role
    • 128 victims were identified
    • Increased likelihood of bullying tendencies with rank
    Increasing rank Increasing rank Hypothesis 3: Faculty rank has an impact on bullying tendencies. 
  • 44.
    • 118 bullies were identified by rank & role
    • 128 victims were identified
    • Decreased likelihood of victim tendencies with rank for faculty positions only
    Increasing rank Increasing rank
  • 45.
    • 34 faculty bullies of administrators
    • 34 administrator bullies of faculty
    Hypothesis 4: More administrators bully faculty than faculty bully administrators. 
  • 46.
    • THE BULLY’S BEHAVIOR
    • THE VICTIM’S PERSPECTIVE
    • Attempts to turn others against the victim
    • Blames victim for bully’s mistakes
    • Blocks career goals
    • Constantly scrutinizes
    • Criticizes in public
    • Cross examines victim
    • Discounts accomplishments
    • Erodes physical or mental health of victim
    • Schedules meetings that the victim cannot attend
    • Sets up target for failure
    • Spreads rumors/misperceptions
    • Tries to hide victim’s talent from others
    • Utilizes “Put downs”
    • Utilizes resources needed by the victim
    • Attempts to turn others against the victim
    • Blames victim for bully’s mistakes
    • Blocks career goals
    • Constantly scrutinizes
    • Criticizes in public
    • Cross examines victim
    • Discounts accomplishments
    • Erodes physical or mental health of victim
    • Schedules meetings that the victim cannot attend
    • Sets up target for failure
    • Spreads rumors/misperceptions
    • Tries to hide victim’s talent from others
    • Utilizes “Put downs”
    • Utilizes resources needed by the victim
    Faculty Faculty
  • 47.
    • THE BULLY’S BEHAVIOR
    • THE VICTIM’S PERSPECTIVE
    • Attempts to turn others against the victim
    • Blames victim for bully’s mistakes
    • Blocks career goals
    • Constantly scrutinizes
    • Criticizes in public
    • Cross examines victim
    • Discounts accomplishments
    • Erodes physical or mental health of victim
    • Schedules meetings that the victim cannot attend
    • Sets up target for failure
    • Spreads rumors/misperceptions
    • Tries to hide victim’s talent from others
    • Utilizes “Put downs”
    • Utilizes resources needed by the victim
    • Attempts to turn others against the victim
    • Blames victim for bully’s mistakes
    • Blocks career goals
    • Constantly scrutinizes
    • Criticizes in public
    • Cross examines victim
    • Discounts accomplishments
    • Erodes physical or mental health of victim
    • Schedules meetings that the victim cannot attend
    • Sets up target for failure
    • Spreads rumors/misperceptions
    • Tries to hide victim’s talent from others
    • Utilizes “Put downs”
    • Utilizes resources needed by the victim
    Administrator Administrator
  • 48.
    • THE FACULTY BULLY
    • THE ADMINISTRATOR BULLY
    • Attempts to turn others against the victim
    • Blames victim for bully’s mistakes
    • Blocks career goals
    • Constantly scrutinizes
    • Criticizes in public
    • Cross examines victim
    • Discounts accomplishments
    • Erodes physical or mental health of victim
    • Schedules meetings that the victim cannot attend
    • Sets up target for failure
    • Spreads rumors/misperceptions
    • Tries to hide victim’s talent from others
    • Utilizes “Put downs”
    • Utilizes resources needed by the victim
    • Attempts to turn others against the victim
    • Blames victim for bully’s mistakes
    • Blocks career goals
    • Constantly scrutinizes
    • Criticizes in public
    • Cross examines victim
    • Discounts accomplishments
    • Erodes physical or mental health of victim
    • Schedules meetings that the victim cannot attend
    • Sets up target for failure
    • Spreads rumors/misperceptions
    • Tries to hide victim’s talent from others
    • Utilizes “Put downs”
    • Utilizes resources needed by the victim
  • 49.
    • THE FACULTY VICTIM
    • THE ADMINISTRATOR VICTIM
    • Attempts to turn others against the victim
    • Blames victim for bully’s mistakes
    • Blocks career goals
    • Constantly scrutinizes
    • Criticizes in public
    • Cross examines victim
    • Discounts accomplishments
    • Erodes physical or mental health of victim
    • Schedules meetings that the victim cannot attend
    • Sets up target for failure
    • Spreads rumors/misperceptions
    • Tries to hide victim’s talent from others
    • Utilizes “Put downs”
    • Utilizes resources needed by the victim
    • Attempts to turn others against the victim
    • Blames victim for bully’s mistakes
    • Blocks career goals
    • Constantly scrutinizes
    • Criticizes in public
    • Cross examines victim
    • Discounts accomplishments
    • Erodes physical or mental health of victim
    • Schedules meetings that the victim cannot attend
    • Sets up target for failure
    • Spreads rumors/misperceptions
    • Tries to hide victim’s talent from others
    • Utilizes “Put downs”
    • Utilizes resources needed by the victim
  • 50.
    • CHARACTERISTICS OF THE VICTIM
    • CHARACTERISTICS OF THE BULLY
    • Age 31-50
    • Gender ---
    • Rank Jr. Faculty
    • Age 41-70
    • Gender Male
    • Rank Sr. Faculty
    • Frequency Monthly
    Faculty Faculty
  • 51.
    • CHARACTERISTICS OF THE VICTIM
    • CHARACTERISTICS OF THE BULLY
    • Age 31-50
    • Gender ---
    • Rank Jr. Faculty
    • Age 41-70
    • Gender Male
    • Rank Sr. Faculty
    • Frequency Monthly
    Faculty Characteristics of The Victim
    • Age 31-60
    • Gender ---
    • Rank ---
    Administrator Faculty Characteristics of The Bully
    • Age 41-70
    • Gender Male
    • Rank Administrator
    • Frequency ---
    Administrator
  • 52.
    • Small sample size (n=60)
    • Small-mid size NE & central colleges
    • Demographic respondent data
    • Limited topics
    • Internal instrument review
  • 53.
    • Topics
      • Small-mid size vs. large institutions
      • Public vs. private institutions
      • Individual vs. gang bullying
      • Correlation of bullying w/negative events
  • 54.
    • Research Methods
      • Qualitative case studies with victims
      • Phenomenological research with victims
      • Ethnographic research in the workplace
  • 55.
    • Multiple disciplines
      • Sociology
      • Psychology
      • Anthropology
      • Leadership

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