Computers Are Your Future Eleventh Edition <ul><li>Chapter 2: Inside the System Unit </li></ul>Copyright © 2011 Pearson Ed...
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any f...
Inside the System Unit Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
Objectives  <ul><li>Understand how computers represent data. </li></ul><ul><li>Understand the measurements used to describ...
Objectives  <ul><li>List the components found on the computer’s motherboard and explain their role in the functioning of t...
Objectives  <ul><li>List the various types of memory found in a computer system and explain the purpose of each. </li></ul...
How Computers  Represent Data <ul><li>Computers work with  binary numbers , which include only 0s and 1s. </li></ul><ul><l...
How Computers  Represent Data <ul><li>The common measurement of a modem’s data transfer rate is in bits per second, such a...
How Computers  Represent Data <ul><li>Because even small numbers require many digits when converted to binary, computers c...
How Computers  Represent Data <ul><li>Floating-point notation   </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Has no fixed number of digits before...
How Computers  Represent Data <ul><li>Characters  (letters, numbers, and symbols) are converted   into numbers the compute...
Introducing the System Unit <ul><li>The  system unit  is the case that contains the major hardware components of a compute...
Introducing the System Unit <ul><li>Some units have embedded biometric authentication devices. </li></ul><ul><li>System un...
Inside the System Unit Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
<ul><li>Motherboard </li></ul><ul><li>CPU </li></ul><ul><li>Power supply </li></ul><ul><li>Cooling fan </li></ul><ul><li>I...
Inside the System Unit Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
Inside the System Unit Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
<ul><li>The  motherboard  is the printed circuit board that contains the electrical circuitry for the computer. </li></ul>...
What’s on the Motherboard? <ul><li>The integrated circuit chip that processes electronic signals is called the  central pr...
What’s on the Motherboard? <ul><li>Each operation performed by the CPU is assigned a specific number, called an  instructi...
What’s on the Motherboard? <ul><li>The two main parts of the CPU are the control unit and the arithmetic logic unit. </li>...
What’s on the Motherboard? <ul><li>The control unit manages four operations: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fetch : Retrieves progr...
What’s on the Motherboard? Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
<ul><li>The  arithmetic logic unit   (ALU)  performs arithmetic and logical operations.  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Arithmetic ...
What’s on the Motherboard? Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall <ul><li>Factors that affec...
<ul><li>A  data bus  is the group of parallel wires that connect the CPU’s internal components. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Data...
What’s on the Motherboard? <ul><ul><li>The  system clock  is an electronic circuit that produces rapid pulses and coordina...
What’s on the Motherboard? <ul><ul><li>The number of operations per tick of the system clock affects microprocessor perfor...
What’s on the Motherboard? Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
What’s on the Motherboard? <ul><li>Parallel processing  is a method in which more than one processor performs at the same ...
<ul><li>The set of chips that collectively supply the switching circuitry the CPU requires to move data throughout the com...
<ul><li>Random access memory (RAM) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Temporarily stores data and instructions to be used by the centra...
What’s on the Motherboard? Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
<ul><li>Read-only memory (ROM) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Contains prerecorded instructions used to start the computer </li></u...
<ul><li>Cache memory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is a small unit of fast memory built into the processor to improve performance ...
What’s on the Motherboard? Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
What’s on the Outside  of the Box? <ul><li>The front panel includes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The  power switch ,   which is ...
What’s on the Outside  of the Box? <ul><ul><li>Other features on the outside of a system unit: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul>...
What’s on the Outside  of the Box? Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
What’s on the Outside  of the Box? <ul><li>Different devices use different connectors. </li></ul>Copyright © 2011 Pearson ...
What’s on the Outside  of the Box? <ul><li>Legacy technology  is older  technology that is being phased out. Examples are:...
Chapter Summary <ul><li>Computers work with binary numbers, which include only 0s and 1s. </li></ul><ul><li>The smallest p...
Chapter Summary <ul><li>Data transfer rates for communication devices (modems) are measured in bits per second. </li></ul>...
<ul><li>Other elements of the system unit include the power supply, cooling fan, internal speaker, drive bays, and expansi...
<ul><li>The CPU is made up of the control unit and the ALU. </li></ul><ul><li>The control unit manages the four-step machi...
<ul><li>Factors that influence the performance of the CPU include the data bus width, clock speed, pipelining, and paralle...
<ul><li>Main memory, RAM, is volatile. It temporarily holds programs, data, and instructions. </li></ul><ul><li>ROM, which...
<ul><li>Computers use ports, such as a USB port, to send and retrieve computer data. </li></ul><ul><li>Legacy ports includ...
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  • capitulo 2

    1. 1. Computers Are Your Future Eleventh Edition <ul><li>Chapter 2: Inside the System Unit </li></ul>Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
    2. 2. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher. Printed in the United States of America. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.   Publishing as Prentice Hall
    3. 3. Inside the System Unit Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
    4. 4. Objectives <ul><li>Understand how computers represent data. </li></ul><ul><li>Understand the measurements used to describe data transfer rates and data storage capacity. </li></ul><ul><li>List the components found inside the system unit and explain their use. </li></ul>Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
    5. 5. Objectives <ul><li>List the components found on the computer’s motherboard and explain their role in the functioning of the computer’s systems. </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss (in general terms) how a CPU processes data. </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the factors that determine a microprocessor’s performance. </li></ul>Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
    6. 6. Objectives <ul><li>List the various types of memory found in a computer system and explain the purpose of each. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the various physical connectors on the exterior of the system unit and explain their use. </li></ul>Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
    7. 7. How Computers Represent Data <ul><li>Computers work with binary numbers , which include only 0s and 1s. </li></ul><ul><li>The smallest piece of data a computer can work with is known as a bit . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A bit is either “on” or “off,” a 0 or a 1. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eight bits, a byte , signify a single unit of storage. </li></ul></ul>Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
    8. 8. How Computers Represent Data <ul><li>The common measurement of a modem’s data transfer rate is in bits per second, such as gigabits per second (Gbps). </li></ul><ul><li>The common measurement of data storage is in bytes, such as gigabytes (GB). </li></ul>Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
    9. 9. How Computers Represent Data <ul><li>Because even small numbers require many digits when converted to binary, computers convert binary numbers into hexadecimal (hex) numbers , which use the numbers 0 through 9, followed by letters A through F. </li></ul>Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
    10. 10. How Computers Represent Data <ul><li>Floating-point notation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Has no fixed number of digits before or after a decimal point </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enables a computer to work speedily with very large or small numbers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Requires special processing circuitry </li></ul></ul>Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
    11. 11. How Computers Represent Data <ul><li>Characters (letters, numbers, and symbols) are converted into numbers the computer understands. </li></ul><ul><li>Character code performs this conversion. </li></ul><ul><li>Three main types of character coding are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code (EBCDIC) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unicode </li></ul></ul>Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
    12. 12. Introducing the System Unit <ul><li>The system unit is the case that contains the major hardware components of a computer. </li></ul><ul><li>System units come in different styles and have varying footprints —the amount of space that the unit uses. </li></ul>Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
    13. 13. Introducing the System Unit <ul><li>Some units have embedded biometric authentication devices. </li></ul><ul><li>System units vary in their form factor , which specifies how the internal components are located within the system unit. </li></ul>Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
    14. 14. Inside the System Unit Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
    15. 15. <ul><li>Motherboard </li></ul><ul><li>CPU </li></ul><ul><li>Power supply </li></ul><ul><li>Cooling fan </li></ul><ul><li>Internal speaker </li></ul><ul><li>Drive bays </li></ul><ul><li>Expansion slots </li></ul>Inside the System Unit Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall <ul><li>System unit main components </li></ul>
    16. 16. Inside the System Unit Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
    17. 17. Inside the System Unit Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
    18. 18. <ul><li>The motherboard is the printed circuit board that contains the electrical circuitry for the computer. </li></ul><ul><li>The majority of parts found on the motherboard are integrated circuits. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An integrated circuit (or chip) includes millions of transistors and carries electrical current. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A transistor is a switch that is able to control the electrical signal flow to the circuit. </li></ul></ul>What’s on the Motherboard? Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
    19. 19. What’s on the Motherboard? <ul><li>The integrated circuit chip that processes electronic signals is called the central processing unit (CPU) . </li></ul><ul><li>The CPU is also known as a microprocessor or processor. </li></ul>Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
    20. 20. What’s on the Motherboard? <ul><li>Each operation performed by the CPU is assigned a specific number, called an instruction . </li></ul><ul><li>An instruction set is the list of CPU instructions for the operations that it performs. </li></ul>Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
    21. 21. What’s on the Motherboard? <ul><li>The two main parts of the CPU are the control unit and the arithmetic logic unit. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The control unit retrieves instructions from memory and interprets and performs those instructions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The control unit manages the machine cycle or processing cycle , the four-part process performed by the CPU. </li></ul></ul>Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
    22. 22. What’s on the Motherboard? <ul><li>The control unit manages four operations: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fetch : Retrieves program instructions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decode : Determines what the program is telling the computer to do </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Execute : Performs the requested action </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Store : Stores the results to an internal register </li></ul></ul>Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
    23. 23. What’s on the Motherboard? Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
    24. 24. <ul><li>The arithmetic logic unit (ALU) performs arithmetic and logical operations. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Arithmetic operations involve adding, subtracting, multiplying, and dividing. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Logical operations involve comparisons between two or more data items. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Registers store data when it must be temporarily stored in the CPU. </li></ul>What’s on the Motherboard? Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
    25. 25. What’s on the Motherboard? Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall <ul><li>Factors that affect the performance of a CPU include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The number of existing transistors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data bus width and word size </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clock speed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Operations per microprocessor cycle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of parallel processing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Type of chip </li></ul></ul>
    26. 26. <ul><li>A data bus is the group of parallel wires that connect the CPU’s internal components. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Data bus width is measured in bits. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The maximum number of bits the CPU can process at once is called the word size . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Word size determines which operating systems and software a CPU can run. </li></ul></ul>What’s on the Motherboard? Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
    27. 27. What’s on the Motherboard? <ul><ul><li>The system clock is an electronic circuit that produces rapid pulses and coordinates the computer’s internal activities. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Clock speed is the measurement of the electrical pulses generated by the system clock and is usually measured in gigahertz (GHz). </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In general, the higher the clock speed, the faster the computer. </li></ul></ul></ul>Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
    28. 28. What’s on the Motherboard? <ul><ul><li>The number of operations per tick of the system clock affects microprocessor performance. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Superscalar architecture enables the CPU to perform more than one instruction for each clock cycle. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pipelining enables the CPU to process more than one instruction at a time, which improves CPU performance. </li></ul></ul></ul>Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
    29. 29. What’s on the Motherboard? Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
    30. 30. What’s on the Motherboard? <ul><li>Parallel processing is a method in which more than one processor performs at the same time, resulting in faster processing. </li></ul>Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
    31. 31. <ul><li>The set of chips that collectively supply the switching circuitry the CPU requires to move data throughout the computer is called the chipset . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The CPU and the input/output bus are linked through the chipset. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The input/output (I/O) bus provides a means to communicate with input and output devices. </li></ul></ul>What’s on the Motherboard? Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
    32. 32. <ul><li>Random access memory (RAM) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Temporarily stores data and instructions to be used by the central processing unit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is considered volatile because its contents are erased when the computer is shut off </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Permits the CPU to access or store data and instructions quickly through RAM’s memory address feature, which is a way to identify and locate stored data </li></ul></ul>What’s on the Motherboard? Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
    33. 33. What’s on the Motherboard? Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
    34. 34. <ul><li>Read-only memory (ROM) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Contains prerecorded instructions used to start the computer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is considered nonvolatile because its contents are are stored when CPU power is turned off </li></ul></ul>What’s on the Motherboard? Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
    35. 35. <ul><li>Cache memory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is a small unit of fast memory built into the processor to improve performance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is more expensive than RAM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Comes in two types: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Primary cache , found in the microprocessor chip </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Secondary cache , located on the circuit board </li></ul></ul></ul>What’s on the Motherboard? Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
    36. 36. What’s on the Motherboard? Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
    37. 37. What’s on the Outside of the Box? <ul><li>The front panel includes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The power switch , which is used to turn the computer on </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The drive activity light , which advises the user that the hard drive is retrieving data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The power-on light , which shows whether or not the power is on </li></ul></ul>Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
    38. 38. What’s on the Outside of the Box? <ul><ul><li>Other features on the outside of a system unit: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A port is an interface used to send data into and retrieve data from the computer. An example is a USB port. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A connector is a physical receptacle where the user can plug a peripheral device into the computer. An example is a telephone jack. </li></ul></ul></ul>Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
    39. 39. What’s on the Outside of the Box? Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
    40. 40. What’s on the Outside of the Box? <ul><li>Different devices use different connectors. </li></ul>Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
    41. 41. What’s on the Outside of the Box? <ul><li>Legacy technology is older technology that is being phased out. Examples are: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Parallel ports </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Serial ports </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>SCSI (small computer system interface) ports </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>PS/2 ports </li></ul></ul></ul>Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
    42. 42. Chapter Summary <ul><li>Computers work with binary numbers, which include only 0s and 1s. </li></ul><ul><li>The smallest piece of data a computer can work with is known as a bit; eight bits equal a byte. Bytes are used to represent a character. </li></ul>Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
    43. 43. Chapter Summary <ul><li>Data transfer rates for communication devices (modems) are measured in bits per second. </li></ul><ul><li>Data storage is measured in bytes. </li></ul><ul><li>The system unit’s main circuit board is the motherboard, to which the processor, memory, circuits, and other computer components are connected. </li></ul>Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
    44. 44. <ul><li>Other elements of the system unit include the power supply, cooling fan, internal speaker, drive bays, and expansion cards. </li></ul>Chapter Summary Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
    45. 45. <ul><li>The CPU is made up of the control unit and the ALU. </li></ul><ul><li>The control unit manages the four-step machine cycle: fetch, decode, execute, and store. </li></ul><ul><li>The ALU performs calculations and logical operations. </li></ul>Chapter Summary Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
    46. 46. <ul><li>Factors that influence the performance of the CPU include the data bus width, clock speed, pipelining, and parallel processing. </li></ul>Chapter Summary Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
    47. 47. <ul><li>Main memory, RAM, is volatile. It temporarily holds programs, data, and instructions. </li></ul><ul><li>ROM, which is nonvolatile, contains prerecorded computer start-up instructions. </li></ul><ul><li>Cache memory is additional CPU memory that operates at very fast speeds. </li></ul>Chapter Summary Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
    48. 48. <ul><li>Computers use ports, such as a USB port, to send and retrieve computer data. </li></ul><ul><li>Legacy ports include serial ports, parallel ports, PS/2 ports, and SCSI ports. </li></ul>Chapter Summary Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

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