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Teaching And Learning From Texts Vacca Ch1
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Teaching And Learning From Texts Vacca Ch1


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Using trade books to teach content; compares textbooks and tradebooks,

Using trade books to teach content; compares textbooks and tradebooks,

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  • 1. Dr. Mahoney Resources from Vacca and Vacca
  • 2. Reading matters
    • Using reading to learn is what content reading is about
    • How to learn not often taught
    • Students don’t read; teachers revert to lecture
  • 3. Posing questions
    • 1. Why does “assigning and telling” stifle active learning and deny students responsibility?
    • 2. How are literacy and learning related?
    • 3. What is content literacy?
    • 4. How does diversity affect classroom interactions?
    • 5. How can students ‘think with text?’
    • 6. What is ‘reader response’ and ‘schema theory,’ and how does it influence comprehension and learning?
  • 4. Teachers, Students and Text
    • Emphasis on content knowledge; more difficult to teach than to know
    • Textbooks are the main teaching tools
    • Views of texts - Canons, authoritative sources of knowledge
    • Shift from teaching ‘from’ text to teaching ‘with’ text
      • Implies readers bring contributions
  • 5. Beyond Assigning and Telling
    • Traditional teaching – recitation – assign, question, evaluate response
    • Teacher is active participant; students passive
    • Teacher assigns – students didn’t read – teacher imparts content
    • Your text stuggests burden of learn should shift from teacher to students
  • 6. Today’s students
    • Diverse students struggle with learning from texts
      • Little support for struggling students
      • May be placed in ‘slower’ classes with watered down content
      • Linguistic variations influence literacy learning
      • Difference perceived as deficit
        • Successful teachers allow use of dialect rather than continually correcting
        • In Language Arts classes, students study standard English
  • 7. Challenges in using texts
    • Heavy concept load; heavy vocabulary load – challenge for non-standard English speakers and ELL students
    • Failure to read on grade level
    • Alienated from school
    • “ Hideout” in classrooms – avoid reading, avoid eye contact with teacher, disrupt when asked content questions, forget to bring textbook, seek help from friends – perpetuates cycle of failure; lack knowledge of strategies
  • 8. Effective readers
    • Know how to approach the text
    • Make plans for reading
    • Locate and summarize main ideas
    • Organize content
    • Know how to ‘get out of jams’ when reading
  • 9. Ineffective or struggling readers
    • Lack knowledge of control of strategies
    • Lack knowledge of when to use specific strategies
    • Fail to identify purpose for reading and writing
    • Remain passive and disengaged
    • Sense of helplessness and poor self-image
    • Lack confidence in ability to discern meaning
  • 10. Content literacy
    • The ability to use reading and writing to learn subject matter
    • Literacy – the ability to read and write a language
    • Functional literacy – literacy needed to survive in society
    • Illiteracy – inability to read and write
    • Aliteracy – choosing not to read and write
    • Literacy is situational – workplace literacy, family literacy, etc
  • 11. To be literate in content classrooms
    • 1. Students must use reading and writing to explore and construct meaning from texts, other learners, and teachers
    • Teachers must help students use reading and writing as learning tools, to think about content.
      • Reading – thinking with printed symbols
      • Think to discover, organize, retrieve, elaborate on information and ideas
  • 12. Thinking with text
    • Reading – a conversation between text and reader; the mind is questioning (cognitive questioning), dialoguing with the author
    • Theories about the reading process
      • Reader Response Theory
      • Schema Theory
  • 13. Reader Response Theory
    • Rosenblatt – thought and feeling components of literacy interpretation – text demands affective interpretation
    • Instructional implication – create active learning environment in which students respond personally an critically to what is read
    • Stances – efferent, aesthetic, critical – readers shift between these stances as they read
    • Instructional implications – use of journals in which students record responses to text
  • 14. Reader Response Questions
    • 1. What aspect of the text interested you the most?
    • 2. What are your feelings and attitudes about this aspect of the text?
    • 3. What experiences have you had that help others understand why you feel the way you do?
    • Responses help readers make personal connections to the text.
  • 15. Schema Theory
    • Schema – technical term to describe how people organize and store information in the mind
    • Schema activation – mechanism for accessing knowledge and matching to text information
  • 16. How schemata influence learning
    • 1. Provide a framework for seeking and selecting relevant information
    • 2. Help organize text information – integrate new information with old, facilitates retention and recall; poorly organized text makes this difficult
    • 3. Help readers elaborate information – make judgments, evaluate, gain insight
  • 17. Teacher’s role – Instructional Scaffolding
    • Provide “necessary support”
      • Understand the gaps between learners prior knowledge and the assumptions texts make about students’ knowledge
      • Provide organizational strategies
      • Planning active learning environments