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Teaching And Learning From Texts Vacca Ch1
 

Teaching And Learning From Texts Vacca Ch1

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Using trade books to teach content; compares textbooks and tradebooks,

Using trade books to teach content; compares textbooks and tradebooks,

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    Teaching And Learning From Texts Vacca Ch1 Teaching And Learning From Texts Vacca Ch1 Presentation Transcript

    • Dr. Mahoney Resources from Vacca and Vacca
    • Reading matters
      • Using reading to learn is what content reading is about
      • How to learn not often taught
      • Students don’t read; teachers revert to lecture
    • Posing questions
      • 1. Why does “assigning and telling” stifle active learning and deny students responsibility?
      • 2. How are literacy and learning related?
      • 3. What is content literacy?
      • 4. How does diversity affect classroom interactions?
      • 5. How can students ‘think with text?’
      • 6. What is ‘reader response’ and ‘schema theory,’ and how does it influence comprehension and learning?
    • Teachers, Students and Text
      • Emphasis on content knowledge; more difficult to teach than to know
      • Textbooks are the main teaching tools
      • Views of texts - Canons, authoritative sources of knowledge
      • Shift from teaching ‘from’ text to teaching ‘with’ text
        • Implies readers bring contributions
    • Beyond Assigning and Telling
      • Traditional teaching – recitation – assign, question, evaluate response
      • Teacher is active participant; students passive
      • Teacher assigns – students didn’t read – teacher imparts content
      • Your text stuggests burden of learn should shift from teacher to students
    • Today’s students
      • Diverse students struggle with learning from texts
        • Little support for struggling students
        • May be placed in ‘slower’ classes with watered down content
        • Linguistic variations influence literacy learning
        • Difference perceived as deficit
          • Successful teachers allow use of dialect rather than continually correcting
          • In Language Arts classes, students study standard English
    • Challenges in using texts
      • Heavy concept load; heavy vocabulary load – challenge for non-standard English speakers and ELL students
      • Failure to read on grade level
      • Alienated from school
      • “ Hideout” in classrooms – avoid reading, avoid eye contact with teacher, disrupt when asked content questions, forget to bring textbook, seek help from friends – perpetuates cycle of failure; lack knowledge of strategies
    • Effective readers
      • Know how to approach the text
      • Make plans for reading
      • Locate and summarize main ideas
      • Organize content
      • Know how to ‘get out of jams’ when reading
    • Ineffective or struggling readers
      • Lack knowledge of control of strategies
      • Lack knowledge of when to use specific strategies
      • Fail to identify purpose for reading and writing
      • Remain passive and disengaged
      • Sense of helplessness and poor self-image
      • Lack confidence in ability to discern meaning
    • Content literacy
      • The ability to use reading and writing to learn subject matter
      • Literacy – the ability to read and write a language
      • Functional literacy – literacy needed to survive in society
      • Illiteracy – inability to read and write
      • Aliteracy – choosing not to read and write
      • Literacy is situational – workplace literacy, family literacy, etc
    • To be literate in content classrooms
      • 1. Students must use reading and writing to explore and construct meaning from texts, other learners, and teachers
      • Teachers must help students use reading and writing as learning tools, to think about content.
        • Reading – thinking with printed symbols
        • Think to discover, organize, retrieve, elaborate on information and ideas
    • Thinking with text
      • Reading – a conversation between text and reader; the mind is questioning (cognitive questioning), dialoguing with the author
      • Theories about the reading process
        • Reader Response Theory
        • Schema Theory
    • Reader Response Theory
      • Rosenblatt – thought and feeling components of literacy interpretation – text demands affective interpretation
      • Instructional implication – create active learning environment in which students respond personally an critically to what is read
      • Stances – efferent, aesthetic, critical – readers shift between these stances as they read
      • Instructional implications – use of journals in which students record responses to text
    • Reader Response Questions
      • 1. What aspect of the text interested you the most?
      • 2. What are your feelings and attitudes about this aspect of the text?
      • 3. What experiences have you had that help others understand why you feel the way you do?
      • Responses help readers make personal connections to the text.
    • Schema Theory
      • Schema – technical term to describe how people organize and store information in the mind
      • Schema activation – mechanism for accessing knowledge and matching to text information
    • How schemata influence learning
      • 1. Provide a framework for seeking and selecting relevant information
      • 2. Help organize text information – integrate new information with old, facilitates retention and recall; poorly organized text makes this difficult
      • 3. Help readers elaborate information – make judgments, evaluate, gain insight
    • Teacher’s role – Instructional Scaffolding
      • Provide “necessary support”
        • Understand the gaps between learners prior knowledge and the assumptions texts make about students’ knowledge
        • Provide organizational strategies
        • Planning active learning environments