Nursing - 7Glycogen metabolism                      1
Glycogen metabolismFunction of glycogenGlycogen is the storage form of carbohydrates in thehuman body. The major sites of...
 After taking food, blood sugar tends to rise,  which causes glycogen deposition in liver.  About 5 hours after taking fo...
Glycogen metabolism includes:Glycogenolysis.Glycogenesis.                                4
GlycogenolysisIt is intracellular breakdown of glycogen to formG-1-P which is converted to G-6-P.Site and steps:Its main s...
1- Glycogen phosphorylase: The enzyme glycogen phosphorylase  removes glucose units one at a time from the  non-reducing ...
7
2- Debranching needs two enzymes With the help of glucan transferase and  debranching enzyme (alpha-1,6-  glucosidase), t...
9
3- Phosphoglucomutase: Phosphorylation reaction produces glucose-  1-phosphate while debrancher enzyme  releases glucose....
4- Glucose-6-phosphatase in liver Next, hepatic glucose-6-phosphatase  hydrolyzed glucose-6-phosphate to  glucose. The p...
5- Muscle lacks Glucose-6-phosphatase: But muscle will not release glucose to the blood  stream, because muscle tissue do...
Glycogenesis The glycogen synthesis occurs by a pathway distinctly  different from the reversal of glycogen breakdown. I...
1- Activation of Glucose: UDP glucose is formed from glucose-1-phosphate and UTP (uridine triphosphate) by the catalytic ...
2- Glycogen synthase: In the next step, activated glucose units are  sequentially added by the enzyme glycogen  synthase....
 The glucose unit is added to the nonreducing (outer) end of the glycogen to form an alpha- 1,4-glycosidic linkage and UD...
3- Brancher enzyme A branching enzyme is needed to create  the alpha-1,6 linkages. To this newly created branch, further...
18
Regulation The key enzyme for glycogenolysis is  phosphorylase, which is activated by  glucagon and adrenaline, under the...
Glycogen storage diseases These are inborn-errors of metabolism; the word is coined by Garrod in 1908.Glycogen Storage Di...
 Incidence is 1 in 100,000 live births. Glucose-6-phosphatase is deficient. Fasting hypoglycemia that does not respond ...
Hexose Monophosphate pathway (HMP) or pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) or pentose pathway (shunt )                        ...
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Lec 7 level 3-nu (carbohydrate metabolism iii)

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Lec 7 level 3-nu (carbohydrate metabolism iii)

  1. 1. Nursing - 7Glycogen metabolism 1
  2. 2. Glycogen metabolismFunction of glycogenGlycogen is the storage form of carbohydrates in thehuman body. The major sites of storage are liver and muscle.1. The major function of liver glycogen is to provideglucose during starvation. When blood glucose level lowers, liver glycogen is broken down and helps to maintain blood glucose level.2. The function of muscle glycogen is to act as reservefuel for muscle contraction. Muscle glycogen is depleted after prolonged exercise. 2
  3. 3.  After taking food, blood sugar tends to rise, which causes glycogen deposition in liver. About 5 hours after taking food, the blood sugar tends to fall. But, glycogen is lyzed to glucose so that the energy needs are met. After about 18 hours fasting, most of the liver glycogen is depleted, when depot fats are hydrolyzed and energy requirement is met by fatty acid oxidation. 3
  4. 4. Glycogen metabolism includes:Glycogenolysis.Glycogenesis. 4
  5. 5. GlycogenolysisIt is intracellular breakdown of glycogen to formG-1-P which is converted to G-6-P.Site and steps:Its main site is the cytosol of liver and muscles.It is catalyzed by: glycogen phosphorylase and two other enzymes. 5
  6. 6. 1- Glycogen phosphorylase: The enzyme glycogen phosphorylase removes glucose units one at a time from the non-reducing end of the glycogen molecule. The product is glucose-1-phosphate. Phosphorylase sequentially attacks alpha-1,4 glycosidic linkages, till it reaches a branch point. It cannot attack the 1,6 linkage at branch point. 6
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  8. 8. 2- Debranching needs two enzymes With the help of glucan transferase and debranching enzyme (alpha-1,6- glucosidase), the branching point is also hydrolysed. This glucose residue is released as free glucose. With the removal of branch, phosphorylase enzyme can now proceed with its action. 8
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  10. 10. 3- Phosphoglucomutase: Phosphorylation reaction produces glucose- 1-phosphate while debrancher enzyme releases glucose. The glucose-1-phosphate is converted to glucose-6-phosphate by phosphglucomutase. 10
  11. 11. 4- Glucose-6-phosphatase in liver Next, hepatic glucose-6-phosphatase hydrolyzed glucose-6-phosphate to glucose. The product of hepatic glycogenolysis is free glucose. The product of hepatic glycogenolysis is free glucose, which is released to the blood stream. 11
  12. 12. 5- Muscle lacks Glucose-6-phosphatase: But muscle will not release glucose to the blood stream, because muscle tissue doesnot contain the Glucose-6-phosphatase. The energy yield from one glucose residue derived from glycogen is 3 ATP molecules, because no ATP is required for initial phosphorylation of glucose (step 1 of glycolysis). If glycolysis starts from free glucose only 2 ATPs are produced. 12
  13. 13. Glycogenesis The glycogen synthesis occurs by a pathway distinctly different from the reversal of glycogen breakdown. It is the intracellular synthesis of glycogen from glucose.Site and steps: The main site is the cytosol of liver and muscle cells. In the liver it forms 8-10% of its wet weight and in muscle it forms 1-2% of its wet weight. Most other cells may store minute amounts. 13
  14. 14. 1- Activation of Glucose: UDP glucose is formed from glucose-1-phosphate and UTP (uridine triphosphate) by the catalytic activity of UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase. UDP-glucose- pyrophosphorylase Glucose-1- -------------------------------→ UDP-glucosePhosphate + + UTP PPi 14
  15. 15. 2- Glycogen synthase: In the next step, activated glucose units are sequentially added by the enzyme glycogen synthase. The glucose unit from UDP-glucose is transferred to a glycogen primer molecule. Glycogen primer (n)----------→ Glycogen (n+1) + + UDP-glucose UDP 15
  16. 16.  The glucose unit is added to the nonreducing (outer) end of the glycogen to form an alpha- 1,4-glycosidic linkage and UDP is liberated. The primer is essential as the acceptor of the glycosyl unit. The glycogen primer is formed by glycosylation of glycogenin (a dimeric protein). This molecule acts as the glycogen primer to which glucose units are added by glycogen synthase. 16
  17. 17. 3- Brancher enzyme A branching enzyme is needed to create the alpha-1,6 linkages. To this newly created branch, further glucose units can be added in alpha-1,4 linkage by glycogen synthase. Branching makes the molecule more globular. 17
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  19. 19. Regulation The key enzyme for glycogenolysis is phosphorylase, which is activated by glucagon and adrenaline, under the stimulus of hypoglycemia. The key enzyme for glycogen synthesis is glycogen synthase, the activity of which is decreased by adrenaline but is enhanced by insulin, under the stimulus of hyperglycemia. 19
  20. 20. Glycogen storage diseases These are inborn-errors of metabolism; the word is coined by Garrod in 1908.Glycogen Storage Disease Type-I: It is also called Von Gierke’s disease. Most common type of glycogen storage disease is type I. 20
  21. 21.  Incidence is 1 in 100,000 live births. Glucose-6-phosphatase is deficient. Fasting hypoglycemia that does not respond to stimulation by adrenaline. The glucose cannot be released from the liver during over night fasting. Hyperlipidemia, lactic acidosis and ketosis. Glycogen gets deposited in liver. Massive liver enlargement may lead to cirrhosis. Children usually die in early childhood. Treatment is to give small quantity of food at frequent intervals. 21
  22. 22. Hexose Monophosphate pathway (HMP) or pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) or pentose pathway (shunt ) 22
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