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Lec 4  level 3-de (enzymes, coenzymes, cofactors)
Lec 4  level 3-de (enzymes, coenzymes, cofactors)
Lec 4  level 3-de (enzymes, coenzymes, cofactors)
Lec 4  level 3-de (enzymes, coenzymes, cofactors)
Lec 4  level 3-de (enzymes, coenzymes, cofactors)
Lec 4  level 3-de (enzymes, coenzymes, cofactors)
Lec 4  level 3-de (enzymes, coenzymes, cofactors)
Lec 4  level 3-de (enzymes, coenzymes, cofactors)
Lec 4  level 3-de (enzymes, coenzymes, cofactors)
Lec 4  level 3-de (enzymes, coenzymes, cofactors)
Lec 4  level 3-de (enzymes, coenzymes, cofactors)
Lec 4  level 3-de (enzymes, coenzymes, cofactors)
Lec 4  level 3-de (enzymes, coenzymes, cofactors)
Lec 4  level 3-de (enzymes, coenzymes, cofactors)
Lec 4  level 3-de (enzymes, coenzymes, cofactors)
Lec 4  level 3-de (enzymes, coenzymes, cofactors)
Lec 4  level 3-de (enzymes, coenzymes, cofactors)
Lec 4  level 3-de (enzymes, coenzymes, cofactors)
Lec 4  level 3-de (enzymes, coenzymes, cofactors)
Lec 4  level 3-de (enzymes, coenzymes, cofactors)
Lec 4  level 3-de (enzymes, coenzymes, cofactors)
Lec 4  level 3-de (enzymes, coenzymes, cofactors)
Lec 4  level 3-de (enzymes, coenzymes, cofactors)
Lec 4  level 3-de (enzymes, coenzymes, cofactors)
Lec 4  level 3-de (enzymes, coenzymes, cofactors)
Lec 4  level 3-de (enzymes, coenzymes, cofactors)
Lec 4  level 3-de (enzymes, coenzymes, cofactors)
Lec 4  level 3-de (enzymes, coenzymes, cofactors)
Lec 4  level 3-de (enzymes, coenzymes, cofactors)
Lec 4  level 3-de (enzymes, coenzymes, cofactors)
Lec 4  level 3-de (enzymes, coenzymes, cofactors)
Lec 4  level 3-de (enzymes, coenzymes, cofactors)
Lec 4  level 3-de (enzymes, coenzymes, cofactors)
Lec 4  level 3-de (enzymes, coenzymes, cofactors)
Lec 4  level 3-de (enzymes, coenzymes, cofactors)
Lec 4  level 3-de (enzymes, coenzymes, cofactors)
Lec 4  level 3-de (enzymes, coenzymes, cofactors)
Lec 4  level 3-de (enzymes, coenzymes, cofactors)
Lec 4  level 3-de (enzymes, coenzymes, cofactors)
Lec 4  level 3-de (enzymes, coenzymes, cofactors)
Lec 4  level 3-de (enzymes, coenzymes, cofactors)
Lec 4  level 3-de (enzymes, coenzymes, cofactors)
Lec 4  level 3-de (enzymes, coenzymes, cofactors)
Lec 4  level 3-de (enzymes, coenzymes, cofactors)
Lec 4  level 3-de (enzymes, coenzymes, cofactors)
Lec 4  level 3-de (enzymes, coenzymes, cofactors)
Lec 4  level 3-de (enzymes, coenzymes, cofactors)
Lec 4  level 3-de (enzymes, coenzymes, cofactors)
Lec 4  level 3-de (enzymes, coenzymes, cofactors)
Lec 4  level 3-de (enzymes, coenzymes, cofactors)
Lec 4  level 3-de (enzymes, coenzymes, cofactors)
Lec 4  level 3-de (enzymes, coenzymes, cofactors)
Lec 4  level 3-de (enzymes, coenzymes, cofactors)
Lec 4  level 3-de (enzymes, coenzymes, cofactors)
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Lec 4 level 3-de (enzymes, coenzymes, cofactors)

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  • 1. Dental Biochemistry 1- (4) Enzymes, coenzymes, cofactors1
  • 2. Enzymes• Almost all enzymes are proteins.• Enzymes follow the physical and chemical reactions of proteins.• They are heat labile, soluble in water, precipitated by protein precipitating reagents (ammonium sulfate or trichloroacetic acid) and contain 16% weight as nitrogen.2
  • 3. Enzymes are biocatalysts• Catalysts are substances which accelerate the rate of chemical reactions, but do not change the equilibrium.• Lack of enzymes will lead to block in metabolic pathways causing inborn errors of metabolism.• The substance upon which an enzyme acts, is called the substrate.• The enzyme will convert the substrate into the product or products. 3
  • 4. Nomenclature of enzymes• Early workers gave whimsical names such as Pepsin, Trypsin, Chymotrypsin, ….etc.• Later workers gave the trivial names for some enzymes named by adding the suffix "ase" to the substrate, as example, enzyme Lactase acts on the substrate lactose.• But there may be more than one enzyme acting on the same substrate. 4
  • 5. Classification of enzymesAccording to its function• Class 1. Oxidoreductase:Transfer of hydrogen, e.g. alcohol dehydrogenase.• Class 2. Transferase:Transfer of groups other than hydrogen. e.g. hexokinase).• Class 3. Hydrolases:Cleave bond; adds water, e.g. acetyl choline esterase. 5
  • 6. • Class 4. Lyases:Cleave without adding water, e.g. aldolase.• Class 5. Isomerases:Intramolecular transfers. Example, triose phosphate isomerase.• Class 6. Ligases:ATP dependent condensation of two molecules, e.g. acetyl CoA carboxylase. 6
  • 7. Holoenzymes• Some enzymes require molecules other than proteins for enzymatic activity.• The term holoenzyme refers to the active enzyme with its nonprotein component.• The term apoenzyme is inactive enzyme without its nonprotein part.• If the nonprotein part is a metal ion such as Zn 2+ or Fe2+, it is called a cofactor.• If it is a small organic molecule, it is termed a coenzyme. 7
  • 8. 8
  • 9. • Coenzymes that only transiently associate with the enzyme are called co-substrates. It acts by donating or accepting hydrogen atoms or electrons (NAD+, NADP, FAD and FMN).• Or transferring groups other than hydrogen.• If the coenzyme is permanently associated with the enzyme and returned to its original form, it is called a prosthetic group as FAD.• Coenzymes frequently are derived from vitamins.Example, NAD+ contains niacin, FAD containsriboflavin.• Also ATP is an example of coenzyme. 9
  • 10. Salient features of coenzymes:• Coenzymes are heat stable. They are low-molecular weight substances.• The coenzymes combine loosely with the enzyme molecules and so, the coenzyme can be separated easily by dialysis.• When the reaction is completed, the coenzyme is released from the apo-enzyme, and goes to some other reaction site. 10
  • 11. Function of coenzyme• The coenzyme is essential for the biological activity of the enzyme.• A coenzyme is a low molecular weight organic substance, without which the enzyme cannot exhibit any reaction.• One molecule of the coenzyme is able to convert a large number of substrate molecules with the help of enzyme.11
  • 12. Nicotinamide Adenine Dincleotide (NAD+)• This is a coenzyme synthesized from Nicotinamide, a member of vitamin B complex.• The structure of NAD+ could be written as: Nicotinamide-Ribose-P-P-Ribose-Adenine• The reversible reaction of lactate to pyruvate is catalyzed by the enzyme lactate dehydrogenase, but the actual transfer of hydrogen is taking place on the coenzyme, NAD+. 12
  • 13. COO- COO- I Lactate dehydrogenase I CHOH ←-----------------------------------→ C=O I NAD+ → NADH I CH3 CH3Lactate Pyruvate 13
  • 14. Adinosine triphosphate (ATP):• ATP is considered to be the energy currency in the body.• During the oxidation of food stuffs, energy is released, a part of which is stored as chemical energy in the form of ATP.• In the ATP molecule, the second and third phosphate bonds are high energy bonds.• For example; Hexokinase Glucose --------------------------------→ Glucose-6- phosphate ATP → ADP 14
  • 15. Mode of action of enzymes• There are few theories explaining the mechanism of action of enzymes1- Lowering of activation energy• Presence of enzyme in the reaction decrease the activation energy which is defined as the energy required to convert all molecules in one mole of a reacting substance from the ground state to the transition state. 15
  • 16. 16
  • 17. 2- Michaelis-Menten theory• This also called enzyme-substrate complex theory.• The enzyme (E) combines with the substrate (S), to form an enzyme-substrate (ES) complex, which immediately breaks down to the enzyme and the product (P).• E+S → E-S complex → E+P 17
  • 18. 18
  • 19. 3- Fischers Template theory:• The explanation is that substrate fits on the enzyme, similar to lock and key. The key will fit only to its own lock.4- Koshlands induced fit theory• substrate binds to a specific part of the enzyme, this lead to conformational changes. 19
  • 20. 20
  • 21. Active site or active center• It is the area of the enzyme where catalysis occurs (i.e. the reaction occur).• The active site occupies only a small portion of the whole enzyme.• Generally active site is situated in a crevice or cleft of the enzyme molecule.• The amino acids or groups that directly participate in making or breaking the bonds (present at the active site) are called catalytic residues or catalytic groups. As example Proteolytic enzymes having a serine residue at the active center called serine proteases. 21
  • 22. • The specific substrate bound to the active site.• During binding, the catalytic group orient itself to promote exact fitting of substrate to the active site. 22
  • 23. 23
  • 24. Thermodynamics:• From the standpoint of energy, the enzymatic reactions are divided into three types:1- Exergonic or Exothermic reaction• In this reaction energy is released when the reaction essentially goes to completion. This reaction is generally irreversible.• e.g. Urease enzyme Urea → ammonia + CO2 + energy• At equilibrium of this reaction, the substrate will be only 0.5% and product will be 99.5%. 24
  • 25. 2- Isothermic reaction:• In this reaction, the exchange of energy is negligible and the reaction is easily reversible.• e.g. Glycogen +Pi → Glucose-1-phosphate• At equilibrium of this reaction, 77% glycogen will be unutilized and 23% glucose-1-phosphate will be formed. 25
  • 26. 3- Endergonic or Endothermic reaction• Energy is consumed and external energy is to be supplied for these reactions. In the body this is usually accomplished by coupling the endergonic reaction with an exergonic reaction.• e.g. Hexokinase reaction Glucose + ATP → Glucose-6-Phosphate + ADP26
  • 27. Factors influencing enzyme activity1- Enzyme concentration:• Velocity of reaction is increased proportionately with the concentration of enzyme, when substrate concentration is unlimited.2- Substrate concentration:• As substrate concentration is increased, the velocity is also correspondingly increased in the initial phases; but the curve flattens afterwards. The maximum velocity thus obtained is called Vmax.3- Effect of concentration of products:• When product concentration is increased, the reaction is slowed, stopped or even reversed. 27
  • 28. 4- Effect of temperature:• The velocity of enzyme reaction increases when temperature of the medium is increased; reaches a maximum and then falls.• As temperature is increased, more molecules get activation energy, or molecules are at increased rate of motion. So their collision probabilities are increased and so the reaction velocity is enhanced.• But when temperature is more than 50°C, heat denaturation and consequent loss of tertiary structure of protein occurs. So activity of the enzyme decreased.• Most human enzymes have the optimum temperature around 37°C. Certain bacteria living in hot springs will have enzymes with optimum temperature near 100°C. 28
  • 29. 5- Effect of pH:• Each enzyme has an optimum pH, on both sides of which the velocity will be drastically reduced.• Usually enzymes have the optimum pH between 6 and 8.• Some important exceptions are Pepsin (with optimum pH 1-2), alkaline phosphatase (optimum pH 9-10) and acid phosphatase (4-5). 29
  • 30. Enzyme activationEnzymes activated by different methods as:• Presence of certain metallic ions, e.g. calcium activate lipase.• Conversion of an inactive proenzyme or zymogen to the active enzyme. E.g. splitting of a single peptide bond and removal of a small polypeptide from trypsinogen, the active trypsin is formed.• Covalent modification, in which activation of enzyme occur by adding or removing groups (breaking or making covalent bonds). 30
  • 31. Enzyme inhibitionAll the reactions in the body areappropriately controlled. Control ofthe whole pathway is achieved byinhibition of such key enzymes orregulatory enzymes.31
  • 32. 1- Competitive inhibition:• In this type, the inhibitor will be a structural analog of the substrate. There will be similarity in three- dimensional structure between substrate (S) and inhibitor (I).• The inhibitor molecules are competing with the normal substrate molecules for attaching with the active site of the enzyme.• E + S → E-S → E + P• E + I → E-I 32
  • 33. • Since E-I (enzyme-inhibitor complex) can react only to reform the enzyme and inhibitor, the number of enzyme molecules available for E-S formation is reduced.• Competitive inhibition is usually reversible. Excess substrate abolishes the inhibition. If substrate concentration is enormously high when compared to inhibitor, then the inhibition is reversed.• For example, the succinate dehydrogenase reaction is inhibited by malonate, which are structural analogs of succinate. 33
  • 34. Clinical significance:• Pharmacological action of many drugs may be explained by the principle of competitive inhibition. As example:• Sulphonamides are commonly employed antibacterial agents. Bacteria synthesize folic acid by combining PABA with pteroylglutamic acid. . Bacteria wall is impermeable to folic acid. Sulpha drugs, being structural analogs of PABA, will inhibit the folic acid synthesis in bacteria, and then die. The drug nontoxic to human cells, because human beings cannot synthesizes folic acid. 34
  • 35. Methotrexate is structural analog to folicacid, and so can competitively inhibitfolate reductase enzyme. This is essentialfor DNA synthesis and cell division.Therefore, methotrexate is used as ananticancer drug. 35
  • 36. 2- Noncompetitive inhibition• A variety of poisons, such as iodoacetate, heavy metal ions (silver, mercury) and oxidizing agents act as irreversible noncompetitive inhibitors.• The inhibitor usually binds to different domain on the enzyme, other than the substrate binding site.• Since these inhibitors have no structural resemblance to the substrate, an increase in the substrate concentration generally does not relieve this inhibition. 36
  • 37. • Cyanide inhibits cytochrome oxidase. Fluoride will remove magnesium ions and will inhibit the enzyme, enolase, and consequently the glycolysis.• The inhibitor combines with the enzymes and reaction becomes irreversible.• The velocity of the reaction is reduced.• Increasing substrate concentration will abolish the competitive inhibition, but will not abolish non-competitive inhibition. 37
  • 38. 3- Allosteric regulation:• Allosteric enzyme has one catalytic site where the substrate binds and another separate allosteric site where the modifier binds (allo=other).• Allosteric enzymes are utilized by the body for regulating metabolic pathways. Such a regulatory enzyme in a particular pathway is called the key enzyme or rate limiting enzyme. 38
  • 39. 39
  • 40. Isoenzymes• They are physically distinct forms of the same enzyme activity. Multiple molecular form of an enzyme is described as isoenzymes or isozymes. They synthesized from various tissues• Ex. Lactate dehydrogenase has 5 forms.• The study of isoenzymes is useful to understand diseases of different organs. 40
  • 41. Clinical enzymology• Plasma contains many functional enzymes which are actively secreted into plasma. For example, enzymes of blood coagulation.• On the other hand, there are a few non-functional enzymes in plasma, which are coming out from cells of various tissues due to normal wear and tear.• Their normal levels in blood are very low, but are drastically increased during cell death (necrosis) or disease.• Therefore, assays of these enzymes are very useful in diagnosis of diseases. 41
  • 42. Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH):Isoenzymes of LDH• LDH enzyme is a tetramer with 4 subunits. But the subunit may be either H (heart) or M (muscle) polypeptide chains. These two are the products of 2 different genes.• S0 5 combinations of H and M chains are possible; H4, H3M, H2M2, M3H and M4 varieties, forming 5 isoenzymes. All these 5 forms are seen in all persons. 42
  • 43. • M4 form is seen in skeletal muscles; while H4 form is seen in heart.• Normally LDH-2 (H3M1) concentration in blood is greater than LDH-1 (H4); but this pattern is reversed in myocardial infarction; this is called flipped pattern. The isoenzymes are usually separated by cellulose acetate electrophoresis.• In myocardial infarction, LDH activity is increased. Within a few hours after the heart attack, the enzyme level starts to increase, reaches a peak on the 5th day, and reaches normal levels by 10-12 days. 43
  • 44. Creatine Kinase (CK):• Ck value in serum is increased in myocardial infarction. The CK level starts to rise within 3 hours of infarction.• Therefore CK estimation is very useful to detect early cases.• The CK level is not increased in hemolysis or in congestive cardiac failure; and therefore Ck has an advantage over LDH. 44
  • 45. CK and Muscle Diseases• The level of CK in serum is very much elevated in muscular dystrophies. The level is very high in the early phases of the disease.• CK level is highly elevated in crush injury, fracture and acute cerebrovascular accidents.• Estimation of total CK is employed in muscular dystrophies and MB isoenzyme is estimated in myocardial infarction. 45
  • 46. Isoenzymes of CK• CK is a dimer. The subunits are called B for brain and M for muscle. Therefore, three isoenzymes are seen in circulation.• MM (CK3) is originating from skeletal muscles. MB (CK2) is from heart and BB (CK1) is from brain.• Hence, the detection of MB- isoenzyme is important in myocardial infarction.• The most sensitive and earlier marker of acute myocardial infarction (AM) is either Troponin I or Troponin T. 46
  • 47. ALanine amino transferase (ALT)• In old literature, it was called as serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT). The enzyme needs pyridoxal phosphate as coenzyme.• Normal serum level of ALT for male is 13-35 U/L and for female is 10-30 U/L.• Very high values (100 to 1000 U/L) are seen in acute hepatitis, either toxic or viral in origin.• Both ALT and AST levels are increased in liver disease, but ALT˃˃ AST. Rise in ALT levels may be noticed several days before clinical such as jaundice is manifested.• Moderate increase (25 to 100 U/L) may be seen in chronic liver diseases such as cirrhosis, and malignancy in liver. 47
  • 48. Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP)• ALP is a nonspecific enzyme which hydrolyses aliphatic, aromatic or heterocyclic compounds. The pH optimum for the enzyme reaction is between 9 and 10.• It is produced by osteoblasts of bone, and is associated with the calcification process. Normal serum value of ALP is 40-125 U/L.• In children the upper level of normal value may be more, because of the increased osteoblastic activity in children. 48
  • 49. • Moderate increase (2-3 times) in ALP level is seen in hepatic diseases such as infective hepatitis, alcoholic hepatitis or hepatocellular carcinoma.• Very high levels of ALP (10-12 times of upper limit) may be noticed in extrahepatic obstruction (obstructive jaundice) caused by gall stones or by pressure on bile duct by carcinoma of head of pancreas or enlarged lymph nodes. 49
  • 50. Enzyme patterns (profile) in diseasesI. Hepatic diseases• Alanine amino transferase (ALT):Marked increase in parenchymal diseases.• Alkaline phosphatase (ALP):Marked increase in obstructive liver disease.50
  • 51. II. Myocardial infarction• Creatine kinase (CK-MB):First enzyme to rise following infarction, CK-MB isoenzyme is specific.• Aspartate amino transferase (AST):Rises after the rise in CK and return to normal in 4-5 days.• Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH):Last enzyme to rise. LDH-1 becomes more than 2 (Flipped pattern). 51
  • 52. III. Muscle diseases• Creatine kinase (CK-MM):Marked increase in muscle diseases. CK-MM fraction is elevated.IV. Bone diseases• Alkaline phosphatase (ALP):Marked elevation in osteoblastic bone activity as in rickets. Heat labile bone.52
  • 53. V. Prostate cancer• Prostate specific antigen (PSA):Marker of prostate cancer. Mild increase in benign prostate enlargement.• Acid phosphatase (ACP):Marker of prostate cancer. Metastatic bone disease especially from a primary from prostate. Inhibited by L tartrate. 53
  • 54. THANKS54

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