TSUNAMI OF 26/12/2004
Current National Disaster Management
(End of the course project submitted towards the fulfillment of the course)
Comprehensive Disaster Risk Management
From 30/6/08 to 8/8/08 76 –
Deepa G. Menon, Assistant Professor, Faculty of
Veterinary Sciences, Kerala Agricultural
University, Mannuthy, Thrissur.
2. J an , 2001 –
“Early Warning System for Natural and
India is a country highly vulnerable to natural disasters. Enormous population pressures
and urbanization have forced people to live on marginal lands or in cities where they are at
greater risk to disasters and the damage they can cause. Whether a flood, a regional
drought or a devastating earthquake, millions of Indians are affected each time a disaster
occurs. In addition to large-scale displacement and the loss of life, these events result in the
loss of property and agricultural crops worth millions of dollars annually.
1) Background Information
India is the seventh largest by geographical area and the second most populous country, in the
world. With a total land area of 3,287,263 sq.k.m, measuring 3,214 km from north to south and
2,993 km from east to west, it has a land frontier of 15,200 km and a coastline of 7,517 km. The
climate comprises of a wide range of weather conditions across a vast geographic scale and
varied topography, making generalisations difficult, though it is considered to be tropical.
India's annual rate of inflation inched closer to the 12% mark in July 2008, and per capita
income of Indians reached Rs 32,299 during 2007-08. The index for primary articles showed a
decline of 0.1% while that for food articles declined 0.2 % this year. GDP growth forecast for
India is 8.1 % for the fiscal year to March 31, 2009, from the current rate of 8.5. Sectoral
forecasts for industry and services are at 8 and 9.8 % respectively. Inflation rate is expected to
remain high in the next few months, at least till the end of the year. India's population at the
3. end of 2007-08 has been at 113.8 crore, up from last years’ 112.2 crore. About 214 million
people, or 20.8 % of India's population, are poor. The incidence of income poverty in rural and
urban areas is estimated to be 21.7 % and 18.7 %, respectively. Around 22.3 % households
control 51% of India's total income, their per capita income is Rs 33,170 annually, about nine
times that of the lowest income-level segment of 17.9 % households, whose annual per capita
income is Rs 3,534. The urban annual income level of Rs 95,827 is around 85 % higher than
the rural annual income level of Rs 51,922. Labourers constitute over 62 % of poor households.
In contrast, this group accounts for 26 % of non-poor households. While 21.7 % of non-poor
households earn salaries, just about 4.4 % of poor households earn their living through salary or
Natural disasters cause massive losses of Indian life and property. Among the 35 States/ Union
Territories, 25 are disaster prone
and the Coast line is exposed to tropical cyclones.
Floods, drought, landslides and cyclones occur regularly whereas earthquake risk is extremely
high. Other dangers include frequent summer dust storms, causing extensive property damage in
North India. Hail is also common in parts of India, causing severe damage to standing crops such
as rice and wheat. In the Lower Himalaya, landslides are common, whereas in parts of the
Western Ghats low-intensity landslides occur On account of labile rock formations, which are
susceptible to slippages. Avalanches occur in Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, and Sikkim.
Floods are the most common natural disaster in India. The heavy southwest monsoon rains
cause the Brahmaputra and other rivers to distend their banks, flooding surrounding areas ,killing
thousands and displacing millions. Flash floods and torrential rains, have become increasingly
common in central India over the past several decades, coinciding with rising temperatures.
Failure of the monsoons result in water shortages, in drought-prone regions such as southern
and eastern Maharashtra, northern Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Orissa, Gujarat, and Rajasthan. In
the past, droughts have periodically led to major famines, including the Bengal famine of 1770,
1876–1877 ,1899, in which millions died; and that of 1943, in which over five million died.
According to earthquake hazard zoning of India, tectonic plates beneath the earth's surface
cause yearly earthquakes along the Himalayan belt and in northeast India. They are classified as
Zone V, indicating a very high-risk area. Parts of western India, around the Kutch region in
Gujarat and Koyna in Maharashtra, are classified as a Zone IV region (high risk). Tropical
4. cyclones, bring with them heavy rains, storm surges, and winds. In the North Indian Ocean
Basin, the cyclone season runs from April to December, with peak activity between May and
November. Each year, an average of eight storms with sustained wind speeds greater than
63 kilometres per hour form; of these, two strengthen into true tropical cyclones, with a speed
above 117 km/hr, and on an average, a major cyclone develops every other year. In terms of
damage and loss of life, a supercyclone that struck Orissa on 29 October 1999, was the worst in
more than a quarter-century. India has one active volcano: the Barren Island volcano which last
erupted in May 2005. There is also a dormant volcano called the Narcondum and a mud volcano
at Baratang in the Andaman Islands.
India is one of the most hazard prone countries in the world, and poor people are at high risk.
Earthquakes, cyclones, floods kill thousands, leave millions destitute, and cause large
infrastructure and financial losses as well as productivity losses that hinder development. To
mitigate these devastations, we must have the capacity to predict potential disasters, prepare
high-risk areas, and respond in an effective, coordinated manner.
2) Brief Description of the Selected Disaster Event
A tsunami caused by the Indian Ocean earthquake struck the Andaman and Nicobar Islands
and India's east coast on 26th of December 2004. According to the Government of India's Report
to the Nation in June 2005, 12405 lives were lost, 8009 in Tamil Nadu, 3513 in Andaman and
Nicobar Island, 599 in Pondicherry, 177 in Kerala and 107 in Andhra Pradesh. The tragedy
affected 27 92 000 people in 1089 villages, including 43 000 people in Pondicherry; 196 000 in
Andhra Pradesh; 130 000 in Kerala; 356 000 in ANI and 897 000 in Tamil Nadu. It destroyed
over 235 000 homes, damaged 83788 boats and rendered 39035 hectares of cropped area
unusable. The social infrastructure — schools, primary health centres, drinking water supply,
anganwadis and other community assets in these areas were totally destroyed. Seventy – five %
of the fatalities were women and children. About one third of the people affected are from the
underprivileged and socially excluded groups. 787 women were widowed and 530 children were
orphaned. The estimated total financial losses exceed US$ 1.2 billion. This includes damages to
infrastructure, such as roads, bridges, ports and around, 1,54000 houses. In Tamil Nadu, 376
villages were affected, while in Andhra Pradesh, 301 villages suffered the brunt of the Tsunami,
187 in Kerala and 33 in Pondicherry. Following the destruction of whole villages, people had to
be placed in temporary shelters. It is still proving to be a challenge to provide basic social
5. services in maternal and child health, nutrition, education and water and sanitation to these
vulnerable people. Those who suffered the brunt of the disaster, lost houses, livelihoods,
household goods and assets like boats and nets. Along the affected coast, a considerable
degradation of typical coastal ecosystems and coastal aquaculture has taken place since the
Tsunami. The sea salt ruined land plots, which caused farmers loss in their crops.
One of the least measurable impacts though, is the effect of the catastrophe on the human mind
and soul. The disaster took away lives, caused injuries and destroyed family networks, homes,
and livelihoods. There are long lasting effects on families torn by death and injuries, for widows,
single parents and their children, orphans, children separated from their families, the elderly, and
the disabled. The relief and recovery efforts undertaken in India were led by the Government and
supported by multi-lateral organizations like the UN, World Bank and the Asian Development
Bank. Substantial funding was made available, through the Prime Minister’s National Relief
Fund (155.5million US$) and the Rajiv Gandhi Rehabilitation Package (US$ 809.5 million).
While the former focused more on the health, education and well being of affected persons,
especially children, the latter aimed to support the revival, of the fishery and agriculture sectors,
construction of temporary shelters, repair and restoration of infrastructure. Community members,
individuals, NGOs and the Indian private sector, responded on an unprecedented scale, with their
support ranging from adopting communities to providing psychosocial support and contributions
in kind. U.S.-assistance was aimed at reinforcing India’s relief efforts, more than $4.3 million
was invested in relief and psychosocial support (47,000 individuals counseled), Cash-for-work
programs (over 435,000 days of work); and repairs to fishing boats and engines. An additional
$14 million was provided to finance long-term transition and recovery activities.
Preliminary estimation of damage/losses between 1 and 15 February 2005
In US$ million Damage Losses Total Effect on livelihoods†
Andhra Pradesh 29.7 15.0 44.7 21.2
Kerala 61.7 39.1 100.8 36.3
Tamil Nadu 437.8 377.2 815.0 358.3
Pondicherry 45.3 6.5 51.8 5.9
Total (by sectors) 574.5 448.3 1 022.8 421.7
Relief 200.7 200.7
refers to the impacts on agriculture and livestock, fisheries and micro-enterprises
Relief provided by local, state and national governments
6. Tsunami affected areas
7. 3) National Disaster Management System
The National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA), headed by the Prime Minister of
India, is the Apex Body for Disaster Management in India. The Ministry of Home Affairs and
Finance Ministries also have linage towards the NDMA. The setting up of the NDMA and the
creation of an enabling environment for institutional mechanisms at the State and District levels
is mandated by the Disaster Management Act, 2005. NDMA as the apex body is mandated to
lay down the policies, plans and guidelines for Disaster Management.
Lay down guidelines to be followed by the State Authorities and different Ministries for the
purpose of integrating the measures for prevention of disaster or the mitigation,
Coordinate the enforcement and implementation of the policy and plan for disaster management;
Recommend provision of funds and other measures for the prevention of disaster, or the
mitigation, or preparedness and capacity building for dealing with the disaster.
To carry out the mandated functions, NDMA has evolved a lean and professional organization,
which is IT-enabled, and knowledge based.
The Central Relief Commissioner (CRC) in the Ministry of Home Affairs is the nodal officer
to coordinate relief operations. He is the head of the Crisis Management Group and nodal
officers nominated by different ministries and Resident Commissioners of States aid him.
Cabinet Secretary is the head of National Crisis Management Committee. There is a Control
Room in MHA, which is in operation round the clock. Additionally, there is Contingency
Action Plan dealing with contingencies arising out of natural disasters and which is periodically
reviewed and updated.
The concept of the organization is based on a disaster divisions-cum-secretariat system. Each
member of the Authority heads disaster-specific divisions for specific disaster and functional
domains. Each member has also been given the responsibility of specified states and U.Ts for
close interaction and coordination. The NDMA Secretariat, headed by a Secretary is responsible
to provide secretarial support and continuity. It is proposed to have two Disaster Management
Wings under the Secretariat. They are: - DM I wing dealing with mitigation, preparedness, plans,
reconstruction, community awareness and dealing with financial/administrative aspects. DM II
wing is proposed to be composed of the National Disaster Management Operations Centre
with the state-of-the-art multi-redundant communication systems, to carry out the tasks of
capacity development, training and knowledge management.
8. The NDMA has adopted a mission-mode approach involving a number of initiatives with the
help of various institutions operating at national, state and local levels. The central ministries,
states and other stakeholders have been involved in the participatory and consultative process of
evolving policies and guidelines. The organization of these tasks reflects the nature of federal
or intergovernmental relations within the country. For example, mitigation measures such as
land-use regulation and building code compliance can be enforced by a national Urban Planning
department, by municipal governments, or by private firms. Emergency operations can be
entrusted to the military, or to a Sustainable Development ministry.
State Relief Manuals are also available at state levels. There is Calamity Relief Fund in each
state. In case of state level disasters, Chief Secretary, may seek additional fund under National
Calamity Contingency Fund. A functional and operational infrastructure has been built which
is appropriate for disaster management involving uncertainties coupled with desired plans of
action. Enactments such as the Disaster Management Act 2005 could only be empowered to lay
down the policies, plans and guidelines to ensure timely and effective response to disasters.
Reconstruction assistance can be disbursed solely to the central government, or to local
governments as well immediately following the Tsunami , the Govt. of Kerala came up with the
idea of a multi-skill task force for disaster preparedness in each District. The team was
constituted with (The Disaster Management Act has mandated the constitution of a Specialist
Response Force to a threatening disaster situation or a disaster. ) a multi-disciplinary, multi-
skilled, high-tech force for all types of disasters . All the teams were trained for all natural
disasters each including engineers, technicians, veterinarians, electricians, dog squads and
VARIOUS DEPARTMENTS & MINISTRIES RESPONSIBLE FOR VARIOUS
Earthquakes and Tsunami MHA/Ministry of Earth Sciences/IMD
Floods MHA/Ministry of Water Resources/CWC
Cyclones MHA/Ministry of Earth Sciences/IMD
Drought Ministry of Agriculture
Biological Disasters Ministry of Health and Family Welfare
A “top-down” approach commonly assumes that for a national disaster system to succeed,
governments must be active participants in its creation and implementation. Formal channels of
‘command and control’ exist, implying that decision-making lies with the central administration.
9. A “bottom-up” approach argues that focusing natural disaster policy on existing government
systems sometimes enhances narrow power structures and draws away from local concerns and
initiatives. Although such an approach to risk management is not guaranteed to be
comprehensive, it applies directly to identifiable needs and seems to provide more effective
results both in mitigation and preparedness. It also increases the role of local administrations.
DISTRICT DISASTER MANAGEMENT AUTHORITY
A Disaster Management Committee has been set up at the district level headed by the District
Collector or District Magistrate shall be Chairperson and officials from the Health, Agriculture,
Irrigation, Veterinary Department, Department of Water and Sanitation, Police, Fire Services etc.
Representatives from National and International NGO’S Rotract and Lions club / self help
groups, Local Red Cross play an active role in risk reduction programs in the region. The
Disaster Management Committee, which is, basically the decision-making body takes the help of
Disaster Management Teams, which are the action group and are trained on the latest
technologies. The main functions of the District Management Committee are: a) helping the
administration for preparing of the District Management Plan.; b) coordinating training for the
members of the Disaster Management Teams at the district level; c) carry out mock drills.
The following Government / semi government organizations also play a vital role in relief and
rescue work -:
Government Hospitals / Primary health centers, / Medical colleges , Railway stations , Airports
authority for evacuation of causality / transporting relief materials , Fire station / brigade , Bus
stands for evacuation of causality / transporting relief materials , Nearest Armed Forces /
paramilitary units / and their hospitals (Command / base hospital) , Sports authority where their
huge sports complexes / stadium etc can be used as Disaster management medical wards/
establishing relief camps etc , Govt. and private school and colleges, as their complexes can be
used for relief camps.
In India Private disaster insurance exists, but there is little reliance on the private market for
financing relief. If a disaster overwhelms the capacity of the state government to respond, the
central government will provide financial and other assistance. If such a major disaster occurs,
the central government commits itself to pre-fixed reimbursement sums for loss of life, limb, and
partial and total loss of housing and productive assets.
10. The National Natural Disaster Knowledge Network has been designed to facilitate an
interactive, simultaneous dialogue with all the players dealing with natural disasters. Indian
NGOs, such as the Disaster Mitigation Institute, are also working with the government, as well
as the Grameen Bank, in designing tools to address disaster loss and poverty. In addition, India
appears to have a great deal of innovation from the private sector. Micro-insurance mechanisms
are being designed to reach the poorest groups, build institutional capacity, and form the capital
necessary for disaster management targeted toward the poor.
The collaborative program on Disaster Risk Management taken up with UNDP support covers
169 multi-hazard prone districts in the country and envisages assisting the States to draw up
plans for district/block/village levels to build up effective resilience to disasters. Grass-root level
participation in the disaster management actions is envisaged. A national Communication Plan
has been drawn up harnessing the modern systems of communication for information flow,
dissemination of warnings etc. A web-based inventory of specialist resources required for
disaster management support has been operationalised. The National Institute for Disaster
Management is entrusted with developing training capsules, disaster management codes, human
resource development, awareness creation program and education. The overall stress is to make
the disaster management program in the country more effective with appropriate technology
inputs and grass-root level participation.
Activities, taken by authorities and/or community to minimize the effects of the disaster:
Risk Identification in addition to investing in early warning systems, resources should be spent
on understanding and seeking to counter the driving process behind the current devastation,
Development of integrated coastal management plans and coastal vulnerability maps,
Systematic inventory of disasters and losses, Hazard monitoring and forecasting, Hazard
evaluation and mapping, Vulnerability and risk assessment, Public information and community
participation, Risk management training and education The team has also supported awareness
campaigns on coastal regulatory zone issues and provided significant input in the formulation of
the demarcation of the high-tide line.
Risk Reduction/Mitigation - In Kerala, three seismic zone III (moderate risk) cities with
populations of over half a million are undertaking earthquake vulnerability reduction activities.
Several academic and research institutions are working on coastal environmental management
and development issues. Other the measures include: carefully planning land-use based on local
11. assessments of risks and vulnerabilities, adopting changes in how tourist infrastructures are sited,
implementing environmental protection measures and appropriate building standards. In order to
strengthen the community capacities in disaster risk reduction. Structural Mitigation
Measures such as seawalls and coral reefs, tsunami break waters, increasing the river dike
height, shelters, identification of evacuation routes, retrofitting of vulnerable structures etc. Non
Structural Mitigation Measures such as education, public awareness, risk communication,
strict implementation of Coastal Regulations Act etc are under taken.
Risk Transfer Insurance covers many losses but is often unavailable to the poor due to high
transaction cost and the subsequent high premiums. Insurance regulatory reforms by the Indian
Government and the prioritization of risk reduction by the UN ISDR, the ProVention
Consortium, and DFID have contributed to the viability and advancement of micro insurance for
the poor. Micro finance activities are important elements in future disaster risk reduction, as it
prepares the local communities for the next disaster by allowing the poor to make transformation
from “everyday survival” to “planning for the Future”.
Early Warning and Forecasting While developing regional mechanisms it is also cost effective
to focus on the local level to help communities take simple disaster mitigation measures and then
put into place a very elementary early warning system consisting of basic communication chains
that could ensure that information reached the people. Projects included survival skills, the
establishment of rescue teams, mock drills, and general disaster awareness training.
Emergency Response Recovery and Reconstruction culture and micro-enterprise. Includes
immediate assistance that helps local populations help themselves: encouraging local
participation (NGOs) in the planning of recovery efforts, using local materials for reconstruction,
engaging the locals in the reconstruction effort, and providing equipment, training and micro-
credit for kick-starting local industries, farming, fishing and small businesses. A cash-for-work
program led by World Vision India to construct 2,500 temporary shelters, under a nearly
$900,000 grant, while providing families the opportunity to earn money to meet other household
12. 4) Strengths and weaknesses of the Disaster Management System
The creation of a successful organizational structure and the assignment of specific management
tasks is dependant on an understanding of the tasks associated with disaster risk management. Ex
ante and ex post activities demand distinct technical and administrative approaches. An effective
management system is needed for both phases of the risk management cycle.
Institution setup in India exists for Disaster Management with all the octopus tentacles and little
or no coordination between then till the time comes in the aftermath of a disaster. On one hand
the Disaster management organization clearly states that the apex persons being the Prime
Minister and further draws down to the Ministry of Agriculture being the focal point the New
Delhi level. The Ministry of Home Affairs has another linage towards the NDMA. Too many
centers at the New Delhi level leaves one in a state of confusion as to which is the reactive body
for what kind of disasters. A national disaster risk management system comprises of the formal
and informal interaction between institutions, financial mechanisms, regulations and policies.
Yet these two approaches to risk management need not be mutually exclusive.
As per the Disaster Management Act, 2005 already there is a mechanism for Disaster
Management at Centre, State and District Levels. It’s true that a paradigm shift in our approach
i.e , a mitigation based approach has been in action after Latur and Bhuj Earth Quakes, Super
cyclone and Tsunami. While earlier it was merely a relief centric approach. Now, activities
towards this end are on throughout the year to some extent. Early warning system has been
strengthened. People’s awareness is increasing through seminars orientation programs,
advertisements both in print & e-media, and through NGO’s activities. From the beginning, State
Governments and District authorities played a crucial role in coordinating the relief and recovery
work and are doing so impressively. Their work is helped by a number of NGO coordination and
resource centers established at the state (such as the Tamil Nadu Tsunami Resource Centre) and
at the district (such as the Nagapattinam Coordination and after brief descriptions of the recovery
programs of the United Nations, the Asian Development Bank and the World Bank. While there
is awareness in India that better disaster response mechanisms are necessary, the overall trend
has indicated that numerous challenges remain to be overcome.
In India, the primary responsibility for responding to disasters lies at the state level. The GOI
does not yet have a national emergency plan for disaster management. Many Indian states have
limited resources and lack their own disaster management plans. There is the lack of co-
13. ordination among these various departments/agencies. So many gaps are there the context of
communication, organizational coordination, fund sharing, awareness generation etc. Lack of
research and absence of effective policies are still widening the gaps. Trained work force able to
act promptly on call in relief and rescue is still a fictitious existence even in sophisticated cities
highly prone to disasters. Fire Brigades are not well equipped to meet emergencies. What needs
to be kept for an emergency is used up, for one reasons or other and never replenished for the d-
day. Worse, the bureaucracy and corruption and the attitude that it will never happen in my
lifetime makes the system lethargic to the entire issue of proactive conditions to Disaster
Management, which can mitigate the sufferings in the event of a disaster. What is again
unpredictable how fast the relief reaches the needy and how to ensure that what has been lost is
made good to a large extent.
Although India tries to respond to disasters of small or moderate size with relatively little or no
international assistance, the overall trends suggest that current GOI response mechanisms are
less than optimal for responding to large-scale disasters and that foreign assistance is often
required. Deaths and economic losses have increased. The reasons for this are varied including
increasing population pressures in urban areas; poor or ignored zoning laws and policies; lack of
proper risk management (insurance) etc.
The level of preparedness of the center as well as the states in India is extremely uneven and in
general requires considerable strengthening. While the states and local communities need better
response and mitigation mechanisms, they are dependent on the center for assistance. However,
the magnitudes of the two recent disasters in Orissa and Gujarat have increased the GOI's interest
in working with international partners like USAID to facilitate the delivery of aid, strengthen
systems to reduce recovery costs and mitigate the effects of future disasters. Interest is high in
the GOI for addressing major weaknesses such as: poor planning and coordination; lack of
relevant technology for forecasting; inadequate human capacity and skills for response;
inadequate attention to good zoning and building; and ineffective warning systems. Other pitfalls
include Delayed response of government officers, Absence of early warning systems; Lack of
resources to undertake measures like mass evacuation; Non-existent and non-familiarization with
standard operating procedures to be followed in providing relief; Failure to keep essential stores
like sand bags, medicines, and life saving equipment in ready stock; and Inadequate coordination
with the Army and other service organizations, as well as donors depending on the scale of the
disasters. Lack of intra and inter institutional convergence and coordination
14. 5) Recommendations for Improvement
Pre-disaster activities should include: risk assessment; physical mitigation, education and the
creation of economic incentives for mitigation; privatization, use of insurance and financial risk
transfer instruments; contingency planning and the creation of early warning and response
Post-disaster activities should include damage assessment and emergency response;
rehabilitation, macroeconomic and budget management, revitalization for affected sectors, and
the incorporation of mitigation components in reconstruction.
Improvement may be considered in following manner:
1. To restructure the National Policy on disaster management reflecting the holistic approach
involving prevention, mitigation and preparedness in pre-disaster phase with appropriate
additional funding, along with the so far existent policy of the post-disaster relief and
rehabilitation under crisis management.
2. Creation of awareness for disaster reduction is urgently needed amongst policy makers,
decision makers, administrators, professionals (architects, engineers and others at various
levels) financial institutions (banks, insurance, house financing institutions) ,NGOs voluntary
organizations and local community as well
3. Appropriate amendments in the legislative and regulatory instruments (state laws,
master plans, development area plan rules, building regulations and bye-laws of local bodies)
along with strengthening of the enforcement mechanisms at different levels delineating
responsibilities and powers of each entity. Viz. State and Central Government during natural
disasters and emergencies.
4. Capacity building at local and regional levels for undertaking rapid-assessment surveys
and investigations of the nature and extent of damage in post disaster situations. Conducting
micro-zonation surveys of large urban areas falling in the disaster prone regions and
preparing appropriate mitigation plans.
5. To ensure use of disaster resistant construction techniques in all housing and other
buildings to be undertaken under the Central and State schemes. Making mandatory, the
use of disaster resistant codes and guidelines in all sectors of the society by law and
through incentives and disincentives.
15. 6. To create a suitable institutional mechanism at national/state level to advise and help the
existing disaster relief set up in formulation and updating of short and long-range action
7. To create detailed database on hazard occurrences, damage caused to buildings and
infrastructure and the economic losses suffered and ensure its accessibility to interested
researchers for effective analysis of costs of disasters and benefits of mitigative actions.
8. To devise appropriate policy instrument and funding support for urgent disaster
preparedness and prevention actions in high risk areas including upgrading the resistance of
existing housing and related structures and systems. To include R&D work in disaster
preparedness, mitigation and prevention as a thrust area so that adequate funds are
9. A network of information centers should be set up at strategic locations within the affected
area-proper coordination is needed between the NGOs, government agencies and media. A
permanent national command center is needed with at adequate communication links to
all state capitals. Manned on a 24-hour basis by professionals, this would cater to all instant
10. Establishment of a quick reaction team composed of professionals, military
and civilians as well as the establishment of a modern well-equipped Search and Rescue unit
in all state capitals with trained staff and latest devices. Train disaster volunteers and
management to create community-level disaster preparedness plans.
11. Prompt media reporting to generate pressure on the government to respond rapidly
12. Standard system and procedures required for dealing with humanitarian and relief
assistance from NGOs as well as a modern unified legislation needed for disaster
management, to be followed by most NGOs and Community Based Organizations.
13. There is an urgent need to create Disaster Management Commission on the same line
as that of planning commission with statutory provisions and annual funds to identify
and regulate the various disaster prone areas and to formulate guidelines to meet
14. Strengthen early-warning systems that track the potential for floods, cyclones and other
weather-related disasters and communicate this information so people can take precaution.
16. Technology support required for disaster management fall in the category of observations,
data collection, networking, communication, warning dissemination, service delivery
mechanisms, GIS databases, expert analysis systems, information resources etc. Emerging
technologies such as remote sensing, Global Positioning Systems (GPS), Data Collection
Platforms (DCPs), hand-held GPS, Geographical Information System (GIS), Geospatial
models, Cyclone warning and Dissemination System (CWDS), etc. have potential to provide
valuable support to decision making.
15. The Indian private banking and insurance sectors can be sensitized to the special needs of
vulnerable groups affected by disasters; Micro finance support for affected small-scale
enterprises or the informal sector.
4. Organization Of Disaster Response In India At Central And State Government Levels
6. S.K. Swami , Director (NDM),Department Of Agriculture & Cooperation, Ministry Of
Agriculture, Government Of India.
7. Note On Disaster Management Plan By Justice R C Chopra
11. Tsunami-India – Two Years After- A Joint Report Of The United Nations, The World
Bank And The Asian Development Bank
12. Disaster Reduction Unit - Undp-Bcpr - 11-13, Chemin Des Anémones - Ch-1219
Châtelaine, Geneva, Switzerland -Http://Www.Undp.Org/Bcpr/Disred
13. Manual For Estimating The Socioeconomic Effects Of Natural Disasters Part One:
Methodological And Conceptual Aspects.
17. 14. Proceedings Of Workshop On Development Of National Statistcal System On Disasters
In India -27th April 2007
15. Proceedings Of The Workshop On Coastal Area Planning And Management In Asian
18. Disaster Warning Network - for the 21st Century
NATURAL DISASTERS MANMADE DISASTERS
CHEMICAL/BIOLOGICAL ACCIDENTS, TRUCK/
TORNADOES, LIGHTNING STORMS, FLOODS,
TRAIN SPILLS, TERRORIST ACTIONS, PRISON
FIRES, EARTHQUAKES, TSUNAMIS, ETC.
BREAKS, ELECTRIC BLACKOUTS, ETC.
DISASTER WARNING NETWORK - CORE INFRASTRUCTURE
DATA AGGREGATION ANALYSIS EARLY WARNING
DISTRIBUTION NETWORKS & CUSTOMERS
Pager Networks Local Loops
Satellites Wireless Carriers Wireless Portals Data Networks
ACCESS TO SYSTEM USERS
& Autos Individuals Schools Hospitals Homes
AUDIBLE DEVICES AUTOMATED DEVICES
TO CREATE HUMAN RESPONSES TO CREAT AUTO DEVICE RESPONSES
Mobile Phones - Pagers - PDA's Fuel Controls - Traffic Controls - Electircal Grids
Televisions - Radios - Smoke Alarms Data Networks - Emergency Lighting
Laptops, PC's - etc Control Transportation Systems - etc
LIVES SAVED PROPERTY & LIVES SAVED
People have time to take actions to Automated actions create reductions
avoid or escape from effects of in property and human losses during
disasters and reduce the chances of disasters
death or injury
19. NATURAL HARARD MAP OF INDIA
20. ANNEXURE- D
WHO MODEL OF COUNTRY-LEVEL EMERGENCY PLANNING