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Egg and incubation facts

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  • 1.  
  • 2.  
  • 3. MPORTANT EVENTS IN EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT BEFORE EGG LAYING FertilizationDivision and growth of living cellsSegregation of cells into groups of special function BETWEEN LAYING AND INCUBATION No growth; stage of inactive embryonic life DURING INCUBATION FIRST DAY: 16 hours - First sign of resemblance to a chick embryo 18 hours - Appearance of alimentary tract 20 hours - Appearance of vertebral column 21 hours - Beginning of formation of nervous system 22 hours - Beginning of formation of head 23 hours - Appearance of blood islands - vitelline circulation 24 hours - Beginning of formation of eye SECOND DAY: 23 hours - Beginning of formation of heart 35 hours - Beginning of formation of ear 42 hours - Heart begins to beat THIRD DAY: 50 hours - Beginning of formation of amnion 60 hours - Beginning of formation of nose 62 hours - Beginning of formation of legs 64 hours - Beginning of formation of wings 70 hours - Beginning of formation of allantois FOURTH DAY: Beginning of formation of tongue
  • 4. FIFTH DAY: Beginning of formation of reproductive organs and differentiation of sex SIXTH DAY: Beginning of formation of beak and eggtooth EIGHTH DAY: Beginning of formation of feathers TENTH DAY: Beginning of hardening of beak THIRTEENTH DAY: Appearance of scales and claws FOURTEENTH DAY: Embryo turns its head toward the blunt end of egg SIXTEENTH DAY: Scales, claws, and beak becoming firm and horny SEVENTEENTH DAY: Beak turns toward air cell NINETEENTH DAY: Yolk sac begins to enter body cavity TWENTIETH DAY: Yolk sac completely drawn into body cavity; embryo occupies practically all the space within the egg except the air cell TWENTY-FIRST DAY: Hatching of chick
  • 5.  
  • 6. air cell  - a space at the large end of the egg, between the inner and outer shell membranes.  albumin  - the egg white. It provides protein and water for the embryo and protects it from microorganisms.  allantois  - a sack that holds some of the embryo's waste. It is attached to the embryo near the legs.  amnion  - a membrane that surrounds the embryo, protecting it from dehydration (losing water) and shock.  eggshell  - the hard, protective coating of the egg. It is semi-permeable; it lets gas exchange occur, but keeps other substances from entering the egg. It is made of calcium carbonate.  embryo  - the developing chick inside the egg.  eye  - large and prominent on the head.  inner shell membrane  - the thin membrane located between the outer shell membrane and the albumin.  leg  - one of the lower limbs of the chick.  outer shell membrane  - the thin membrane located just inside the shell.  tail  - located at the far end (the posterior) of the embryo.  wing  - one of the upper limbs of the chick.  yolk  - the yellow part of the egg; it contains nourishment (food) for the embryo
  • 7.  
  • 8.  
  • 9.  
  • 10.  
  • 11.  
  • 12. Egg properties
    • Std Weight- 58g
    • Specific Gravity 1.09
    • Weight %
    • Shell 10.5
    • Yolk 31
    • White 58.5
    • Total Edible 89.5
  • 13. Egg content Edible( %)
    • Protein 12.0
    • Fat 11.3
    • Carbohydrate 1.0
    • Water 74.5
  • 14. WHOLE EGG
    • Water 73.7%
    • Protein 14.8%
    • Fat 10.5%
    • Ash 1%
  • 15. Cholesterol
    • Per egg -213-250 mg
    • Per 100g Liquid Egg -425mg
  • 16. YOLK
    • Water 48%
    • Protein 17.5%
    • Fat 32.5%
    • Ash 2%
  • 17.
    • The composition (by weight) of the most prevalent fatty acids in egg yolk is typically as follows:
    • Unsaturated fatty acids:
      • Oleic acid  47 %
      • Linoleic acid  16 %
      • Palmitoleic acid  5 %
      • Linolenic acid  2 %
    • Saturated fatty acids:
      • Palmitic acid  23 %
      • Stearic acid  4 %
      • Myristic acid  1 %
    • Egg yolk is a source of  lecithin , an  emulsifier  and  surfactant .
    • The yellow color is caused by  lutein  and  zeaxanthin , which are yellow or orange  carotenoids known as  xanthophylls
  • 18. EGG white composition in %
    • Water 88
    • Protein 11
    • Fat 0.2
    • Ash 0.8
  • 19. Egg yolk composition
    • Water 48%
    • Protein 17.5 %
    • Fat 32.5%
    • Ash 2.0%
  • 20. Shell
    • Percentage of egg weight- 9-12
    • Cal carbonate 94%
    • Magnesium Carbonate 1%
    • Cal Phosphate 1%
    • Organic matter 1%
  • 21. Egg production of poultry Species Age at sexual maturity Eggs per year (no) Egg size(g) Chicken- egg type 5-6 months 240 50-58 Meat type 5-6 months 150-170 55-58 Turkey 7 months 105 85 Goose 24 15-60 150-200 Duck 7-8 110-175 80 Quail 6 weeks 200-240 10-12 Guinea Fowl 10-12 40-60 40
  • 22. NUTRITIVE VALUE OF EGGS DAILYVITD INTAKE RECOMMEVITB2NDED 1 EGG ENERGY ( CAL) 3000RIBOFLAVIN 90 PROTEIN (g) 70 6.6 FAT(g) 50 5.5 CARBOHYDRATE (g) 570 CALCIUM 0.8 0.03 PHOSPHORUS 0.9 0.12 IRON 12 1.6 VIT-A 5000 600 VIT-D 400 50 VIT-B2 (mg) 1.5 0.095 VIT-C( mg) 75 RIBOFLAVIN (mg) 2.0 0.19 NICOTINIC ACID (MG) 18 0.04
  • 23. Table 12.15. egg composition of various species (without sheil, per 100 (g) basis) Species H2O Protein Liplds Carbohy drates Ash Energy* (g) (g) (g) (g) (g) (g) kcal) Chicken 73.7 12.9 11.5 0.9 1.0 163 Duck 70.4 133 145 0.7 1. 1 191 cook 70.4 I; 9 13.3 1.5 1. 1 185 Guinea 72.8 135 12.0 0.8 0. 9 170 Pigeon 728 13.8 12.0 0.8 0. 9 170 Quails 73.7 13.1 11.1 1.0 1. 1 161 Turkey 726 131 11.8 1.7 0. 8 170 Kcal/OO g edible egg=g proteinx4 63+g lipids ' 9.02 + carbohydrate X 3.87.
  • 24.  
  • 25. JUDGING FOR POOR PRODUCTION IN CHICKEN Character Laying hen Non-laying hen 1 . Comb Large, red, full, glossy, warm Small, pale, scaly, cold 2. Wattles and ear Prominent, soft, Inconspicuous,rough, dry lobes smooth 3. Vent Large, dilated, oblong, moist Small,contracted,round,dry 4. Pubic bones Wide apart (usually about 3 Close together (One or fingers) two fingers) 5. Abdominal A depth of 4-5 fingers from A depth of 2-3 fingers only cavity the end of the keel to the pubic bones 6. Handling quality a. Soft and pliable abdomen a. Abdomen not flexible and rubbery b. Pubic bones thin, pliable b. Rigid c. Low subcutaneous fat c. High
  • 26. DISTANCE BETWEEN PUBIC BONES AND KEEL OF A GOOD LAYER (A AND a) AND A BAD LAYER (B AND b). FIG. 12.6.
  • 27. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN DEPIGMENTATION OF BODY PARTS AND NUMBER OF EGGS LAID
    •  
    • Order of No. of eggs laid to Time taken to bleach
    • depigmentation bleach the body part (after first egg is laid)
    • Vent 0 to 10 eggs 0 to 2 weeks
    • Eye ring and ear lobe 10 to 15 eggs 2 to 3 weeks
    • Beak 35 eggs 6 to 8 weeks
    • Shanks:
    • Bottom of feet 68 eggs 12 to 16 weeks
    • Front of shank 96 eggs 16 to 24 weeks
    • Entire shank 175 eggs 24 to 32 weeks
  • 28. Production indices
    •  
    • These serve as efficiency measures in a layer farm
    •  
    • 1
    • Feed efficiency/kg. egg mass = Kilograms of feed consumed
    • Kilogram of eggs produced
    • 2
    • Feed efficiency/dozen eggs = Kilograms of feed consumed
    • Dozen eggs produced
    • 3
    • Hen-Housed egg production = Total number of eggs produced on that day x 100
    • ( one day) Total number of hens housed at the beginning
    •  
    • ]
    •  
  • 29.
    • 4
    •  
    • Hen-Housed egg production= Average daily number of eggs produced x 100 (longer period ) Total number of birds housed at the beginning
    • 5
    • % Hen-day egg production = Number of eggs produced on that day x 100
    • ( one day) Total number of live hens on that day
    •  
    • % Hen-day egg production ( longer period )
    • = Total number of eggs produced during a period of time x 100
    • Total number of hen days [opening balance (OB)of hens on all these days
  • 30.  
  • 31.  

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