Britain was hit by the world's worst foot and mouth epidemic in 2001 which resulted in the deaths of around 10 million animals
Transcript of "Diseases"
Summer mastitis <ul><li>is an acute illness of dry cows and heifers which causes extensive and painful damage to the udder. The infected quarter is permanently damaged and results in early culling of the cow. Infections are more likely to occur when cows are in an environment where teats can be damaged and fly populations are high. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Pasteurella: A bacteria carried by many normal cattle. It becomes a major cause of </li></ul><ul><li>severe “shipping fever” pneumonia when combined with stress and a viral agent. Two species are common: P. hemolytica and P. multocida. Vaccines available in the past were poor, with use of a single dose causing more problems than if none were used. Great improvements have been made in recent years and several newer products are available, with more to come. </li></ul>
<ul><li>PPR is an important disease in its own right, but it has also created problems because of its apparent similarity to rinderpest - the clinical signs of PPR closely resemble those of rinderpest, making differential diagnosis difficult. It should, however, be borne in mind that clinical disease caused by rinderpest in small ruminants is a relatively rare event, even in Asia </li></ul>
<ul><li>A more typical picture, however, is that of a fast-spreading syndrome in sheep and/or goats characterized by the sudden onset of depression, discharges from eyes, nose and mouth, abnormal breathing with coughing, diarrhoea and deaths. The outbreak will not involve cattle, whether rinderpest vaccinated or not, even if they are in contact with affected sheep and/or goats. Although both goats and sheep are susceptible to infection and may show disease, they are not always affected simultaneously . </li></ul>
<ul><li>Viral disease of 3Viral disease of 3-6 week old chickens </li></ul><ul><li>Occurs worldwide in varying degrees </li></ul><ul><li>Virus attacks lymphocytes in the bursa of Fabricius and other immune organs </li></ul><ul><li>Virus shed in feces, survives months </li></ul><ul><li>Horizontal spread Horizontal spread not vertical </li></ul><ul><li>Protection from passive maternal immunity and live vaccination </li></ul>
<ul><li>A) Clostridial diseases: These diseases include Blackleg, Malignant Edema, Black’s Disease, Enterotoxemia and Redwater. All of these are common diseases. These organisms form </li></ul><ul><li>spores that may survive a long time in hostile environments and yet kill cattle quickly, giving little opportunity for treatment. The vaccines produce good immunity, but most require two doses initially to really be effective. Some producers give only one Blackleg vaccination to calves and have no losses. second dose is essential for stimulation of protective immunity </li></ul>
<ul><li>IBR (Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis) (Rednose): </li></ul><ul><li>A viral infection of the upper respiratory tract. It is present in almost all herds, but causes illness in unexposed animals or those with lowered levels of immunity. Many cattle carry the virus and shed it to others during periods of stress. This agent is commonly implicated with bacterial agents in causing shipping fever and other severe cases of pneumonia. </li></ul>
<ul><li>A) IBR: The most common cause of abortion in cattle. </li></ul><ul><li>B) BVD: May cause early embryonic death, abortion or congenital defects. </li></ul><ul><li>C) Brucellosis (Bangs): vaccination is still not recommended All heifers 4–12 months of age should be vaccinated </li></ul><ul><li>Vibriosis (Campylobacter): A common bacterial disease, spread through breeding. It causes early embryonic death so appears as an infertility and results in a prolonged breeding and calving season as well as a reduced calf crop. </li></ul>
<ul><li>B) E. coli (Coliform): A bacterial cause of scours that usually appears in calves under 5 days of age. A common contaminant in manure and may build up to epidemic levels. A vaccine requiring one or two initial doses is available for the cows prior to calving. A monoclonal antibody product is also available for use on calves at birth (by mouth) if a serious outbreak occurs in calves from dams that have not been vaccinated. It will provide some immediate, but short term protection. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Blackleg- Symptoms will be lameness, swelling of the flanks, thighs, breast, neck and shoulder, high fever, depression and loss of appetite. Death can occur very quickly. This is caused by an anaerobic bacterium. Sometimes massive doses of antibiotic will save a cow if given early. </li></ul><ul><li>Bluetongue - Cattle are sometimes affected by this disease which is caused by a virus transmitted by insets of the Culicoides sp. Symptoms include a blue tongue, high fever, depression, weight loss , reddened mucous membrane of the mouth which turns it purplish or blue in color, weakness, eye discharge, etc. Good nursing can save some animals and also some antibiotics. </li></ul>
Enterotoxemia type D ( Clostridium perfringins type D) overeating and pulpy kidney disease
<ul><li>It is caused by Clostridium perfringins type D and strikes the largest, fastest growing lambs in the flock. It is caused by a sudden change in feed that causes the organism, which is already present in the lamb's gut, to proliferate causing a toxic reaction. in lambs that are consuming high concentrate rations, but it can also occur when lambs are nursing heavy milking dams. It usually affects lambs over one month of age. Vaccination of pregnant ewes 30 days before lambing is recommended as prevention. </li></ul>
paratuberculosis /Johne's Disease <ul><li>is a disease that affects the intestines of mostly ruminants. It is caused by a hardy bacteria called Mycobacterium paratuberculosis . Johne's most commonly occurs in dairy cows, but may also affect beef cattle, sheep, and goats. The strain that affects sheep is different than the one that affects cows, though there is an intermediate strain that sheep are susceptible to. While cattle experience diarrhea, in sheep, Johne's tends to be a wasting disease. There is a theoretical link between Johne's Disease and Crohn's disease in people. </li></ul>
LEPTOSPIROSIS <ul><li>Lepto: May cause abortion and illness. It has been commonly diagnosed in dogs in the recent years, but is very difficult to diagnose. It is spread through urine and water contamination so is a potential threat to almost all cattle. It may also be carried by other species including rodents, dogs, swine and man. </li></ul>
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