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Biosecurity
 

Biosecurity

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Biosecurity measures in poultry Farms

Biosecurity measures in poultry Farms

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Biosecurity Biosecurity Presentation Transcript

  • BIOSECURITY
    • DEFINITION : all procedures used to prevent the introduction and spread of disease
    • OBJECTIVES :
    • - prevent the entry of disease
    • - control the spread of disease
    Simple Biosecurity Model                                                        
  •  
  • BENEFITS
    • HELPS KEEP OUT diseases
    • REDUCES THE RISK of zoonotic diseases
    • LIMITS THE SPREAD of diseases
    • HELPS PROTECT the public health
    • IMPROVES the overall flock health
    • CUTS COSTS of disease treatment
    • REDUCES LOSSES and improves profitability
  • Classification system for poultry production systems (FAO 2004) Birds and products consumed locally Birds usually sold in live bird markets Usually commercial Commercial Bird and product marketing Minimal Low to minimal Moderate to high High Biosecurity Village or backyard Commercial Commercial Industrial integrated System Sector4 Sector 3 Sector 2 Sector1
  • Poultry production systems affected by A.I. • Sector 1: Industrial integrated system / high level of biosecurity • Sector 2: Commercial poultry production system, moderate to high biosecurity • Sector 3: Small-scale commercial poultry production system with low to minimal biosecurity • Sector 4: Village or backyard production, minimal biosecurity + mixed farming system (ducks, pigs) •
  • HOW DISEASES SPREAD
    • MOVEMENT of people, animals, equipment, vehicles
    • CONTACT with neighboring flock
    • CONTACT with insects, rodents, stray animals and pets
    • CONTAMINATED water & feeds
    • INADEQUATE cleaning and disinfection
  • BIOSECURITY INFORMATION
    • STRICTLY limit and control access to the farm – fencing / controlled entry point
    • KEEP an all-in, all-out flock management
    • PROVIDE a security or decontamination area
    • REQUIRE all persons entering the farm to sign a visitor’s logbook; vehicle plate numbers must also be recorded
    • CLEAN & DIRTY areas should be well-defined
    • THOROUGHLY clean and disinfect all equipment & vehicles entering AND leaving the farm
    • BETTER NOT to borrow equipment or vehicles from other farms
    • DON’T USE same vehicles for transporting birds, feeds, equipment or waste products
    • KEEP WILD BIRDS off– bird-proofing
    • KEEP other animals, pets / livestock out of the farm
    • PEST & RODENT control program
    • PROPER DISPOSAL of damaged eggs, dead birds, litter or manure
    • REGULARLY clean & disinfect all equipment & vehicles before and after use
    • AFTER EVERY CYCLE, thoroughly clean & disinfect all houses & equipment
    • ONCE CLEANED, a farm should be closed & left idle; the longer the down time, the better the results.
  • Pathogenicity of AI
    • AI strains characterized by pathogenicity in chickens
    • LPAI (Low-pathogenic avian influenza)
      • Mild disease in poultry
      • Most strains are LPAI
      • LPAI H5 and H7 strains can mutate into HPAI
    • HPAI (Highly pathogenic avian influenza)
      • Severe illness and high fatality in poultry
      • Some birds have no illness
  • Signs of LPAI Influenza in Poultry
    • Wild waterfowl, gulls, shorebirds are natural hosts for influenza viruses
      • Usually no symptoms
    • Infection in non-reservoir can result in either:
      • No outward disease (LPAI)
      • Mild infection (LPAI)
        • Ruffled feathers
        • Reduced egg production
        • Respiratory symptoms
        • Can be easy to miss!
  • Development of HPAI
    • Low pathogenic AI strains that are most capable of mutating into HPAI and causing epizootics
      • H5 and H7
      • Most H5 and H7 are LPAI
    • Disease
      • Human HPAI infection via contact with infected sick or dead birds
      • Mild human LPAI infections have been documented
    • Wild birds can introduce LPAI into domestic flocks
      • Can evolve into HPAI
  • Signs of HPAI Infection in Birds
    • Causes more lethal infection
      • Difficult to miss - severe disease/sudden onset
      • Facial edema, swollen and cyanotic combs and wattles, drastic decline in egg production
      • Internal hemorrhages of lungs and other organs
      • Rapid spread
      • Mortality near 100% within 48 hours
  • Species Affected Genetic Reservoirs Intermixing H1, H3 H1, H2, H3 H3, H7 H1-12 H14-15 H1-2, 4-7, H9-13, 15-16 H10 H1, H3, H4, H7, H13 Other Aquatic Birds? H5N1
  • Avian Influenza in other Animals
    • Domestic and wild birds
      • Ducks, geese, sparrows, poultry, pets
    • Pigs, horses, marine mammals, ferrets, minks
      • Natural infection contracted from exposure to birds
    • Tigers, leopards, domestic cats, dogs
      • H5N1 infections from ingestion of infected poultry
  • Control
    • Biosecurity
      • Quarantine
      • Intensify disinfecting measures
    • Monitoring/Surveillance
    • Stamping Out / Depopulation
    • DIVA Vaccination - only for LPAI and not for HPAI because it might prolong the shedding of the virus
    • Proper Disposal
  • Ensure Biosecurity through Bio- exclusion
    • Keep poultry indoors
      • Separate from the outside world
      • Remove or disinfect all sources of infection
    • Prevent unknown birds from entering flock Control human, vehicular, and equipment traffic onto the farm
    • Use “all in – all out” production
    • Separate new poultry from flock
    • Clean and disinfect when “all out”
    • AI can remain viable in tissue, faeces and water for a long period of time (days to weeks)
  • Bio containment on Infected Farms
    • Depopulation of infected and exposed birds
    • Movement control
      • On and off farm
    • Bird markets closed and disinfected
    • Testing of potentially infected birds
    • Surveillance for illness in birds
  • Destruction and Disposal of Birds in Affected Area
    • Humanely depopulate birds and other animals
      • Carbon dioxide
      • Dislocate neck
      • Others
    • Effective disposal
      • Incineration
      • Bury
      • Compost
      • Digestion
      • Rendering
    • Cleaning and disinfection
        • 1. Select a site that is well drained and not subject to flooding.
        • 2. Keep away scavengers
        • 3. Lay an 18 inch deep bed of coarse wood chips, 8-12 feet wide
        • 4. Add a 12-15 inch layer of litter and birds, then cover with a 12-15 inch layer of wood chips or other carbon sources.
        • Add another layer of litter and birds until it is two or three layers high and as long as needed.
    • 6.If there is a disease outbreak, make sure that workers wear personal protective equipment and are properly sanitized when done. Workers should be vaccinated if applicable.
  •  
  •  
        • Build Pile
        • 5.
  • IMPORTANT REMINDERS
    • MAKE a flock health plan that includes basic biosecurity measures
    • ENSURE that all records are accurate & up-to-date
    • ALL poultry personnel should be trained
    • LOOK OUT for signs of disease –
    • REPORT immediately if disease is suspected
  • Occupational Guidelines
    • For persons in contact with healthy birds in HPAI-free zones
      • Increased vigilance and hazard communication
      • Standard Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)
      • Risk assessment for species that may exhibit asymptomatic disease (e.g. ducks)
  •  
  • Occupational Guidelines
    • For persons in direct contact with known or suspected HPAI materials
      • Training, basic infection control, PPE to include respirators and antiviral prophylaxis
      • Surveillance and monitoring of workers
      • Evaluation of ill persons
  • Occupational Guidelines
    • For exposure to a known HPAI source
    • Disposable particulate respirators (N-95 or greater); or powered air purifying respirator
      • Current season influenza vaccine
      • Reduces possibility of dual infection with human and avian influenza, which could lead to reassortment
  • Occupational Guidelines
    • For persons in contact with live or dead poultry or materials later identified as HPAI
      • Medical evaluation
        • If symptomatic, collection of specimens for viral testing
      • Post-exposure prophylaxis
      • Surveillance for respiratory-related symptoms
        • Fever
        • Respiratory symptoms
        • Conjunctivitis
  • General precautions
    • Wear a mask and gloves if using poultry manure, then wash your hands afterwards.
    • Wear gloves if touching sick or dead birds.
    • Monitor your neighborhood for any bird or poultry deaths.
    • If there are bird or poultry deaths, report this to your local veterinarian.
  •  
    • Do not touch nose, eyes, mouth with dirty hands.
    • Wash hands frequently with soap and water.
    • Use separate chopping boards for vegetables, cooked foods, raw foods.
    • Wash chopping boards with soap and water immediately after chopping.
    • 1. Conventional cooking will inactivate the H5N1 virus. Well cooked poultry meat is therefore safe to consume.
    • 2. The H5N1 virus, if present in poultry meat, is not killed by refrigeration or freezing.
    • 3. Home slaughtering and preparation of sick or dead poultry for food is hazardous: this practice should be avoided
    • 4. Eggs can contain H5N1 virus both on the outside and the inside. Eggs from H5N1 infected areas should not be consumed raw or partially cooked. Don’t use uncooked tin foods that will not be cooked.
    • 5. Greatest risk of exposure to the virus is by handling and slaughtering live infected poultry. Cover your nose, mouth and hands in handing sick animals.
  • THANK YOU
  • Vaccination for Poultry
    • Inactivated whole AI virus
      • Effective against H5 subtype
      • Reduced amount of virus in environment
      • May have sub clinical infection
        • Can still shed virus
      • Administered by injection
    • Vaccination may limit export
    • Recombinant vaccines under development
    • H5 and H7 vaccination requires Govt approval
  • Helpful web sites
    • Centers for Disease Control: www.cdc.gov
    • World Health Organization: www.who.int /en/
    • World Organization for Animal Health: www.oie.int
    • UN Food and Agriculture Organization: www.fao.org
    • US poultry and Egg Industry Association http://www.poultryegg.org/
    • USDA Avian Influenza website http://www.usda.gov/wps/portal/usdahome?navid=AVIAN_INFLUENZA&navtype=SU
    • Choose fresh poultry meat carefully. Don’t buy meat or poultry that is dying/dead from disease (such as dark, bruised meat or hemorrhagic spots).
    • For eggs: choose new, clean, solid shells, and no poultry feces or feathers on the eggshell. Clean well before cooking.
  • Reminders
    • Effective Bird Proofing
    • Working Pest Control Program
      • For Rodents and Fly
    • No other animals especially waterfowl
    • Sign – in Log Book
    • Power Sprayer at the farm gate
    • Separate foot wear/Foot Dip
    • Sanitation/disinfection
    • The sequence for wearing the PPE is as under:
    • 1. Wear shoe cover
    • 2. Wash hands
    • 3. Wear 'Dangri'
    • 4. Put on the face mask/ mask with hepa filter (N95 standard)
    • 5. Fix protective glasses over eyes (goggles)
    • 6. Fix hood over head
    • 7. Put on gloves
    • The sequence of removing PPE should be followed as below
    • 1. Remove shoe covers
    • 2. Remove house gloves
    • 3. Wash hands
    • 4. Remove 'Dangri' with attached hood
    • 5. Remove disposable protective glasses (goggles)
    • 6. Remove face masks (for other than direct handlers)/ face
    • mask with hepa filter , N95 standard (for direct handlers)
    • 7. Discard all
    • 8. Wash hands
  • Antivirals
    • Antivirals use only for humans
    • On March 20, 2006, the FDA proposed to prohibit the use in poultry of two classes of approved human antiviral drugs in treating influenza to help preserve the effectiveness of these drugs for treating or preventing influenza infections in humans. Prohibits the use by veterinarians of anti-influenza drugs adamantane (amantadine and rimantadine) and neuraminidase inhibitor (oseltamivir and zanamivir) drugs in chickens, turkeys, and ducks.
  • Self- -Assessment Guide Farm location & layout Access deterrents Building Entryways Pest control programs Truck Traffic Deliveries Visitor concerns Tools & equipment Cleaning & disinfection Water sanitation Employee concerns Multi farm management Flock health management Carcass/manure management
  • A public announcement was made a day before carrying out culling of birds asking poultry owners not to release the birds in the morning and that veterinarians would collect the birds the next morning against cash payment. Poultry owners were also advised to observe precautions such as cover face, nose etc. when handling the birds. The co-operation of the local bodies is necessary for backyard operations. A common ground was identified for the culling and disposal of the culled birds in consultation with the local bodies. The birds were collected by veterinarian / para-veterinarian in morning & carried to disposal sites.
  • Waste, organic and all other non-disinfectable material present on the farm -litter , eggs, egg products, hay, animal feed/feed materials, feathers and egg-trays must be destroyed litter can be either buried in the pit with animal carcasses or burnt. Eggs/ Egg products may be buried in the pit with the animal carcasses. Straw may be burnt. The crops grown in the farm should be uprooted and buried/ burnt. The protective clothing used by the staff should also be burnt. Feathers are to be disposed off by use of flame guns. Water should not be allowed to accumulate in the farm premises and particularly in and around disposal sites.
  • Washing and disinfection of walls, floors and ceilings of the infected . All sheds in the premises should be cleaned which includes washing of floors & walls with 3% calcium hydroxide solution; sprinkling of bleaching powder and lime on the floors of the sheds and farm areas; white-washing of concrete areas with lime; spraying the areas with 4% formalin; fumigation of closed chambers and sheds with KMnO4 and formalin; treating all equipments with 2% sodium hypochlorite solution for 48 hrs Metal structures such as cages may be decontaminated by heat treatment. All units connected to the establishment (i.e. hatchery, egg storage rooms, packaging rooms, egg trolleys, egg product plants) must be properly disinfected. Vehicles, used for transporting live animals, eggs and animal feed must also be disinfected. All equipment inside the house such as drinkers and food hoppers must be washed and treated with a disinfectant for at least 48 hours. Water reservoirs must also be emptied, washed and disinfected. Feed tanks (silos) need to be emptied, washed with a hot water-pressure pump and subsequently fumigated. After washing and disinfecting, all units must be fumigated twice with at least two weeks between fumigations.
    • Rectified spirit or Savlon or Dettol (1 % solution) for cleaning of hands, feet of farm workers
    • (ii) 2% solution of NaOH should be used at the entrance on foot mats to clean the shoes. / scrub and clean gumboots and other items.
    • (iii) Sodium hypochlorite : 2% active chlorine solution (disinfection of equipment)
    • (iv) Quaternary ammonium salts: 4% solution (treatment of walls, floors, ceilings and equipment).
    • (v) Calcium Hydroxide: 3% solution (walls and floors).
    • (vi) Cresolic acid 2.2% solution: (floors).
    • (vii) Synthetic phenols 2% solution: (floors).
    • (viii) Vircon-S@ and Trilocid concentrate where available.
    • (ix) Formalin and potassium permanganate for fumigation.
  • i) Burn all the temporary cages, litter , baskets, feed and egg trays of all the poultry in the infected zone. ii) Remove and burn all litter from permanent cages and clean the cages. iii) Burn garbage around poultry keeping area. iv) Spray all the houses within infected zone irrespective of the presence or absence of poultry with 2% sodium hypochlorite solution. v) Spray poultry rearing houses in surveillance zone with 2% sodium hypochlorite solution. vi) Spray all the damp areas, drains etc. with 4% formalin. in the inhabited dwellings sodium hypochlorite or Trilocid concentrate or Vircon-'S' may be substituted. vii) Sprinkle lime on the roads, streets etc in all the villages under the operation. viii) White wash the poultry rearing houses in the infected zone.
  • Take Home Message
    • Isolate domestic birds from wild birds and waterfowl
    • Practice good biosecurity in all flocks
    • Need adequate surveillance system
    • Early detection and rapid response
    • AI response is always a joint effort
  • Based on Post Operation Surveillance, the farms will be allowed to restock poultry. by keeping sentinel birds in each of the shed of the farms, for 21 days @ minimum 50 birds per shed up to the capacity of 8000 layers or 10,000 brooders or growers and a minimum of 100 birds per shed for more than 8000 layers or 10,000 brooders or growers. 1. On 0 Day Serum sample from 5 birds per shed are to be collected to know the initial antibody status of birds. 2. On the 12 day cloacal / pharyngeal /nasal swabs are to collected for virus isolation. One pooled sample of 5 birds from each shed is to be collected and sent to Bhopal for testing viral antigen/ virus isolation. 3. On 21 day again serum samples from the same birds are to be collected to assess the antibody status of such birds. 4. Any mortality is to be investigated and reported to Govt. of India immediately. 5. It is emphasised that if the farmer does not cooperate and does not follow the restocking protocol he/she will not be allowed to restock the birds. 6. During the restocking operation the local veterinarian is required to visit each farm at least once in a week.
    • The birds killed in operations can be disposed off by burning in pyre or burial. Approximately 5 quintals of wood per 100 kg of dead birds would be required for burning. It should be ensured that carcasses are completely burnt.
    • burial . For this, a pit must be prepared - size of the pit must be at least two meters long, two meters wide and two meters deep, and this enables disposal of about 1800 birds. If it is made one meter deeper the capacity increases to 3000 birds. It must be ensured that the pits are sufficiently deep. JCB machines were deployed in recent operations to dig pits. Burial should be such that the disposed material is kept well below the ground level to ensure that rodents or stray animals cannot access it. The carcasses must be covered with a layer of calcium hydroxide, and then with a layer of earth (at least 40 cm deep) thus alternating one with the other till the pit is covered upto the ground level. The burial ground is to be suitably marked and should not be opened for at least five years. The ground must be watched for settlement, if any and periodically filled with earth and lime if it shows signs of sinking over time.
  • Terminology „ „ Biosafety– – In the context of the BTWC, biosafety describes the containment principles, technologies and practices that are to be implemented to prevent unintentional exposure to pathogens and toxins, or their accidental release.
  •  
  • Sectors 1 and 2
    • Sector 2
      • Moderate to high bio-security
      • Birds/products often marketed commercially
    • Sector 1
      • High level bio-security
      • Birds/products marketed commercially