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    Ch03 Ch03 Presentation Transcript

    • Cognitive Development: Piaget’s and Vygotsky’s Theories Chapter 3
    • Constructivism
      • Construct your own knowledge and add to what you already know
      • Basis for many current reforms in education
      • Piaget
        • Children act like “little scientists”
          • They constantly try to make sense of their world
        • Provided a framework for understanding how children think
        • Patterns of development
    • Jean Piaget
    • Piaget
      • Children act like “little scientists”
        • They constantly try to make sense of their world
      • Provided a framework for understanding how children think
      • Patterns of development
      • Stage theorist
    • Piaget
      • Research focused on children’s development of
        • Logical
        • Scientific
        • Mathematical concepts
      • Stage theorist
      • Stages of development
        • Sensorimotor
        • Preoperations
        • Concrete operations
        • Formal operations
    • Schemes for organizing the world
      • Sets of
        • Physical actions
        • Mental operations
        • Concepts
    • Three types of knowledge:
      • Physical knowledge
      • Logico-mathematical knowledge
      • Social knowledge
    • Intellectual development guided by:
      • Organization
      • Adaptation
      • Assimilation
        • Making new information to fit existing schemes
      • Accommodation
        • Changing existing schemata
    • Piaget’s four factors for cognitive development:
      • Maturation of inherited physical structures
      • Physical experiences with the environment
      • Social transmission of information and knowledge
      • Equilibration
    • Object permanence
      • Knowledge that objects continue to exist even when they can no longer be seen or manipulated
    • Preoperational
      • Preschool children lack the ability to do some logical operations that older children can do
      • Children can use symbols
      • Children begin to use numbers as a tool for thinking
    • Metacognition
      • Thinking about thinking
    • Egocentrism.
      • Perceiving and interpreting the world in terms of self
    • Centration
      • Young children tend to focus or center their attention on only one aspect of a stimulus
    • In the concrete operational stage:
      • Thinking appears to be less rigid
      • Child understands that operations can be mentally reversed or negated
      • Ability to order objects in a logical progression
      • Ability to classify objects
      • Understand conservation
      • Ability to draw logical inference based on the relationship between two statements
    • Neo-Piagetians
      • Have attempted to add greater specificity to developmental changes, while maintaining the basic assumptions of Piaget’s theory
    • Piaget’s work
      • Concerns the purposes and goals of education
      • Knowledge is constructed from the child’s own physical and mental activities
      • Importance of play in children’s development
    • Lev Vygotsky
    • Vygotsky’s theory
      • Stresses relations between the individual and society
      • Children are born with elementary mental abilities such as perception, attention, and memory
      • Cognitive development related to qualitative changes in children’s thinking processes
      • Language is an important psychological tool influencing children’s cognitive development
    • Zone of Proximal Development
      • What they can do  ZPD  what they can do w/ assistance
      • Interactions with adults and peers move them to a higher level of functioning
    • Vygotsky
      • Knowledge construction not an individual process
      • Culture vital to shaping cognitive development
      • Knowledgeable peers or adults at heart of cognitive development
      • Learning precedes development
      • Less emphasis on physical maturation or innate biological processes
    • Egocentric speech
      • Movement from being regulated by others to being regulated by own thinking processes
    • Vygotsky & Piaget
      • Children are not passive receivers of knowledge
      • Play and activity are paramount for cognitive development