Dr. Abhijit Salvi
MBBS, Masters in Sports Medicine (U.K)
BCCI Anti-Doping and Age-Verification Officer
“Dope” – from Dutch word ‘Dop’ – an alcoholic
beverage from grape skins, used by Zulu warriors
to enhance their power in battle.
Doping is defined as occurrence of one or more of the
• Presence of Prohibited Substance in an Athlete’s Sample
• Use or Attempted Use
• Refusing or failing without compelling justification to submit to
Sample Collection after notification
• Violation of applicable requirements regarding Athlete availability
for Out-of-Competition Testing
• Tampering or Attempted Tampering
• Trafficking or Attempted Trafficking
• Administration or Attempted administration to any Athlete of a
Prohibited Substance or Prohibited Method
• Established in 1999
• HQ – Montreal, Canada
• 192 countries and more than 570 sporting organizations
have signed up with WADA
• WADA’s budget of US$ 25.5 million is shared equally by
member governments and the IOC.
• India has the highest number of failed dope tests
• In 2010, 103 Indian sportspersons, including juniors,
failed dope tests.
• The 2011, 121 tested positive while more than 130 have
failed in 2012.
• At the National School Games (U-16) at New Delhi in
January 2012, 11 out of 81 samples collected tested
positive for banned substances which included 3
Wrestlers, 3 Weightlifters and 5 Boxers.
• The Weight Lifting Federation of India has been
suspended twice by the International body.
• Doping threatens Athlete’s Health
• It also threatens Integrity of Sport
• Athletes are role models to many youngsters
• Ignorance about drugs
• Amateurism to professionalism.
• Drugs, a must for Winning.
• Fame & fortune.
• To cope with stress and injuries.
• Pressure from peers, coach, support staff, family, media &
• Most athletes are victims rather than culprits. Often
only the athlete is sanctioned, as the weakest link.
• The athlete in the WADA Code Acceptance Form has to
list his coach, manager, trainer & physiotherapist.
• Any positive doping test will lead to all being watch
listed and target tested
• Re-testing of samples once new methods are available.
• Urine and blood samples are now being preserved for 8
years to identify new drugs
• WADA reviews the Prohibited list annually
• The revised list is published on 1st October every
year and comes into effect 3 months later i.e. from
the following 1st of January.
A. Substances and Methods Prohibited at all times
(In- & Out-of Competition)
B. Substances and Methods Prohibited In-
C. Substances Prohibited in Particular Sports
D. Specified Substances
Prohibited In-Competition only, in following sports. Detection
conducted by breath/blood analysis. Violation threshold is 0.10 g/L
Aeronautic, Archery, Automobile, Karate, Motorcycling, Powerboating
In-Competition only, in following sports
Shooting, Archery, Automobile, Billiards, Darts, Golf,
The prohibited list may identify specified substances which are
particularly susceptible to unintentional Anti-Doping violations
because of their availability in medicinal & food products or
which are likely to be successfully abused as doping agents
• L-methyl Amphetamine
• TUE may be granted to a player permitting the use of
prohibited substance in the prohibited list
• The player should submit a TUE application when necessary
and exemption will be granted if sanctioned in accordance
with strict criteria.
• In a medical emergency, treatment is a priority.
Player/Doctor should apply for a TUE retroactively
• Stimulants: loss of appetite, insomnia, restlessness, high blood
pressure (HBP), palpitations and addiction
• Narcotics: aggravates injuries, loss of balance/coordination, depression
• Peptide Hormones: masculinity, abnormal growth, HBP, diabetes
mellitus, myocardial/cerebral infarction, embolism, convulsions
• Billion $ Industry
• Widespread among sports persons
• Recommended by fitness trainers
• Not recommended by the IOC
• Not regulated by the FDA
• WADA does not accept testing certificates
• 1 in 4 Nutritional Supplements are contaminated
• Promoting adaptations to training
• Increasing energy supply
• Allows more intense training by promoting recovery
• Maintains good health & reduces interruptions to training due to
chronic fatigue, illness or injury
• Enhancing competitive performance
Carbohydrates are the main source of energy. Carbs are
stored in the liver & muscles.
Fats are the secondary & a long term source of energy. Fats
stored in fat depots in the body
Proteins are essential for muscle growth & repair. Not a
major source of energy & they cannot be stored in the
Amino acids from protein form building blocks for manufacture
of new tissue including muscle and repair of damaged tissue
Proteins are building blocks for hormones and enzymes that
Proteins also support the immune system
Provides a small source of fuel for the exercising muscle
Protein Supplements, High Protein bars and amino acid
preparations - biggest selling sports nutrition products
An adequate intake of protein essential for muscle growth and
RDA can be easily achieved with everyday foods. Hence extra
protein seldom required
Whole proteins have advantages over individual amino
Sedentary 0.8 gm/kg BW
Elite Athlete 1.2-1.6 gm/kg BW
Most athletes consume more than 1.2-1.6 gm/kg BW protein in their
normal diet and hence do not need to be encouraged or educated to
increase their protein intake
Some resistance trained athletes and body builders take up to 2-3 gm/kg
BW proteins which is not required
• 2 small eggs
• 300 ml of cow’s milk
• 20 gm. of skim milk powder
• 30 gm. of cheese
• 200 gm. yoghurt
• 35-50 gm. of meat, fish or
• 4 slices bread
• 90 gm. breakfast cereal
2 cups cooked pasta or 3
400 ml soy milk
60 gm nuts or seeds
120 gm tofu or soy meat
150 gm legumes or lentils
200 gm baked beans
150 ml fruit smoothie or
liquid meal supplement
total balance of the diet
timing of protein-carbohydrate meals and snacks in
relation to training & competition
Whole milk is 82% casein (slow absorption) + 18% whey (fast
Whey is a by-product of whole milk after cheese production Whey
protein powder is 10 times more expensive than milk
Whey stimulates early protein synthesis but due to faster oxidation
this effect is short-acting and complete within an hour
Casein stimulates late protein synthesis which lasts for 4 to 7 hours.
Besides casein reduces muscle protein breakdown.
Recent studies show that milk is as effective or more
effective as a sports recovery drink than commercially
available sports drinks (in lactose tolerant people)
In lactose intolerant people soya milk could be
Besides water, milk also provides high quality protein,
carbohydrates, vitamins, electrolytes and minerals such as
Athletes must be aware of the strict liability principle that
makes them responsible for everything they eat and drink
Surveys have suggested that 1 in 4 may result in a positive
Prohibited compounds are never declared on the label
At present, there can be no guarantee of the purity of any
If there is any doubt at all, DON’T TAKE IT
Ayurveda & Homeopathy have stood
the test of time. People’s perception
is that they are effective and safe.
The fact is that the ingredients are
unknown, no effective product
labeling and not recognized by
Upul Tharanga, Sri Lankan opening
batsman, tested positive for
Prednisolone during the Cricket
World Cup 2011.
It is presumed that this banned
substance came from his homeopathy
prescription by a popular Sri Lankan
homeopath for treatment of Bronchial