Infection Concepts

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  • Infection Concepts

    1. 1. Peggy D. Johndrow 2009
    2. 2. <ul><li>Pathogen: any disease-producing microorganism </li></ul><ul><li>Communicable: via person-to-person contact </li></ul><ul><li>Pathogenicity: ability to cause disease </li></ul><ul><li>Virulence: degree of communicability </li></ul><ul><li>Colonization: microorganism present in tissue, but not yet causing symptomatic disease </li></ul><ul><li>Normal flora often competes with microorganisms to prevent infections </li></ul>
    3. 4. <ul><li>Local infection: infection relegated to a specific body part </li></ul><ul><li>Systemic infection: m icroorganism spreads and damages throughout body </li></ul><ul><li>Acute infection sudden; lasts short time </li></ul><ul><li>Chronic infections slow with prolonged period </li></ul>
    4. 5. <ul><li>Reservoirs </li></ul><ul><li>Pathogens </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Toxins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exotoxins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Endotoxins </li></ul></ul>
    5. 7. <ul><li>Respiratory tract </li></ul><ul><li>Gastrointestinal tract </li></ul><ul><li>Genitourinary tract </li></ul><ul><li>Skin/mucous membranes </li></ul><ul><li>Bloodstream </li></ul>
    6. 8. <ul><li>Contact transmission by direct or indirect contact </li></ul><ul><li>Droplet transmission such as influenza </li></ul><ul><li>Airborne transmission such as tuberculosis </li></ul><ul><li>Vector-borne transmission involving insect or animal carriers, such as Lyme disease </li></ul>
    7. 9. <ul><li>Practice hand hygiene and proper hand washing </li></ul><ul><li>Artificial fingernails create poor hand hygiene </li></ul><ul><li>Gloves should be worn </li></ul><ul><li>CDC provides guidelines for disinfection & sterilization, outlining standard precautions for all modes of transmission </li></ul><ul><li>Personal protective equipment as required for specific situations </li></ul>
    8. 10. <ul><li>Adjust water controls </li></ul><ul><li>Wet hands </li></ul><ul><li>Apply soap </li></ul><ul><li>Wash in circular motion (10 sec; sing ABC song) </li></ul><ul><li>Rinse hands </li></ul><ul><li>Dry thoroughly to prevent chapping. </li></ul><ul><li>Turn water off with towel </li></ul><ul><li>Place towel in garbage </li></ul><ul><li>Sterile Technique variation: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wet hands; lather with soap; hold hands higher than elbows </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rinse </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dry one hand up to elbow; rotate hand up to elbow with one towel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use 2 nd towel to dry next hand up to elbow in same motion </li></ul></ul>
    9. 11. <ul><li>The sterile field </li></ul><ul><li>Sterile gown </li></ul><ul><li>Sterile gloves </li></ul><ul><li>Removal of soiled wear </li></ul>
    10. 12. <ul><li>Multiple drug–resistant infections are no more transmissible than drug-sensitive counterparts, S. aureus and Enterococcus organisms </li></ul><ul><li>CDC has specific guidelines to control antimicrobial resistance in health care settings </li></ul>
    11. 13. <ul><li>Noncompliance or nonadherence </li></ul><ul><li>Legal sanctions that compel client to complete treatment, such as in instance of tuberculosis </li></ul><ul><li>Septicemia </li></ul><ul><li>Septic shock </li></ul>
    12. 14. <ul><li>History </li></ul><ul><li>Physical assessment & clinical manifestations </li></ul><ul><li>Psychosocial assessment </li></ul><ul><li>Laboratory assessment including: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Culture and antibiotic sensitivity testing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Complete blood count </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Erythrocyte sedimentation rate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Serologic testing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Radiographic and other assessment </li></ul></ul>
    13. 15. <ul><li>Eliminate underlying cause of hyperthermia and destroy causative microorganism </li></ul><ul><li>Manage fever by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pharmacotherapy: antimicrobial, antipyretic therapy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>External cooling, fluid administration, cool cloths, cool environment (A/C, no blankets, fans) </li></ul></ul>
    14. 16. <ul><li>Education about mode of transmission of infection and mechanisms communication </li></ul><ul><li>Assess coping mechanisms used in past </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain communication with client </li></ul>
    15. 17. <ul><li>Education on following topics vital to client’s understanding of transmission prevention precautions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Infection control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pharmacotherapy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Psychosocial support </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Health care resources </li></ul></ul>
    16. 18. <ul><li>What are some things that make an individual more prone to infection? </li></ul>

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