Infection Concepts

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  • 1. Peggy D. Johndrow 2009
  • 2.
    • Pathogen: any disease-producing microorganism
    • Communicable: via person-to-person contact
    • Pathogenicity: ability to cause disease
    • Virulence: degree of communicability
    • Colonization: microorganism present in tissue, but not yet causing symptomatic disease
    • Normal flora often competes with microorganisms to prevent infections
  • 3.  
  • 4.
    • Local infection: infection relegated to a specific body part
    • Systemic infection: m icroorganism spreads and damages throughout body
    • Acute infection sudden; lasts short time
    • Chronic infections slow with prolonged period
  • 5.
    • Reservoirs
    • Pathogens
      • Toxins
      • Exotoxins
      • Endotoxins
  • 6.  
  • 7.
    • Respiratory tract
    • Gastrointestinal tract
    • Genitourinary tract
    • Skin/mucous membranes
    • Bloodstream
  • 8.
    • Contact transmission by direct or indirect contact
    • Droplet transmission such as influenza
    • Airborne transmission such as tuberculosis
    • Vector-borne transmission involving insect or animal carriers, such as Lyme disease
  • 9.
    • Practice hand hygiene and proper hand washing
    • Artificial fingernails create poor hand hygiene
    • Gloves should be worn
    • CDC provides guidelines for disinfection & sterilization, outlining standard precautions for all modes of transmission
    • Personal protective equipment as required for specific situations
  • 10.
    • Adjust water controls
    • Wet hands
    • Apply soap
    • Wash in circular motion (10 sec; sing ABC song)
    • Rinse hands
    • Dry thoroughly to prevent chapping.
    • Turn water off with towel
    • Place towel in garbage
    • Sterile Technique variation:
      • Wet hands; lather with soap; hold hands higher than elbows
      • Rinse
      • Dry one hand up to elbow; rotate hand up to elbow with one towel
      • Use 2 nd towel to dry next hand up to elbow in same motion
  • 11.
    • The sterile field
    • Sterile gown
    • Sterile gloves
    • Removal of soiled wear
  • 12.
    • Multiple drug–resistant infections are no more transmissible than drug-sensitive counterparts, S. aureus and Enterococcus organisms
    • CDC has specific guidelines to control antimicrobial resistance in health care settings
  • 13.
    • Noncompliance or nonadherence
    • Legal sanctions that compel client to complete treatment, such as in instance of tuberculosis
    • Septicemia
    • Septic shock
  • 14.
    • History
    • Physical assessment & clinical manifestations
    • Psychosocial assessment
    • Laboratory assessment including:
      • Culture and antibiotic sensitivity testing
      • Complete blood count
      • Erythrocyte sedimentation rate
      • Serologic testing
      • Radiographic and other assessment
  • 15.
    • Eliminate underlying cause of hyperthermia and destroy causative microorganism
    • Manage fever by:
      • Pharmacotherapy: antimicrobial, antipyretic therapy
      • External cooling, fluid administration, cool cloths, cool environment (A/C, no blankets, fans)
  • 16.
    • Education about mode of transmission of infection and mechanisms communication
    • Assess coping mechanisms used in past
    • Maintain communication with client
  • 17.
    • Education on following topics vital to client’s understanding of transmission prevention precautions:
      • Infection control
      • Pharmacotherapy
      • Psychosocial support
      • Health care resources
  • 18.
    • What are some things that make an individual more prone to infection?
  • 19.  
  • 20.