Chapter 13 And 15 Fluid Electrolytes Basics

  • 4,127 views
Uploaded on

 

  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
No Downloads

Views

Total Views
4,127
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0

Actions

Shares
Downloads
164
Comments
1
Likes
1

Embeds 0

No embeds

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
    No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. Fluid and Electrolytes Basics Peggy D. Johndrow 2009
  • 2. Fluid Compartments
    • Intracellular fluid (ICF)
    • Extracellular fluid (ECF)
      • Intravascular (plasma)
      • Interstitial
    • Transcellular
      • Cerebrospinal fluid
      • Gastrointestinal (GI) tract
      • Pleural spaces
      • Synovial spaces
      • Peritoneal fluid spaces
  • 3. Fluid and Electrolyte Movement
    • Diffusion
    • Facilitated Diffusion
    • Active Transport
    • Osmosis
      • Measurement of Osmolality
      • Osmotic Movement of Fluids
    • Hydrostatic Pressure
    • Oncotic Pressure
  • 4. Filtration
    • Blood pressure - hydrostatic filtering force
    • Difference between hydrostatic pressure of capillary bed and interstitial determines whether fluid leaves the blood vessels and enters the tissue spaces (interstitial fluid)
  • 5. Diffusion
    • Diffusion - free movement of most electrolytes, atoms, and molecules through cell membranes (selective and impermeable)
    • Movement of molecules from an area of high concentration to low concentration; occurs in liquids, solids, and gases
    • Membrane separating two areas must be permeable to substance for diffusion to occur
  • 6. Diffusion
  • 7. Facilitated Diffusion
    • Very similar to diffusion
    • Specific carrier molecules involved to accelerate diffusion
    • Glucose cannot cross the cell membrane without insulin
  • 8. Osmosis
    • Osmosis and filtration act together in capillary fluid dynamics to control extracellular fluid (ECF) and intracellular fluid (ICF) volumes
    • Thirst mechanism - example of how osmosis helps maintain homeostasis
  • 9. Active Transport
    • Cells use active transport to control cell volume and intracellular concentrations of many substances
    • Process in which molecules move against concentration gradient
    • Example: sodium-potassium pump
    • ATP is energy source
  • 10. Sodium-Potassium Pump
  • 11. Fluid Movement in Capillaries
    • Fluid Shifts
      • Shifts of Plasma to Interstitial Fluid
        • Elevation of venous hydrostatic pressure
        • Decrease in plasma oncotic pressure
        • Elevation of interstitial oncotic pressure
      • Shifts of Interstitial Fluid to Plasma
  • 12. Regulation of Water Balance
    • Hypothalamic Regulation
    • Pituitary Regulation
    • Adrenal Cortical Regulation
    • Renal Regulation
    • Cardiac Regulation
    • Gastrointestinal Regulation
    • Insensible Water Loss
  • 13. Sodium (Na)
    • Normal plasma sodium level 136 - 145 mEq/L
    • Sodium - major cation in extracellular fluid; responsible for maintaining extracellular fluid (ECF) osmolarity; responsible for skeletal muscle and cardiac contraction, nerve impulse transmission, normal extracellular fluid osmolarity and normal extracellular volume
  • 14. Calcium (Ca++)
    • Calcium levels 9.0 - 10.5 mg/dL
    • Calcium: important in maintenance of bone strength and density, activation of enzymes or reactions, skeletal and cardiac muscle contraction, nerve impulse transmission, and blood clotting
  • 15. Phosphorous (P)
    • Phosphorous plasma levels 3.0 - 4.5 mg/dL
    • Phosphorous function: activating B-complex vitamins, forming and activating ATP, assisting in cell division, and cooperating in CHO, protein, and lipid metabolism
    • Phosphorous balance and calcium balance inverse proportion
  • 16. Magnesium (Mg2+)
    • Free magnesium plasma levels 1.3 - 2.1 mg/dL
    • Functions: skeletal muscle contraction. carbohydrate metabolism, adenosine triphosphate formation (ATP), B-complex vitamin activation, DNA and protein synthesis
    • Extracellular magnesium regulates blood coagulation and skeletal muscle contractility
  • 17. Chloride (Cl)
    • Chloride normal plasma level 98 -106 mEq/L
    • Functions: works with sodium to maintain extracellular fluid osmotic pressure, important in the formation of hydrochloric acid in stomach, bicarbonate anion most commonly exchanged for chloride
  • 18. Assessment Fluid Electrolyte Balance
    • History
      • Medical/surgical history
      • Medication
      • Food/fluid
    • Physical assessment
      • S/S edema, dehydration, electrolyte imbalance
    • Psychosocial assessment
    • Diagnostic assessment
      • Lab studies: blood, urine