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Cardiac cycle

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  • 1. CARDIAC CYCLE -Dr. Chintan
  • 2. CARDIAC CYCLE The cardiac events that occur from the beginning of one heartbeat to the beginning of the next are called the cardiac cycle. Each cycle is initiated by spontaneous generation of an action potential in the sinus node. AP → Atria → A – V bundles → Ventricles. AV Delay - .1 sec Diastole: Period of relaxation – heart fills with blood. Systole: Period of contraction – heart pumps the blood.
  • 3. CARDIAC CYCLE Normal average HR 75 bpm. Duration of each cardiac cycle is 60/75=0.8 sec Atrial cycle: 1. Atrial systole – 0.1 sec 2. Atrial diastole – 0.7 sec Ventricular cycle: Ventricular systole (0.3 sec) 1. Isovolumic contraction – 0.05 sec 2. Ventricular ejection: rapid ejection – 0.1 sec, slow ejection – 0.15 sec Ventricular diastole (0.5 sec) 1. Protodiastole - 0.04 sec 2. Isovolumic relaxation – 0.06 sec 3. Rapid passive filling – 0.11 sec 4. Reduced filling (diastasis) – 0.19 sec 5. Last rapid filling – 0.1 sec
  • 4. CARDIAC CYCLE The sequence of events (which may overlap) are: Atrial diastole → Ventricular diastole → Atrial systole → Ventricular systole
  • 5.  Valves open passively & close actively due to pressure gradients AV valves open when P in atria > P in ventricles  AV valves close when P in ventricles > P in atria  Semilunar valves open when P in ventricles > P in arteries  Semilunar valves close when P in arteries > P in ventricles 
  • 6. VENTRICULAR SYSTOLE Isovolumic contraction: Immediately after ventricular contraction begins, the ventricular pressure rises abruptly, causing the A-V valves to close. An additional 0.02 to 0.03 second is required for the ventricle to build up sufficient pressure to push the semilunar valves open against the pressures in the aorta and pulmonary artery. Therefore, during this period, contraction is occurring in the ventricles, but there is no emptying. This is called the period of isovolumic or isometric contraction, meaning that tension is increasing in the muscle but little or no shortening of the muscle fibers is occurring.
  • 7. VENTRICULAR SYSTOLE Ventricular Ejection: When the left ventricular pressure rises slightly above 80 mm Hg and the right ventricular pressure slightly above 8 mm Hg, the ventricular pressures push the semilunar valves open. Immediately, blood begins to pour out of the ventricles, with about 70 per cent of the blood emptying occurring during the first third of the period of ejection and the period of rapid ejection. Remaining 30 per cent emptying during the next two thirds – the period of slow ejection.
  • 8. VENTRICULAR DIASTOLE Protodiastole: Once the ventricular muscle is fully contracted, the already falling ventricular pressures drop more rapidly. The elevated pressures in the distended large arteries that have just been filled with blood from the contracted ventricles immediately push blood back toward the ventricles, which snaps the aortic and pulmonary valves closed. Isovolumic relaxation: At the end of systole, ventricular relaxation begins suddenly, allowing both the right and left intraventricular pressures to decrease rapidly. For another 0.03 to 0.06 second, the ventricular muscle continues to relax, even though the ventricular volume does not change, giving rise to the period of isovolumic or isometric relaxation. During this period, the intraventricular pressures decrease rapidly back to their low diastolic levels. Then the A-V valves open to begin a new cycle of ventricular pumping.
  • 9. VENTRICULAR DIASTOLE Rapid passive filling: During ventricular systole, large amounts of blood accumulate in the right and left atria because of the closed A-V valves. Therefore, as soon as systole is over and the ventricular pressures fall again, the moderately increased pressures that have developed in the atria during ventricular systole immediately push the A-V valves open and allow blood to flow rapidly into the ventricles - the rise of the left ventricular volume curve. (70% approx.) Reduced filling (diastasis): During the middle third of diastole, only a small amount of blood normally flows into the ventricles that continues to empty into the atria from the veins and passes through the atria directly into the ventricles. (20% approx.) Last rapid filling: During the last third of diastole, the atria contract and give an additional thrust to the inflow of blood into the ventricles; this accounts for about 10 per cent of the filling of the ventricles. (10% approx. - atrial kick)
  • 10. VENTRICULAR PRESSURE CURVE Atrial systole - ↑ pressure  Closure of AV valves  Isometric contraction – sharp ↑ in pressure  Opening of semilunar valves  Ejection period – rapid ejection ↑ pressure – slow ejection ↓ pressure  Protodiastole - ↓ pressure  Closure of semilunar valves  Isometric relaxation - sharp ↓ in pressure  Opening of AV valves  Rapid filling - ↓ pressure  Slow filling - ↓ pressure 
  • 11. VENTRICULAR VOLUME CURVE Atrial systole - ↑ volume  Closure of AV valves  Isometric contraction – no change  Opening of semilunar valves  Ejection period – rapid ejection, sharp ↓ in volume – slow ejection, ↓ volume slowly  Protodiastole – no change  Closure of semilunar valves  Isometric relaxation – no change  Opening of AV valves  Rapid filling – rapid ↑ in volume  Slow filling – volume ↑ slowly 
  • 12. AORTIC PRESSURE CURVE When the left ventricle contracts, the ventricular pressure increases rapidly until the aortic valve opens. Then, after the valve opens, the pressure in the ventricle rises much less rapidly, because blood immediately flows out of the ventricle into the aorta. The entry of blood into the arteries causes the walls of these arteries to stretch and the pressure to increase to about 120 mm Hg – SBP. Next, at the end of systole, after the left ventricle stops ejecting blood and the aortic valve closes, the elastic walls of the arteries maintain a high pressure in the arteries, even during diastole – DBP 80 mm Hg. Incisura – backflow of blood. After the aortic valve has closed, the pressure in the aorta decreases slowly throughout diastole because the blood stored in the distended elastic arteries flows continually through the peripheral vessels. Rt. Ventricle, pulmonary artery pressure 1/6th
  • 13. PULMONARY ARTERY PRESSURE CURVE  Same as aortic pressure curve  Only pressure difference  Systolic pressure: 15 – 18 mm Hg  Diastolic pressure: 8 – 10 mm Hg
  • 14. THANQ

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