Blood groups

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Blood groups

  1. 1. *BLOOD - Dr.Chintan
  2. 2. * * The bloods of different people have different antigenic and immune properties, so that antibodies in the plasma of one blood will react with antigens on the surfaces of the red cells of another blood type * Antigen (Agglutinogen) – Red cell membrane * Antibody (Agglutinin) – Plasma * Types : ABO Blood group Rhesus (Rh) Blood group Others
  3. 3. * * Karl Landsteiner’s law : * If an antigen is present in the RBC’s of an individual, the corresponding antibody must be absent from the plasma * If an antigen is absent in the RBC’s of an individual, the corresponding antibody must be present from the plasma * Exception Blood Types Agglutinogens Agglutinins A A Anti – B (β) B B Anti – A (α) AB A and B - O - Anti – A and Anti - B
  4. 4. The ABO gene locus is located on the chromosome 9
  5. 5. * * Immediately after birth, the quantity of agglutinins in the plasma is almost zero. Two to 8 months after birth, an infant begins to produce agglutinins. * Anti-A agglutinins when type A agglutinogens are not present in the cells, and anti-B agglutinins when type B agglutinogens are not in the cells. * A maximum titer is usually reached at 8 to 10 years of age, and this gradually declines throughout the remaining years of life. * But why are these agglutinins produced in people who do not have the respective agglutinogens in their red blood cells ? * Small amounts of type A and B antigens enter the body in food, in bacteria, and in other ways, and these substances initiate the development of the anti-A and anti-B agglutinins. * Agglutinogens A & B 1st appear in the 6th week of fetal life. (1/5 → puberty → adolescence.
  6. 6. * * When bloods are mismatched so that anti-A or anti-B plasma agglutinins are mixed with red blood cells that contain A or B agglutinogens, respectively, the red cells agglutinate as a result of the agglutinins’ attaching themselves to the red blood cells. * Because the agglutinins have two binding sites (IgG type) or 10 binding sites (IgM type), a single agglutinin can attach to two or more red blood cells at the same time, thereby causing the cells to be bound together by the agglutinin. This causes the cells to clump, which is the process of “agglutination.” * These clumps plug small blood vessels throughout the circulatory system. * During ensuing hours to days, either physical distortion of the cells or attack by phagocytic white blood cells destroys the membranes of the agglutinated cells, releasing hemoglobin into the plasma, which is called “hemolysis” of the red blood cells.
  7. 7. * The red blood cells are first separated from the plasma and diluted with saline. One portion is then mixed with anti-A agglutinin and another portion with anti-B agglutinin. After several minutes, the mixtures are observed under a microscope. If the red blood cells have become clumped—that is, “agglutinated”—one knows that an antibody antigen reaction has resulted. RBC Types Anti – A Sera (Blue) Anti – B Sera (Yellow) O - - A + - B - + AB + +
  8. 8. * * The Rh system is the second most significant blood-group system in human-blood transfusion. The most significant Rh antigen is the D antigen, because it is the most likely to provoke an immune system response. * Anti-D antibodies are not usually produced by sensitization against environmental substances. * D-negative individuals can produce IgG anti-D antibodies following a sensitizing event. * A fetomaternal transfusion of blood from a fetus in pregnancy or occasionally a blood transfusion with D positive RBCs. * When red blood cells containing Rh factor are injected into a person whose blood does not contain the Rh factor—that is, into an Rh-negative person—anti-Rh agglutinins develop slowly, reaching maximum concentration of agglutinins about 2 to 4 months later. * % proportion
  9. 9. * * If an Rh negative person has never before been exposed to Rh positive blood, transfusion of Rh-positive blood into that person will likely cause no immediate reaction. * However, anti-Rh antibodies can develop in sufficient quantities during the next 2 to 4 weeks to cause agglutination of those transfused cells that are still circulating in the blood. * These cells are then hemolyzed by the tissue macrophage system. Thus, a delayed transfusion reaction occurs, although it is usually mild. * On subsequent transfusion of Rh-positive blood into the same person, who is now already immunized against the Rh factor, the transfusion reaction is greatly enhanced and can be immediate and as severe as a transfusion reaction caused by mismatched type A or B blood.
  10. 10. * * Erythroblastosis fetalis is a disease of the fetus and newborn child characterized by agglutination and phagocytosis of the fetus’s red blood cells. * In most instances of erythroblastosis fetalis, the mother is Rh negative and the father Rh positive. The baby has inherited the Rh-positive antigen from the father. * The mother develops anti-Rh agglutinins from exposure to the fetus’s Rh antigen. * Mother’s agglutinins diffuse through the placenta into the fetus and cause red blood cell agglutination. * 1st delivery – no harm * The incidence rises progressively with subsequent pregnancies.
  11. 11. * *Rapid production – early form of RBC – nucleated blastic forms *Anemic, sometimes severe *Agglutination – hemolysis – hemoglobin – bilirubin – jaundice *Hepatomegaly, splenomegaly (Icterus gravis neonatorum) *Kernicterus *Hydrops fetalis – edema – cardiac failure – intrauterine death
  12. 12. * * Kernicterus : * Bilirubin – BBB – Brain damage * Basal ganglia, hippocampus, cerebellum, cranial nerves * Lethargic, sleepy, hypotonia * Hypertonia * Irritability, crying, chorea, athetosis, spasticity, convulsions, fever, coma
  13. 13. * * To replace the neonate’s blood with Rh-negative blood. Rh-positive blood is being removed – exchange transfusion * Rh immunoglobulin globin, an anti-D antibody is administered to the expectant mother starting at 28 to 30 weeks of gestation. * The anti-D antibody is also administered to Rh-negative women who deliver Rh-positive babies to prevent sensitization of the mothers to the D antigen. * This greatly reduces the risk of developing large amounts of D antibodies during the second pregnancy. * MOA : to inhibit antigen-induced B lymphocyte antibody production in the expectant mother. It also attaches to D antigen sites on Rh-positive fetal red blood cells that may cross the placenta and enter the circulation of the expectant mother.
  14. 14. * ABO Rh IgM IgG Can’t cross the placenta Cross the placenta Immediate Late Cold Warm Natural antibody No natural antibody Tissues, body fluids + - Glycolipids, glycoproteins Integral membrane proteins
  15. 15. * * Blood transfusion, tissue transplant, emergency conditions * Rh incompatibility * Paternity dispute * Medico legal * Diseases (O – ulcer, A – carcinoma)
  16. 16. *BLOOD TRANSFUSION
  17. 17. * * Blood loss – accidents, surgical operations * Severe anemia (Pregnancy & emergency surgery – quick restoration of Hb) * Exchange transfusion * Blood diseases – Aplastic anemia, agranulocytosis, leukemias, hemophilia, purpura, clotting & bleeding disorders * Acute CO poisoning * Autologous (Elective surgery)
  18. 18. * * Donor selection * Cross matching * Major – Donor cell with recipient plasma * Minor – Recipient cells with donor plasma * Universal donor (O –ve) * Universal recipient (AB +ve)
  19. 19. *
  20. 20. * * Chills, fever, skin rash, itching * Anaphylactic shock * Circulatory overload * Iron overload – hemosiderosis * Transmission of diseases * Infection * Thrombophlebitis * Air embolism * Hyperkalemia * Hypocalcaemia
  21. 21. * * Hemolysis – hemoglobinemia & hemoglobinuria (red urine), heart rate ↑, BP ↓, dyspnea, bronchospasm, nausea, vomiting,, pulmonary edema, CCF…………. Jaundice * Chest pain, back pain * Renal stone * Renal shutdown – anuria * Renal vasoconstriction, circulatory shock, kidney tubules blockage * Uremia, Coma, death
  22. 22. * * 1 unit of blood (300 ml) – every 3 months * ACD mixture (21 days) * Cold storage - RBC swell (loss of K, ↑ in Na, water) - 80 % - 24 hrs. – Destroyed at 1% / day - WBCs, Platelets – absent after 24 hrs. * Blood components – PCV, FFP, Platelets
  23. 23. *THANQ……
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