‫עברית‬
EXPRESS
Lesson 7: Describing
Relationships in Space
and Time
The Ivrit Express series
presents compact lessons in
Biblical (not Modern) Hebrew
grammar. It aims to reinforce
(not repla...
Sometime soon, this
slideshow will gain a
soundtrack. It doesn’t
have one yet, though.
This lesson introduces
the basics of describing
relationships in space
and time—in grammatical
terms, using prepositions.
Please note that this
lesson assumes you are
comfortable using subject
pronouns as “equals signs.”
If that’s not true, ple...
Relax, watch, and listen
as you advance through
the next few slides.
‫אִישׁ‬
‫בַּי&ת‬
‫אִישׁ ו*בַי&ת‬
‫הָאִישׁ הֹלֵ0 אֶל הַבַּי&ת‬
‫הָאִישׁ הֹלֵ0 לַבַּי&ת‬
‫הָאִישׁ הֹלֵ0 עַד הַבַּי&ת‬
‫הָאִישׁ הוּא אֵצֶל הַבַּי&ת‬
‫הָאִישׁ הוּא עַל–י8ד הַבַּי&ת‬
‫הָאִישׁ הוּא לִפְנ9י הַבַּי&ת‬
‫הָאִישׁ הוּא אֲחַ=י הַבַּי&ת‬
‫הָאִישׁ הוּא עַל הַבַּי&ת‬
‫הָאִישׁ הוּא בַבַּי&ת‬
‫הָאִישׁ הֹלֵ0 מִן–הַבַּי&ת‬
‫עוֹף‬
‫ה‬
‫אֲ‪D‬מָ  ‬
‫תּוֹלַעַת‬
‫הָעוֹף הוּא מִמַּעַל לַבַּי&ת‬
‫הָאֲ‪D‬מָה הִיא ת‪G‬חַת הַבַּי&ת‬
‫הַתּוֹלַעַת הִיא מִתַּחַת הַבַּי&ת‬
I recommend that you go
through the foregoing picture
slides at least three times
before advancing to the
grammatical disc...
The next slide presents a
diagram summarizing the
most frequently-used Hebrew
prepositions. Warning: the
slide is pretty “...
‫מִמַּעַל‬
‫עַל‬
‫עַד‬
‫לְ-‬
‫אַחַר‬
‫אֶל‬
‫עַל–י‪I‬ד‬
‫בְּ-‬
‫מִן‬
‫אֵצֶל‬
‫תַּחַת לִפְנ9י‬
‫כְּ-‬
‫עִם‬
‫מִתַּחַת‬
Biblical Hebrew has two kinds
of prepositions: stand-alone
and attached (the fancy word is
“enclitic”).
The stand-alone prepositions
are easy to use once you learn
their meanings. You just say the
preposition as a separate wor...
So if I see a bird flying
above a house, I can tell
you, ‫.י9שׁ עוֹף מִמַּעַל לַבַּי&ת הָהוּא‬
But notice that I had to
use a ְ‫ ל‬to mark the object
of the preposition. This isn’t
always the case, but it’s the
way ‫ ...
Over time, you’ll get to know
each preposition’s preferences
and requirements individually.
There is no overarching rule t...
A stand-alone preposition will
often join up with its object
(usually the very next word in
the phrase) using a horizontal...
The ‫ מַקֵּף‬doesn’t change
the preposition’s meaning.
The phrases ‫ אֶל הַמָּקוֹם‬and
‫ אֶל–הַמָּקוֹם‬both mean “to
the place....
The combining prepositions
require just a touch more
attention. They join to the
beginning of the word that
serves as thei...
The preposition ְ‫ ל‬can mean
“to, toward.”* Thus a man
could go ‫מֶּשֶׂק‬Oְ‫“ ,ל‬to
Damascus.” See how I just
added ְ‫ ל‬to...
On the previous slide, you may
have noticed that attaching a
preposition can cause some
spelling changes. You’ll grow
accu...
When you attach a
preposition to a word that
normally has a ‫ דָּגֵשׁ‬in its
first letter (like ‫,)דַּמֶּשֶׂק‬
that letter lose...
The loss of ‫ דָּגֵשׁ‬can change
the word’s pronunciation. For
example, if you go toward
the city of ‫( בֵּית–לֶחֶם‬beitle-CH...
When you attach a preposition
to a word that normally has a
vocal ‫א‬I‫ שְׁו‬under its first letter,
the preposition’s voca...
Thus a man might go
‫מֶּשֶׂק‬Oְ‫ ,ל‬but he goes
‫ לִפְנוּאֵל‬or ‫.לִירוּשָׁלַי&ם‬
To say that a man is
going to a house, you
simply say ‫.אִישׁ הֹלֵ0 לְבַי&ת‬
Very straightforward.
But what if you want to say
that the man is going to the
house, a specific house?
When you attach a
preposition to a word that
needs a definite article,
you use the preposition’s
consonant and the definit...
Another way to think about
this is that the preposition’s
consonant “lies on top of”
the definite article’s ‫.ה‬
“The house” is ‫ .הַבַּי&ת‬When you
add ְ‫ ל‬you get ‫“ ,לַבַּי&ת‬to the
house.” If you add ְ‫ ,בּ‬you get
‫“ ,בַּבַי&ת‬in the...
Finally, the preposition ‫מִן‬
(often but not always meaning
“from”) requires attention,
because it can stand alone or
att...
When ‫ מִן‬stands alone, it
acts just like any other
stand-alone preposition.
It usually joins up with the
next word using...
When ‫ מִן‬attaches to the
following word, it takes
the form ִ‫ ,מ‬and the letter
after the ִ‫ מ‬takes a ‫.דָּגֵשׁ‬
If the letter after the
attached ִ‫ מ‬can’t take a
‫( דָּגֵשׁ‬because it’s a guttural
or ‫ ,)ר‬the attached pronoun
takes th...
Whether ‫ מִן‬attaches to its
object or stands alone makes
no difference to its meaning.
Both ‫ מִן–דַּמֶּשֶׂק‬and ‫מִדַּמֶשֶׂק...
If ‫’מִן‬s object has a definite
article, it is far more common
for ‫ מִן‬to stand alone than to
attach. If it does attach...
Thus, “from the mountain”
could be ‫ מִן–הָהַר‬or ‫.מֵהָהַר‬
As you have seen, there is a
lot to learn about prepositions!
Most of it will become natural
with time and practice. Revie...
CREDITS
Scripted and narrated by

Dr. Chris Heard, Pepperdine University
Partially funded by

a Pepperdine University
Facu...
Upcoming SlideShare
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Ivrit Express 7: Describing Relationships in Space and Time

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A brief lesson on prepositions in Biblical Hebrew. Learn by example, then delve into the underlying grammar.

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Ivrit Express 7: Describing Relationships in Space and Time

  1. 1. ‫עברית‬ EXPRESS Lesson 7: Describing Relationships in Space and Time
  2. 2. The Ivrit Express series presents compact lessons in Biblical (not Modern) Hebrew grammar. It aims to reinforce (not replace) your classroom experiences.
  3. 3. Sometime soon, this slideshow will gain a soundtrack. It doesn’t have one yet, though.
  4. 4. This lesson introduces the basics of describing relationships in space and time—in grammatical terms, using prepositions.
  5. 5. Please note that this lesson assumes you are comfortable using subject pronouns as “equals signs.” If that’s not true, please practice a bit more with Lesson 2 in this series.
  6. 6. Relax, watch, and listen as you advance through the next few slides.
  7. 7. ‫אִישׁ‬
  8. 8. ‫בַּי&ת‬
  9. 9. ‫אִישׁ ו*בַי&ת‬
  10. 10. ‫הָאִישׁ הֹלֵ0 אֶל הַבַּי&ת‬
  11. 11. ‫הָאִישׁ הֹלֵ0 לַבַּי&ת‬
  12. 12. ‫הָאִישׁ הֹלֵ0 עַד הַבַּי&ת‬
  13. 13. ‫הָאִישׁ הוּא אֵצֶל הַבַּי&ת‬
  14. 14. ‫הָאִישׁ הוּא עַל–י8ד הַבַּי&ת‬
  15. 15. ‫הָאִישׁ הוּא לִפְנ9י הַבַּי&ת‬
  16. 16. ‫הָאִישׁ הוּא אֲחַ=י הַבַּי&ת‬
  17. 17. ‫הָאִישׁ הוּא עַל הַבַּי&ת‬
  18. 18. ‫הָאִישׁ הוּא בַבַּי&ת‬
  19. 19. ‫הָאִישׁ הֹלֵ0 מִן–הַבַּי&ת‬
  20. 20. ‫עוֹף‬
  21. 21. ‫ה‬ ‫אֲ‪D‬מָ  ‬
  22. 22. ‫תּוֹלַעַת‬
  23. 23. ‫הָעוֹף הוּא מִמַּעַל לַבַּי&ת‬
  24. 24. ‫הָאֲ‪D‬מָה הִיא ת‪G‬חַת הַבַּי&ת‬
  25. 25. ‫הַתּוֹלַעַת הִיא מִתַּחַת הַבַּי&ת‬
  26. 26. I recommend that you go through the foregoing picture slides at least three times before advancing to the grammatical discussion.
  27. 27. The next slide presents a diagram summarizing the most frequently-used Hebrew prepositions. Warning: the slide is pretty “busy.”
  28. 28. ‫מִמַּעַל‬ ‫עַל‬ ‫עַד‬ ‫לְ-‬ ‫אַחַר‬ ‫אֶל‬ ‫עַל–י‪I‬ד‬ ‫בְּ-‬ ‫מִן‬ ‫אֵצֶל‬ ‫תַּחַת לִפְנ9י‬ ‫כְּ-‬ ‫עִם‬ ‫מִתַּחַת‬
  29. 29. Biblical Hebrew has two kinds of prepositions: stand-alone and attached (the fancy word is “enclitic”).
  30. 30. The stand-alone prepositions are easy to use once you learn their meanings. You just say the preposition as a separate word right before its object.
  31. 31. So if I see a bird flying above a house, I can tell you, ‫.י9שׁ עוֹף מִמַּעַל לַבַּי&ת הָהוּא‬
  32. 32. But notice that I had to use a ְ‫ ל‬to mark the object of the preposition. This isn’t always the case, but it’s the way ‫ מִמַּעַל‬works.
  33. 33. Over time, you’ll get to know each preposition’s preferences and requirements individually. There is no overarching rule to memorize.
  34. 34. A stand-alone preposition will often join up with its object (usually the very next word in the phrase) using a horizontal line called a ‫.מַקֵּף‬
  35. 35. The ‫ מַקֵּף‬doesn’t change the preposition’s meaning. The phrases ‫ אֶל הַמָּקוֹם‬and ‫ אֶל–הַמָּקוֹם‬both mean “to the place.”
  36. 36. The combining prepositions require just a touch more attention. They join to the beginning of the word that serves as their object.
  37. 37. The preposition ְ‫ ל‬can mean “to, toward.”* Thus a man could go ‫מֶּשֶׂק‬Oְ‫“ ,ל‬to Damascus.” See how I just added ְ‫ ל‬to the front of the place name ‫?דַּמֶּשֶׂק‬ * It also has some other uses, like forming possessive constructions.
  38. 38. On the previous slide, you may have noticed that attaching a preposition can cause some spelling changes. You’ll grow accustomed to these over time, but let me point out two of them right now.
  39. 39. When you attach a preposition to a word that normally has a ‫ דָּגֵשׁ‬in its first letter (like ‫,)דַּמֶּשֶׂק‬ that letter loses its ‫דָּגֵשׁ‬ (because now it’s preceded by a vocal ‫א‬I‫.)שְׁו‬
  40. 40. The loss of ‫ דָּגֵשׁ‬can change the word’s pronunciation. For example, if you go toward the city of ‫( בֵּית–לֶחֶם‬beitle-CHEM), you are going ‫( לְבֵית–לֶחֶם‬l’veit-le-CHEM). Notice how ‫ בּ‬and ‫ ב‬make slightly different sounds.
  41. 41. When you attach a preposition to a word that normally has a vocal ‫א‬I‫ שְׁו‬under its first letter, the preposition’s vocal ‫א‬I‫ שְׁו‬will change to a ‫ק‬R‫ .חִי‬If that first letter was a ‫ ,י‬the ‫ י‬loses its ‫א‬I‫ שְׁו‬and becomes part of a ‫ק מָלֵא‬R‫.חִי‬
  42. 42. Thus a man might go ‫מֶּשֶׂק‬Oְ‫ ,ל‬but he goes ‫ לִפְנוּאֵל‬or ‫.לִירוּשָׁלַי&ם‬
  43. 43. To say that a man is going to a house, you simply say ‫.אִישׁ הֹלֵ0 לְבַי&ת‬ Very straightforward.
  44. 44. But what if you want to say that the man is going to the house, a specific house?
  45. 45. When you attach a preposition to a word that needs a definite article, you use the preposition’s consonant and the definite article’s vowel pattern.
  46. 46. Another way to think about this is that the preposition’s consonant “lies on top of” the definite article’s ‫.ה‬
  47. 47. “The house” is ‫ .הַבַּי&ת‬When you add ְ‫ ל‬you get ‫“ ,לַבַּי&ת‬to the house.” If you add ְ‫ ,בּ‬you get ‫“ ,בַּבַי&ת‬in the house.”
  48. 48. Finally, the preposition ‫מִן‬ (often but not always meaning “from”) requires attention, because it can stand alone or attach to its object.
  49. 49. When ‫ מִן‬stands alone, it acts just like any other stand-alone preposition. It usually joins up with the next word using a ‫.מַקֵּף‬
  50. 50. When ‫ מִן‬attaches to the following word, it takes the form ִ‫ ,מ‬and the letter after the ִ‫ מ‬takes a ‫.דָּגֵשׁ‬
  51. 51. If the letter after the attached ִ‫ מ‬can’t take a ‫( דָּגֵשׁ‬because it’s a guttural or ‫ ,)ר‬the attached pronoun takes the form ֵ‫ מ‬instead.
  52. 52. Whether ‫ מִן‬attaches to its object or stands alone makes no difference to its meaning. Both ‫ מִן–דַּמֶּשֶׂק‬and ‫מִדַּמֶשֶׂק‬ mean “from Damascus.”
  53. 53. If ‫’מִן‬s object has a definite article, it is far more common for ‫ מִן‬to stand alone than to attach. If it does attach, it takes the form ֵ‫ מ‬and does not replace the ‫ ה‬of the definite article.
  54. 54. Thus, “from the mountain” could be ‫ מִן–הָהַר‬or ‫.מֵהָהַר‬
  55. 55. As you have seen, there is a lot to learn about prepositions! Most of it will become natural with time and practice. Review this lesson frequently to keep up your skills.
  56. 56. CREDITS Scripted and narrated by Dr. Chris Heard, Pepperdine University Partially funded by a Pepperdine University Faculty Innovation in Teaching and Learning Grant Artwork licensed via iStockphoto and Fotolia
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