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Ivrit Express 7: Describing Relationships in Space and Time
Ivrit Express 7: Describing Relationships in Space and Time
Ivrit Express 7: Describing Relationships in Space and Time
Ivrit Express 7: Describing Relationships in Space and Time
Ivrit Express 7: Describing Relationships in Space and Time
Ivrit Express 7: Describing Relationships in Space and Time
Ivrit Express 7: Describing Relationships in Space and Time
Ivrit Express 7: Describing Relationships in Space and Time
Ivrit Express 7: Describing Relationships in Space and Time
Ivrit Express 7: Describing Relationships in Space and Time
Ivrit Express 7: Describing Relationships in Space and Time
Ivrit Express 7: Describing Relationships in Space and Time
Ivrit Express 7: Describing Relationships in Space and Time
Ivrit Express 7: Describing Relationships in Space and Time
Ivrit Express 7: Describing Relationships in Space and Time
Ivrit Express 7: Describing Relationships in Space and Time
Ivrit Express 7: Describing Relationships in Space and Time
Ivrit Express 7: Describing Relationships in Space and Time
Ivrit Express 7: Describing Relationships in Space and Time
Ivrit Express 7: Describing Relationships in Space and Time
Ivrit Express 7: Describing Relationships in Space and Time
Ivrit Express 7: Describing Relationships in Space and Time
Ivrit Express 7: Describing Relationships in Space and Time
Ivrit Express 7: Describing Relationships in Space and Time
Ivrit Express 7: Describing Relationships in Space and Time
Ivrit Express 7: Describing Relationships in Space and Time
Ivrit Express 7: Describing Relationships in Space and Time
Ivrit Express 7: Describing Relationships in Space and Time
Ivrit Express 7: Describing Relationships in Space and Time
Ivrit Express 7: Describing Relationships in Space and Time
Ivrit Express 7: Describing Relationships in Space and Time
Ivrit Express 7: Describing Relationships in Space and Time
Ivrit Express 7: Describing Relationships in Space and Time
Ivrit Express 7: Describing Relationships in Space and Time
Ivrit Express 7: Describing Relationships in Space and Time
Ivrit Express 7: Describing Relationships in Space and Time
Ivrit Express 7: Describing Relationships in Space and Time
Ivrit Express 7: Describing Relationships in Space and Time
Ivrit Express 7: Describing Relationships in Space and Time
Ivrit Express 7: Describing Relationships in Space and Time
Ivrit Express 7: Describing Relationships in Space and Time
Ivrit Express 7: Describing Relationships in Space and Time
Ivrit Express 7: Describing Relationships in Space and Time
Ivrit Express 7: Describing Relationships in Space and Time
Ivrit Express 7: Describing Relationships in Space and Time
Ivrit Express 7: Describing Relationships in Space and Time
Ivrit Express 7: Describing Relationships in Space and Time
Ivrit Express 7: Describing Relationships in Space and Time
Ivrit Express 7: Describing Relationships in Space and Time
Ivrit Express 7: Describing Relationships in Space and Time
Ivrit Express 7: Describing Relationships in Space and Time
Ivrit Express 7: Describing Relationships in Space and Time
Ivrit Express 7: Describing Relationships in Space and Time
Ivrit Express 7: Describing Relationships in Space and Time
Ivrit Express 7: Describing Relationships in Space and Time
Ivrit Express 7: Describing Relationships in Space and Time
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Ivrit Express 7: Describing Relationships in Space and Time

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A brief lesson on prepositions in Biblical Hebrew. Learn by example, then delve into the underlying grammar.

A brief lesson on prepositions in Biblical Hebrew. Learn by example, then delve into the underlying grammar.

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  • 1. ‫עברית‬ EXPRESS Lesson 7: Describing Relationships in Space and Time
  • 2. The Ivrit Express series presents compact lessons in Biblical (not Modern) Hebrew grammar. It aims to reinforce (not replace) your classroom experiences.
  • 3. Sometime soon, this slideshow will gain a soundtrack. It doesn’t have one yet, though.
  • 4. This lesson introduces the basics of describing relationships in space and time—in grammatical terms, using prepositions.
  • 5. Please note that this lesson assumes you are comfortable using subject pronouns as “equals signs.” If that’s not true, please practice a bit more with Lesson 2 in this series.
  • 6. Relax, watch, and listen as you advance through the next few slides.
  • 7. ‫אִישׁ‬
  • 8. ‫בַּי&ת‬
  • 9. ‫אִישׁ ו*בַי&ת‬
  • 10. ‫הָאִישׁ הֹלֵ0 אֶל הַבַּי&ת‬
  • 11. ‫הָאִישׁ הֹלֵ0 לַבַּי&ת‬
  • 12. ‫הָאִישׁ הֹלֵ0 עַד הַבַּי&ת‬
  • 13. ‫הָאִישׁ הוּא אֵצֶל הַבַּי&ת‬
  • 14. ‫הָאִישׁ הוּא עַל–י8ד הַבַּי&ת‬
  • 15. ‫הָאִישׁ הוּא לִפְנ9י הַבַּי&ת‬
  • 16. ‫הָאִישׁ הוּא אֲחַ=י הַבַּי&ת‬
  • 17. ‫הָאִישׁ הוּא עַל הַבַּי&ת‬
  • 18. ‫הָאִישׁ הוּא בַבַּי&ת‬
  • 19. ‫הָאִישׁ הֹלֵ0 מִן–הַבַּי&ת‬
  • 20. ‫עוֹף‬
  • 21. ‫ה‬ ‫אֲ‪D‬מָ  ‬
  • 22. ‫תּוֹלַעַת‬
  • 23. ‫הָעוֹף הוּא מִמַּעַל לַבַּי&ת‬
  • 24. ‫הָאֲ‪D‬מָה הִיא ת‪G‬חַת הַבַּי&ת‬
  • 25. ‫הַתּוֹלַעַת הִיא מִתַּחַת הַבַּי&ת‬
  • 26. I recommend that you go through the foregoing picture slides at least three times before advancing to the grammatical discussion.
  • 27. The next slide presents a diagram summarizing the most frequently-used Hebrew prepositions. Warning: the slide is pretty “busy.”
  • 28. ‫מִמַּעַל‬ ‫עַל‬ ‫עַד‬ ‫לְ-‬ ‫אַחַר‬ ‫אֶל‬ ‫עַל–י‪I‬ד‬ ‫בְּ-‬ ‫מִן‬ ‫אֵצֶל‬ ‫תַּחַת לִפְנ9י‬ ‫כְּ-‬ ‫עִם‬ ‫מִתַּחַת‬
  • 29. Biblical Hebrew has two kinds of prepositions: stand-alone and attached (the fancy word is “enclitic”).
  • 30. The stand-alone prepositions are easy to use once you learn their meanings. You just say the preposition as a separate word right before its object.
  • 31. So if I see a bird flying above a house, I can tell you, ‫.י9שׁ עוֹף מִמַּעַל לַבַּי&ת הָהוּא‬
  • 32. But notice that I had to use a ְ‫ ל‬to mark the object of the preposition. This isn’t always the case, but it’s the way ‫ מִמַּעַל‬works.
  • 33. Over time, you’ll get to know each preposition’s preferences and requirements individually. There is no overarching rule to memorize.
  • 34. A stand-alone preposition will often join up with its object (usually the very next word in the phrase) using a horizontal line called a ‫.מַקֵּף‬
  • 35. The ‫ מַקֵּף‬doesn’t change the preposition’s meaning. The phrases ‫ אֶל הַמָּקוֹם‬and ‫ אֶל–הַמָּקוֹם‬both mean “to the place.”
  • 36. The combining prepositions require just a touch more attention. They join to the beginning of the word that serves as their object.
  • 37. The preposition ְ‫ ל‬can mean “to, toward.”* Thus a man could go ‫מֶּשֶׂק‬Oְ‫“ ,ל‬to Damascus.” See how I just added ְ‫ ל‬to the front of the place name ‫?דַּמֶּשֶׂק‬ * It also has some other uses, like forming possessive constructions.
  • 38. On the previous slide, you may have noticed that attaching a preposition can cause some spelling changes. You’ll grow accustomed to these over time, but let me point out two of them right now.
  • 39. When you attach a preposition to a word that normally has a ‫ דָּגֵשׁ‬in its first letter (like ‫,)דַּמֶּשֶׂק‬ that letter loses its ‫דָּגֵשׁ‬ (because now it’s preceded by a vocal ‫א‬I‫.)שְׁו‬
  • 40. The loss of ‫ דָּגֵשׁ‬can change the word’s pronunciation. For example, if you go toward the city of ‫( בֵּית–לֶחֶם‬beitle-CHEM), you are going ‫( לְבֵית–לֶחֶם‬l’veit-le-CHEM). Notice how ‫ בּ‬and ‫ ב‬make slightly different sounds.
  • 41. When you attach a preposition to a word that normally has a vocal ‫א‬I‫ שְׁו‬under its first letter, the preposition’s vocal ‫א‬I‫ שְׁו‬will change to a ‫ק‬R‫ .חִי‬If that first letter was a ‫ ,י‬the ‫ י‬loses its ‫א‬I‫ שְׁו‬and becomes part of a ‫ק מָלֵא‬R‫.חִי‬
  • 42. Thus a man might go ‫מֶּשֶׂק‬Oְ‫ ,ל‬but he goes ‫ לִפְנוּאֵל‬or ‫.לִירוּשָׁלַי&ם‬
  • 43. To say that a man is going to a house, you simply say ‫.אִישׁ הֹלֵ0 לְבַי&ת‬ Very straightforward.
  • 44. But what if you want to say that the man is going to the house, a specific house?
  • 45. When you attach a preposition to a word that needs a definite article, you use the preposition’s consonant and the definite article’s vowel pattern.
  • 46. Another way to think about this is that the preposition’s consonant “lies on top of” the definite article’s ‫.ה‬
  • 47. “The house” is ‫ .הַבַּי&ת‬When you add ְ‫ ל‬you get ‫“ ,לַבַּי&ת‬to the house.” If you add ְ‫ ,בּ‬you get ‫“ ,בַּבַי&ת‬in the house.”
  • 48. Finally, the preposition ‫מִן‬ (often but not always meaning “from”) requires attention, because it can stand alone or attach to its object.
  • 49. When ‫ מִן‬stands alone, it acts just like any other stand-alone preposition. It usually joins up with the next word using a ‫.מַקֵּף‬
  • 50. When ‫ מִן‬attaches to the following word, it takes the form ִ‫ ,מ‬and the letter after the ִ‫ מ‬takes a ‫.דָּגֵשׁ‬
  • 51. If the letter after the attached ִ‫ מ‬can’t take a ‫( דָּגֵשׁ‬because it’s a guttural or ‫ ,)ר‬the attached pronoun takes the form ֵ‫ מ‬instead.
  • 52. Whether ‫ מִן‬attaches to its object or stands alone makes no difference to its meaning. Both ‫ מִן–דַּמֶּשֶׂק‬and ‫מִדַּמֶשֶׂק‬ mean “from Damascus.”
  • 53. If ‫’מִן‬s object has a definite article, it is far more common for ‫ מִן‬to stand alone than to attach. If it does attach, it takes the form ֵ‫ מ‬and does not replace the ‫ ה‬of the definite article.
  • 54. Thus, “from the mountain” could be ‫ מִן–הָהַר‬or ‫.מֵהָהַר‬
  • 55. As you have seen, there is a lot to learn about prepositions! Most of it will become natural with time and practice. Review this lesson frequently to keep up your skills.
  • 56. CREDITS Scripted and narrated by Dr. Chris Heard, Pepperdine University Partially funded by a Pepperdine University Faculty Innovation in Teaching and Learning Grant Artwork licensed via iStockphoto and Fotolia

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