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Getting to Know הָפְעַל Verbs
Getting to Know הָפְעַל Verbs
Getting to Know הָפְעַל Verbs
Getting to Know הָפְעַל Verbs
Getting to Know הָפְעַל Verbs
Getting to Know הָפְעַל Verbs
Getting to Know הָפְעַל Verbs
Getting to Know הָפְעַל Verbs
Getting to Know הָפְעַל Verbs
Getting to Know הָפְעַל Verbs
Getting to Know הָפְעַל Verbs
Getting to Know הָפְעַל Verbs
Getting to Know הָפְעַל Verbs
Getting to Know הָפְעַל Verbs
Getting to Know הָפְעַל Verbs
Getting to Know הָפְעַל Verbs
Getting to Know הָפְעַל Verbs
Getting to Know הָפְעַל Verbs
Getting to Know הָפְעַל Verbs
Getting to Know הָפְעַל Verbs
Getting to Know הָפְעַל Verbs
Getting to Know הָפְעַל Verbs
Getting to Know הָפְעַל Verbs
Getting to Know הָפְעַל Verbs
Getting to Know הָפְעַל Verbs
Getting to Know הָפְעַל Verbs
Getting to Know הָפְעַל Verbs
Getting to Know הָפְעַל Verbs
Getting to Know הָפְעַל Verbs
Getting to Know הָפְעַל Verbs
Getting to Know הָפְעַל Verbs
Getting to Know הָפְעַל Verbs
Getting to Know הָפְעַל Verbs
Getting to Know הָפְעַל Verbs
Getting to Know הָפְעַל Verbs
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Getting to Know הָפְעַל Verbs

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A brief introduction to the הָפְעַל בִּנְיָן in עִבְרִית מִקְרָאִית.

A brief introduction to the הָפְעַל בִּנְיָן in עִבְרִית מִקְרָאִית.

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  • 1. Biblical HebrewGetting to Know ‫ הָפְעַל‬Verbs by Chris Heard
  • 2. Table of Contents Abbreviations .............................. 3 Getting Ready .............................. 4 Using ‫ הָפְעַל‬Verbs...................... 10 The Basic Patterns .................... 16 Recognizing ‫ הָפְעַל‬Verbs ......... 20 Credits ........................................ 35
  • 3. Abbreviations 1, 2, 3 indicate grammatical person m, f, c indicate grammatical gender s, p indicate grammatical number R1, R2, R3 indicate root letters 3
  • 4. Getting Ready Before we start getting to know the ‫ ,הָפְעַל בִּנ+י)ן‬let’s run a few preflight checks. 4
  • 5. Do you remember how a Hebrewverb changes to form the variouscombinations of person, gender,and number, as well as perfectand imperfect? 5
  • 6. Do you know your Masoreticvowels well enough todistinguish between thethree classes (a, i, and u)? 6
  • 7. If you answered“yes,” you’re readyfor the ‫!הָפְעַל בִּנ+י)ן‬ 7
  • 8. Remember that certain patternscan create predictable variations.This slideshow focuses on corepatterns. It does not illustrate everypossible variation. 8
  • 9. Furthermore, this slideshowis intended to supplement,not replace, classroominstruction and practice. 9
  • 10. Using ‫ הָפְעַל‬Verbs The ‫ הָפְעַל‬is a fairly infrequent ‫ ,בִּנ+י)ן‬used fewer than 400 times in the 0‫.תַּנ2״‬ 10
  • 11. You can think of the ‫ הָפְעַל‬as thepassive version of the ‫ .הִפְעִיל‬Inother words, the subject of a ‫הָפְעַל‬verb receives the verb’s action. 11
  • 12. For example, you might say“‫“ *”,ײ הֵכִין כִּסְאוֹ‬the LORDestablished his throne,”using the ‫ הִפְעִיל‬of ‫.כון‬ * Slightly modified from Psalm 103:19. 12
  • 13. Alternately, you could say“‫“ *”,הוּכַן כִּסֵּא‬a thronewas established,” usingthe ‫ הָפְעַל‬of ‫.כון‬ * Slightly modified from Isaiah 16:5. 13
  • 14. If you know how a ‫ שֹׁ?שׁ‬isused in the ‫ ,הִפְעִיל‬you canusually reason to how it isused in the ‫.הָפְעַל‬ 14
  • 15. The most reliableapproach, though, is tolearn how each specific‫ שֹׁ?שׁ‬is used in the ‫.הָפְעַל‬ 15
  • 16. The Basic Patterns Memorize the following basic patterns first, and then we’ll go through the specifics. 16
  • 17. Pattern 10ַ‫  שְׁל‬It was thrown (3ms perfect) ָ‫ה‬ 0ַ‫ י שְׁל‬It will be thrown (3ms impf.) ָ0ַ‫ משְׁל‬Being thrown (ms participle) ָ  Note that the prefix’s vowel is a ‫מֵץ–הָטוּף‬E, not ‫מֵץ‬E.Thus the first example above is hoshlak, not hashlak. 17
  • 18. Pattern 20ַ‫  שְׁל‬It was thrown (3ms perfect) ֻ‫ה‬ 0ַ‫ י שְׁל‬It will be thrown (3ms impf.) ֻ0ַ‫ משְׁל‬Being thrown (ms participle) ֻ   18
  • 19. That list of basic patternsomitted the imperative andinfinitives because they appearextremely rarely in the 0‫.תַּנ2״‬ 19
  • 20. Recognizing ‫ הָפְעַל‬Verbs The most distinctive feature of the ‫ הָפְעַל‬is the u-class vowel (either ‫מֵץ–חָטוּף‬E or ‫בּוּץ‬H) associated with its prefix. 20
  • 21. No other ‫ בִּנ+י)ן‬features aprefixed u-class vowel (thoughthe ‫ פֻּעַל‬does normally give R1a u-class vowel). 21
  • 22. Recognizing the ‫ הָפְעַל‬Perfect In the perfect, the ‫הָפְעַל‬ has a -ָ‫ ה‬or -ֻ‫ ה‬prefix. 22
  • 23. ‫ד‬Kְ‫הָפ‬ The prefixed ‫ה‬The suffix ‫הֻשְׁלְכ ָה‬    with a u-class indicates ‫הָשְׁלַכְתִּי‬ vowel indicatesa perfect. a ‫.הָפְעַל‬ ‫הָטְבְּעוּ‬ 23
  • 24. Recognizing the ‫ הָפְעַל‬Imperfect In the imperfect, the ‫הָפְעַל‬ has the usual imperfect prefix with a ‫מֵץ–חָטוּף‬E or ‫בּוּץ‬H as the prefix’s vowel. 24
  • 25. ‫ם‬Oֳ‫י ח‬ ָ The u-classThe affixes ‫טַר‬M‫תּ‬ ָ   vowelindicate an indicates imperfect. ‫י עֳמַד‬ָ a ‫.הָפְעַל‬ ‫ישְׁלְכוּ‬ ֻ   25
  • 26. Recognizing the ‫ הָפְעַל‬Participle The ms ‫ הָפְעַל‬participle looks like the 3ms perfect, but with a prefixed –ָ‫ מ‬or –ֻ‫ מ‬and a lengthened R2 vowel: 0‫הֻשְׁל‬ ַ   3ms perfect 0‫מֻשְׁל‬ ָ   ms participle 26
  • 27. The mp and fp participles takethe familiar plural endings ‫  ים‬ ִ–and ‫. –וֹת‬ 27
  • 28. The fs participle is a little bitdifferent from the others. ItsR2 has a ‫ סְגוֹל‬and it takes thesuffix ‫  ת‬as follows: ֶ–   0‫מֻשְׁל‬ ָ   ms participle ‫מֻשׁ    ֶת‬ ‫ְלכ‬ ֶ fs participle 28
  • 29. Notable Variations in the ‫הָפְעַל‬ This slideshow focuses on core patterns. It does not try to illustrate every possible variation. However, some variations are so common they deserve special attention here. 29
  • 30. Two important changes occur in verbs where: • R1 is ‫י‬ • R2 is ‫ ו‬or ‫*י‬ • R2 = R3*** Called biconsonantal or “hollow” verbs. ** Called geminate (from Gemini) verbs. 30
  • 31. First, the prefix’s vowel, usuallyָ– ֻ–,  or    changes to ‫ וּ‬instead. Note that this is still a u-class vowel. 31
  • 32. Second, R2 undergoesaphaeresis (disappears). 32
  • 33. ‫שֹׁ)שׁ‬ ‫הָפְעַל‬‫ישׁב‬ ‫הוּשׁב‬ ַ   3ms perfect ‫קום‬ ‫יוּקם‬ ַ   3ms imperfect‫סבב‬ ‫מוּסב‬ָ   ms participle 33
  • 34. Summary0‫הֻשְׁל‬ ַ   3ms perfect Look for a u- class vowel in0‫שְׁל‬V‫י‬ ַ   3ms imperfect the prefixes ָ  0‫מֻשְׁל‬ ms participle of all forms. 34
  • 35. Credits Dead Sea photo by Wikimedia Commons contributor Xta11. Used under a CC-SA license. All other content by Dr. Chris Heard, Associate Professor of Religion, Pepperdine University. Released under a CC-BY license. Grammatical terminology used in this presentation follows J. Cook and R. Holmstedt, Beginning Biblical Hebrew (Grand Rapids: Baker, 2013).

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