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Getting to Know קַל Passive Verbs

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A brief introduction to the passive variant of the קַל בִּנְיָן in עִבְרִית מִקְרָאִית.

A brief introduction to the passive variant of the קַל בִּנְיָן in עִבְרִית מִקְרָאִית.

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  • 1. Biblical HebrewGetting to Know ‫ "ל‬Passive Verbs by Chris Heard
  • 2. Table of Contents Abbreviations .............................. 3 Getting Ready .............................. 4 The ‫ "ל‬Passive Participle ......... 10 Rare ‫ "ל‬Passive Forms ............. 17 Credits ........................................ 37
  • 3. Abbreviations 1, 2, 3 indicate grammatical person m, f, c indicate grammatical gender s, p indicate grammatical number R1, R2, R3 indicate root letters 3
  • 4. Getting Ready Before we start getting to know the ‫ "ל‬passive, let’s run a few preflight checks. 4
  • 5. Do you remember how a Hebrewverb changes to form the variouscombinations of person, gender,and number, as well as perfectand imperfect? 5
  • 6. Do you know your Masoreticvowels well enough todistinguish between thethree classes (a, i, and u)? 6
  • 7. If you answered“yes,” you’re readyfor the ‫ "ל‬passive! 7
  • 8. Remember that certain patternscan create predictable variations.This slideshow focuses on corepatterns. It does not illustrate everypossible variation. 8
  • 9. Furthermore, this slideshowis intended to supplement,not replace, classroominstruction and practice. 9
  • 10. The ‫ "ל‬Passive Participle The ‫ "ל‬passive participle appears over 950 times in the #‫ ,תַּנ%״‬but other forms of the ‫"ל‬ passive are very rare. 10
  • 11. Therefore, most readers don’tneed to learn any ‫ "ל‬passiveform except the participle. 11
  • 12. The ms ‫ "ל‬passive participlelooks like the 3ms ‫ "ל‬activeperfect, but with ‫ וּ‬as R2’s vowel: #‫בָּר‬ ַ   3ms active perfect # ‫בָּר‬ ‫וּ‬ ms passive participle 12
  • 13. The plural and feminine participlesinflect like the ‫ "ל‬active participle,with predictable vowel changes: # ‫בָּר‬ ‫וּ‬ ms participle ‫  וּ  ה‬ ָ‫בּר כ‬ ְ fs participle ‫     ים‬ ִ‫בּרכ‬ ְֻ mp participle ‫בּרכ וֹת‬ְֻ    fp participle 13
  • 14. Note that R2 tends to take a‫ שׁוּ8ק‬in the singular and a‫ ;בּוּץ‬in the plural, thoughthis isn’t a firm rule. Eithervowel can be used. 14
  • 15. The ‫ "ל‬passive participle canserve as a noun. For example,the ‫ כ‬in #‫ תַּנ%״‬stands for ‫,כְּת=בִים‬“Writings” (i.e., “[things thathave been] written”). 15
  • 16. The ‫ "ל‬passive participle canalso serve as an adjective, asin ‫,כָּל–הָאָלָה כְּתוּבָה בַּסֵּפֶר הַזֶּה‬“every curse written on thisscroll” (Deut 29:19). 16
  • 17. Rare ‫ "ל‬Passive Forms Alert! Most readers of the #‫תַּנ%״‬ need only learn the ‫ "ל‬passive participle. The ‫ "ל‬passive perfect and imperfect occur, but they’re very rare. 17
  • 18. Therefore, you don’t really needto learn the information thefollowing pages supply. They’regiven here for those inquiringminds who want to know more. 18
  • 19. Recognizing ‫ "ל‬Passive Perfects The ‫ "ל‬passive perfect is characterized by R1 taking a ‫ ;בּוּץ‬and R2 gaining a ‫.דָּגֵשׁ‬ 19
  • 20. ֻּ    ‫ל"ח‬The suffix ‫ ל   ה‬ ‫י ֻ  ְד‬ ָּ R1’s ‫ ;בּוּץ‬and indicates R2’s ‫ דָּגֵשׁ‬indicatea perfect. ָ‫הְתּ‬I‫ל‬ ֻּ    a ‫ "ל‬passive. ‫תֶּם‬Jַ‫ ל‬ּ   ֻ‫י‬ 20
  • 21. In words where R2 rejectsthe ‫ ,דָּגֵשׁ‬R1’s vowel becomesa ‫ חוֹלֶם‬instead of a ‫.;בּוּץ‬ 21
  • 22. The ‫ "ל‬passive perfect and ‫פֻּעַל‬perfect look alike. Fortunately,since both express passivevoice, any confusion betweenthem rarely affects the sense. 22
  • 23. If you need to precisely identifya particular verb as a ‫ "ל‬passiveperfect or a ‫ פֻּעַל‬perfect, look itup in a lexicon. 23
  • 24. Recognizing ‫ "ל‬Passive Imperfects The ‫ "ל‬passive imperfect is quite rare—fewer than 25 instances in the #‫.תַּנ%״‬ 24
  • 25. All ‫שִׁים‬Nָ‫ שׁ‬used in the ‫"ל‬passive imperfect exhibit a“weakness”—such as a ‫ נ‬as R1,‫ ו‬or ‫ י‬as R2 (biconsonantal), orR2 = R3 (geminate)—andtherefore the patterns vary. 25
  • 26. On the other hand, all but one ofthe ‫ "ל‬passive imperfects in the#‫ תַּנ%״‬are 3ms or 2ms, which isconvenient for those trying tolearn this conjugation. 26
  • 27. The most consistent featureof the ‫ "ל‬passive imperfectis the u-class prefix vowel,normally a ‫.;בּוּץ‬ 27
  • 28. That u-class vowel is suppliedby the ‫ "ל‬passive conjugation.All of the other variations arebased on characteristics ofthe ‫.שֹׁ8שׁ‬ 28
  • 29. Over half of the ‫ "ל‬passiveimperfects in the #‫ תַּנ%״‬areinstances of a ‫ שֹׁ8שׁ‬that has‫ נ‬in R1, or of ‫( לקח‬whichbehaves like a 1-‫ נ‬verb). 29
  • 30. As usual, R1’s ‫( נ‬or ‫ ל‬in ‫ )לקח‬willundergo aphaeresis (disappear)in the prefix pattern, and R2 willcompensate by taking a ‫.דָּגֵשׁ‬ 30
  • 31. The rest of the ‫ "ל‬passiveimperfects are split betweenbiconsonantal verbs (R2 = ‫ ו‬or ‫)י‬and geminate verbs (R2 = R3). Ofthese, biconsonantal verbs aremore common, by about 2:1. 31
  • 32. Both biconsonantal and geminateverbs in the ‫ "ל‬passive imperfectwill lose R2 to aphaeresis, and theprefix’s vowel will be ‫( שׁוּ8ק‬or,for some biconsonantal verbs,‫ .)חִי8ק מָלֵא‬Geminate verbs alsogain a ‫ דָּגֵשׁ‬in R1 if possible. 32
  • 33. ‫י ֻקַּח‬ 1 The u-classThe affixes 1 ‫ תַּן‬ ֻ‫י‬ prefix vowelindicate an 2 ‫י וּ שַׁת‬ indicates imperfect. 3 ‫תּ וּ שַּׁד‬ a ‫ "ל‬passive. ‫נ‬ 1 R =      2 Biconsonantal     3 Geminate 1 33
  • 34. The ‫ "ל‬passive imperfect and‫ הָפְעַל‬imperfect can look alike.Fortunately, since both expresspassive voice, any confusionbetween them rarely affectsthe sense. 34
  • 35. If you need to precisely identifya particular verb as either ‫"ל‬passive imperfect or ‫הָפְעַל‬imperfect, look it up in a lexicon. 35
  • 36. Summary All forms ‫ל"ח‬ ֻּ    3ms perfect have u-class ‫ י קַּח‬ ֻ 3ms imperfect vowels, but ‫וּ‬# ‫בָּר‬ ms participle in different places. 36
  • 37. Credits Dead Sea photo by Wikimedia Commons contributor Xta11. Used under a CC-SA license. All other content by Dr. Chris Heard, Associate Professor of Religion, Pepperdine University. Released under a CC-BY license. Grammatical terminology used in this presentation follows J. Cook and R. Holmstedt, Beginning Biblical Hebrew (Grand Rapids: Baker, 2013).