In words where R2 rejectsthe ,דָּגֵשׁR1’s vowel becomesa חוֹלֶםinstead of a .;בּוּץ 21
The "לpassive perfect and פֻּעַלperfect look alike. Fortunately,since both express passivevoice, any confusion betweenthem rarely affects the sense. 22
If you need to precisely identifya particular verb as a "לpassiveperfect or a פֻּעַלperfect, look itup in a lexicon. 23
Recognizing "לPassive Imperfects The "לpassive imperfect is quite rare—fewer than 25 instances in the #.תַּנ%״ 24
All שִׁיםNָ שׁused in the "לpassive imperfect exhibit a“weakness”—such as a נas R1, וor יas R2 (biconsonantal), orR2 = R3 (geminate)—andtherefore the patterns vary. 25
On the other hand, all but one ofthe "לpassive imperfects in the# תַּנ%״are 3ms or 2ms, which isconvenient for those trying tolearn this conjugation. 26
The most consistent featureof the "לpassive imperfectis the u-class prefix vowel,normally a .;בּוּץ 27
That u-class vowel is suppliedby the "לpassive conjugation.All of the other variations arebased on characteristics ofthe .שֹׁ8שׁ 28
Over half of the "לpassiveimperfects in the # תַּנ%״areinstances of a שֹׁ8שׁthat has נin R1, or of ( לקחwhichbehaves like a 1- נverb). 29
As usual, R1’s ( נor לin )לקחwillundergo aphaeresis (disappear)in the prefix pattern, and R2 willcompensate by taking a .דָּגֵשׁ 30
The rest of the "לpassiveimperfects are split betweenbiconsonantal verbs (R2 = וor )יand geminate verbs (R2 = R3). Ofthese, biconsonantal verbs aremore common, by about 2:1. 31
Both biconsonantal and geminateverbs in the "לpassive imperfectwill lose R2 to aphaeresis, and theprefix’s vowel will be ( שׁוּ8קor,for some biconsonantal verbs, .)חִי8ק מָלֵאGeminate verbs alsogain a דָּגֵשׁin R1 if possible. 32
י ֻקַּח 1 The u-classThe affixes 1 תַּן ֻי prefix vowelindicate an 2 י וּ שַׁת indicates imperfect. 3 תּ וּ שַּׁד a "לpassive. נ 1 R = 2 Biconsonantal 3 Geminate 1 33
The "לpassive imperfect and הָפְעַלimperfect can look alike.Fortunately, since both expresspassive voice, any confusionbetween them rarely affectsthe sense. 34
If you need to precisely identifya particular verb as either "לpassive imperfect or הָפְעַלimperfect, look it up in a lexicon. 35
Summary All forms ל"ח ֻּ 3ms perfect have u-class י קַּח ֻ 3ms imperfect vowels, but וּ# בָּר ms participle in different places. 36
Credits Dead Sea photo by Wikimedia Commons contributor Xta11. Used under a CC-SA license. All other content by Dr. Chris Heard, Associate Professor of Religion, Pepperdine University. Released under a CC-BY license. Grammatical terminology used in this presentation follows J. Cook and R. Holmstedt, Beginning Biblical Hebrew (Grand Rapids: Baker, 2013).
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