Biblical HebrewGetting to Know ‫ "ל‬Passive Verbs                      by Chris Heard
Table of Contents    Abbreviations .............................. 3    Getting Ready .............................. 4    T...
Abbreviations   1, 2, 3 indicate grammatical person   m, f, c indicate grammatical gender   s, p indicate grammatical numb...
Getting Ready    Before we start getting to    know the ‫ "ל‬passive, let’s    run a few preflight checks.                ...
Do you remember how a Hebrewverb changes to form the variouscombinations of person, gender,and number, as well as perfecta...
Do you know your Masoreticvowels well enough todistinguish between thethree classes (a, i, and u)?                        ...
If you answered“yes,” you’re readyfor the ‫ "ל‬passive!                      7
Remember that certain patternscan create predictable variations.This slideshow focuses on corepatterns. It does not illust...
Furthermore, this slideshowis intended to supplement,not replace, classroominstruction and practice.                      ...
The ‫ "ל‬Passive Participle   The ‫ "ל‬passive participle   appears over 950 times in the   #‫ ,תַּנ%״‬but other forms of t...
Therefore, most readers don’tneed to learn any ‫ "ל‬passiveform except the participle.                                11
The ms ‫ "ל‬passive participlelooks like the 3ms ‫ "ל‬activeperfect, but with ‫ וּ‬as R2’s vowel:   #‫בָּר‬     ַ     3ms ac...
The plural and feminine participlesinflect like the ‫ "ל‬active participle,with predictable vowel changes:        # ‫בָּר‬ ...
Note that R2 tends to take a‫ שׁוּ8ק‬in the singular and a‫ ;בּוּץ‬in the plural, thoughthis isn’t a firm rule. Eithervowel ca...
The ‫ "ל‬passive participle canserve as a noun. For example,the ‫ כ‬in #‫ תַּנ%״‬stands for ‫,כְּת=בִים‬“Writings” (i.e., “[...
The ‫ "ל‬passive participle canalso serve as an adjective, asin ‫,כָּל–הָאָלָה כְּתוּבָה בַּסֵּפֶר הַזֶּה‬“every curse written o...
Rare ‫ "ל‬Passive Forms  Alert! Most readers of the #‫תַּנ%״‬  need only learn the ‫ "ל‬passive  participle. The ‫ "ל‬passi...
Therefore, you don’t really needto learn the information thefollowing pages supply. They’regiven here for those inquiringm...
Recognizing ‫ "ל‬Passive Perfects     The ‫ "ל‬passive perfect is     characterized by R1 taking a     ‫ ;בּוּץ‬and R2 gaini...
ֻּ                                    ‫ל"ח‬The suffix     ‫ ל   ה‬                 ‫י ֻ  ְד‬                 ָּ          R...
In words where R2 rejectsthe ‫ ,דָּגֵשׁ‬R1’s vowel becomesa ‫ חוֹלֶם‬instead of a ‫.;בּוּץ‬                                21
The ‫ "ל‬passive perfect and ‫פֻּעַל‬perfect look alike. Fortunately,since both express passivevoice, any confusion between...
If you need to precisely identifya particular verb as a ‫ "ל‬passiveperfect or a ‫ פֻּעַל‬perfect, look itup in a lexicon. ...
Recognizing ‫ "ל‬Passive Imperfects      The ‫ "ל‬passive imperfect      is quite rare—fewer than      25 instances in the...
All ‫שִׁים‬Nָ‫ שׁ‬used in the ‫"ל‬passive imperfect exhibit a“weakness”—such as a ‫ נ‬as R1,‫ ו‬or ‫ י‬as R2 (biconsonantal)...
On the other hand, all but one ofthe ‫ "ל‬passive imperfects in the#‫ תַּנ%״‬are 3ms or 2ms, which isconvenient for those t...
The most consistent featureof the ‫ "ל‬passive imperfectis the u-class prefix vowel,normally a ‫.;בּוּץ‬                    ...
That u-class vowel is suppliedby the ‫ "ל‬passive conjugation.All of the other variations arebased on characteristics ofth...
Over half of the ‫ "ל‬passiveimperfects in the #‫ תַּנ%״‬areinstances of a ‫ שֹׁ8שׁ‬that has‫ נ‬in R1, or of ‫( לקח‬whichbeha...
As usual, R1’s ‫( נ‬or ‫ ל‬in ‫ )לקח‬willundergo aphaeresis (disappear)in the prefix pattern, and R2 willcompensate by tak...
The rest of the ‫ "ל‬passiveimperfects are split betweenbiconsonantal verbs (R2 = ‫ ו‬or ‫)י‬and geminate verbs (R2 = R3)....
Both biconsonantal and geminateverbs in the ‫ "ל‬passive imperfectwill lose R2 to aphaeresis, and theprefix’s vowel will b...
‫י ֻקַּח‬                   1                               The u-classThe affixes        1 ‫ תַּן‬                        ֻ...
The ‫ "ל‬passive imperfect and‫ הָפְעַל‬imperfect can look alike.Fortunately, since both expresspassive voice, any confusi...
If you need to precisely identifya particular verb as either ‫"ל‬passive imperfect or ‫הָפְעַל‬imperfect, look it up in a ...
Summary                        All forms ‫ל"ח‬   ֻּ          3ms perfect   have u-class ‫ י קַּח‬      ֻ   3ms imperfect vo...
Credits   Dead Sea photo by Wikimedia Commons contributor   Xta11. Used under a CC-SA license.   All other content by Dr. ...
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Getting to Know קַל Passive Verbs

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A brief introduction to the passive variant of the קַל בִּנְיָן in עִבְרִית מִקְרָאִית.

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Getting to Know קַל Passive Verbs

  1. 1. Biblical HebrewGetting to Know ‫ "ל‬Passive Verbs by Chris Heard
  2. 2. Table of Contents Abbreviations .............................. 3 Getting Ready .............................. 4 The ‫ "ל‬Passive Participle ......... 10 Rare ‫ "ל‬Passive Forms ............. 17 Credits ........................................ 37
  3. 3. Abbreviations 1, 2, 3 indicate grammatical person m, f, c indicate grammatical gender s, p indicate grammatical number R1, R2, R3 indicate root letters 3
  4. 4. Getting Ready Before we start getting to know the ‫ "ל‬passive, let’s run a few preflight checks. 4
  5. 5. Do you remember how a Hebrewverb changes to form the variouscombinations of person, gender,and number, as well as perfectand imperfect? 5
  6. 6. Do you know your Masoreticvowels well enough todistinguish between thethree classes (a, i, and u)? 6
  7. 7. If you answered“yes,” you’re readyfor the ‫ "ל‬passive! 7
  8. 8. Remember that certain patternscan create predictable variations.This slideshow focuses on corepatterns. It does not illustrate everypossible variation. 8
  9. 9. Furthermore, this slideshowis intended to supplement,not replace, classroominstruction and practice. 9
  10. 10. The ‫ "ל‬Passive Participle The ‫ "ל‬passive participle appears over 950 times in the #‫ ,תַּנ%״‬but other forms of the ‫"ל‬ passive are very rare. 10
  11. 11. Therefore, most readers don’tneed to learn any ‫ "ל‬passiveform except the participle. 11
  12. 12. The ms ‫ "ל‬passive participlelooks like the 3ms ‫ "ל‬activeperfect, but with ‫ וּ‬as R2’s vowel: #‫בָּר‬ ַ   3ms active perfect # ‫בָּר‬ ‫וּ‬ ms passive participle 12
  13. 13. The plural and feminine participlesinflect like the ‫ "ל‬active participle,with predictable vowel changes: # ‫בָּר‬ ‫וּ‬ ms participle ‫  וּ  ה‬ ָ‫בּר כ‬ ְ fs participle ‫     ים‬ ִ‫בּרכ‬ ְֻ mp participle ‫בּרכ וֹת‬ְֻ    fp participle 13
  14. 14. Note that R2 tends to take a‫ שׁוּ8ק‬in the singular and a‫ ;בּוּץ‬in the plural, thoughthis isn’t a firm rule. Eithervowel can be used. 14
  15. 15. The ‫ "ל‬passive participle canserve as a noun. For example,the ‫ כ‬in #‫ תַּנ%״‬stands for ‫,כְּת=בִים‬“Writings” (i.e., “[things thathave been] written”). 15
  16. 16. The ‫ "ל‬passive participle canalso serve as an adjective, asin ‫,כָּל–הָאָלָה כְּתוּבָה בַּסֵּפֶר הַזֶּה‬“every curse written on thisscroll” (Deut 29:19). 16
  17. 17. Rare ‫ "ל‬Passive Forms Alert! Most readers of the #‫תַּנ%״‬ need only learn the ‫ "ל‬passive participle. The ‫ "ל‬passive perfect and imperfect occur, but they’re very rare. 17
  18. 18. Therefore, you don’t really needto learn the information thefollowing pages supply. They’regiven here for those inquiringminds who want to know more. 18
  19. 19. Recognizing ‫ "ל‬Passive Perfects The ‫ "ל‬passive perfect is characterized by R1 taking a ‫ ;בּוּץ‬and R2 gaining a ‫.דָּגֵשׁ‬ 19
  20. 20. ֻּ    ‫ל"ח‬The suffix ‫ ל   ה‬ ‫י ֻ  ְד‬ ָּ R1’s ‫ ;בּוּץ‬and indicates R2’s ‫ דָּגֵשׁ‬indicatea perfect. ָ‫הְתּ‬I‫ל‬ ֻּ    a ‫ "ל‬passive. ‫תֶּם‬Jַ‫ ל‬ּ   ֻ‫י‬ 20
  21. 21. In words where R2 rejectsthe ‫ ,דָּגֵשׁ‬R1’s vowel becomesa ‫ חוֹלֶם‬instead of a ‫.;בּוּץ‬ 21
  22. 22. The ‫ "ל‬passive perfect and ‫פֻּעַל‬perfect look alike. Fortunately,since both express passivevoice, any confusion betweenthem rarely affects the sense. 22
  23. 23. If you need to precisely identifya particular verb as a ‫ "ל‬passiveperfect or a ‫ פֻּעַל‬perfect, look itup in a lexicon. 23
  24. 24. Recognizing ‫ "ל‬Passive Imperfects The ‫ "ל‬passive imperfect is quite rare—fewer than 25 instances in the #‫.תַּנ%״‬ 24
  25. 25. All ‫שִׁים‬Nָ‫ שׁ‬used in the ‫"ל‬passive imperfect exhibit a“weakness”—such as a ‫ נ‬as R1,‫ ו‬or ‫ י‬as R2 (biconsonantal), orR2 = R3 (geminate)—andtherefore the patterns vary. 25
  26. 26. On the other hand, all but one ofthe ‫ "ל‬passive imperfects in the#‫ תַּנ%״‬are 3ms or 2ms, which isconvenient for those trying tolearn this conjugation. 26
  27. 27. The most consistent featureof the ‫ "ל‬passive imperfectis the u-class prefix vowel,normally a ‫.;בּוּץ‬ 27
  28. 28. That u-class vowel is suppliedby the ‫ "ל‬passive conjugation.All of the other variations arebased on characteristics ofthe ‫.שֹׁ8שׁ‬ 28
  29. 29. Over half of the ‫ "ל‬passiveimperfects in the #‫ תַּנ%״‬areinstances of a ‫ שֹׁ8שׁ‬that has‫ נ‬in R1, or of ‫( לקח‬whichbehaves like a 1-‫ נ‬verb). 29
  30. 30. As usual, R1’s ‫( נ‬or ‫ ל‬in ‫ )לקח‬willundergo aphaeresis (disappear)in the prefix pattern, and R2 willcompensate by taking a ‫.דָּגֵשׁ‬ 30
  31. 31. The rest of the ‫ "ל‬passiveimperfects are split betweenbiconsonantal verbs (R2 = ‫ ו‬or ‫)י‬and geminate verbs (R2 = R3). Ofthese, biconsonantal verbs aremore common, by about 2:1. 31
  32. 32. Both biconsonantal and geminateverbs in the ‫ "ל‬passive imperfectwill lose R2 to aphaeresis, and theprefix’s vowel will be ‫( שׁוּ8ק‬or,for some biconsonantal verbs,‫ .)חִי8ק מָלֵא‬Geminate verbs alsogain a ‫ דָּגֵשׁ‬in R1 if possible. 32
  33. 33. ‫י ֻקַּח‬ 1 The u-classThe affixes 1 ‫ תַּן‬ ֻ‫י‬ prefix vowelindicate an 2 ‫י וּ שַׁת‬ indicates imperfect. 3 ‫תּ וּ שַּׁד‬ a ‫ "ל‬passive. ‫נ‬ 1 R =      2 Biconsonantal     3 Geminate 1 33
  34. 34. The ‫ "ל‬passive imperfect and‫ הָפְעַל‬imperfect can look alike.Fortunately, since both expresspassive voice, any confusionbetween them rarely affectsthe sense. 34
  35. 35. If you need to precisely identifya particular verb as either ‫"ל‬passive imperfect or ‫הָפְעַל‬imperfect, look it up in a lexicon. 35
  36. 36. Summary All forms ‫ל"ח‬ ֻּ    3ms perfect have u-class ‫ י קַּח‬ ֻ 3ms imperfect vowels, but ‫וּ‬# ‫בָּר‬ ms participle in different places. 36
  37. 37. Credits Dead Sea photo by Wikimedia Commons contributor Xta11. Used under a CC-SA license. All other content by Dr. Chris Heard, Associate Professor of Religion, Pepperdine University. Released under a CC-BY license. Grammatical terminology used in this presentation follows J. Cook and R. Holmstedt, Beginning Biblical Hebrew (Grand Rapids: Baker, 2013).
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