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2012 vascular access pt 1
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  • xxx00.#####.ppt 07/10/12 03:52 PM P. Text Text Text Text
  • Femoral vein lies in femoral sheath, medial to femoral artery, immediately below inguinal ligament FA is at midpoint btwn ASIS and SP FV formed by joining of deep/superficial veins of the leg, above inguinal ligament becomes external iliac and joins with internal iliac to become common iliac, both common iliacs jon to become IVC xxx00.#####.ppt 07/10/12 P.
  • Laterally to medially NAVEL is a common mnemonic used to recall the anatomy of the femoral/inguinal region xxx00.#####.ppt 07/10/12 P.
  • There are a few of ways to identify the landmarks used to perform femoral CVC: FA is at midpoint btwn ASIS and SP, 2cm below inguinal ligament and 1 cm or 1FB medial to FA pulsation Thumb over Pubic tubercle and index finger over ASIS, vessels lie within the webbed space (Use diagram) Anatomic variation (up to 20%) xxx00.#####.ppt 07/10/12 P.
  • Descends form skull base into carotid sheath post. to ICA and then runs post/lat to ICA/CCA, then at its end is lateral and sltly anterior to CCA xxx00.#####.ppt 07/10/12 P.
  • Upper part  medial to SCM Mid  post to SCM in the triangle of SCM heads and clavicle Lower part  behind clavicular head of SCM where it descends to join SC just above medial end of clavicle xxx00.#####.ppt 07/10/12 P.
  • Supine  slight trendelenburg (15-30degrees)[reduces risk of air embolism  roll under shoulders  head slightly turned AWAY from puncture site Apex of triangle aimed at ipsilateral nipple Attempt to puncture during exhalation (spont breathing pt so as not to entrain air) xxx00.#####.ppt 07/10/12 P.
  • These lists are not necessarily exhaustive but just capture the more common ones xxx00.#####.ppt 07/10/12 P.
  • Relative Few, if any, absolute contraindicatons (i.e. refusal of consent) R isks vs. Benefits Last bullet assoc w/SC CVC xxx00.#####.ppt 07/10/12 P.
  • Fem CVC bladder puncture ( DECOMPRESS BLADDER ), retroperitoneal hemorrhage Hemo/PTX with IJ and SC CVC SC avoided in coagulopathic patient Uncoop pt poses risk to themselves and proceduralist Sedation/analgesia for patient comfort, facilitate placement and reduce complications related to patient movement INEXPERIENCE or lack of supervision Last 2 bullets arent necessarily complications but can LEAD to complications xxx00.#####.ppt 07/10/12 P.
  • In adults, femoral higher risk of infection, thrombosis and art puncture w/o US The more times you attempt, the more likely you are to experience a complication, even if successful However, the more times you do attempt the more likely you are to fail Sig increased risk with 2 needle passes and 3 or more attempts leads to a 6 fold increase in complication risk This segways into the use of US in CVC xxx00.#####.ppt 07/10/12 P.
  • Enter US Now there will always be proponents and opponents Bottom line is that it is starting to become standard of care and endorsed by multiple organizations xxx00.#####.ppt 07/10/12 P.
  • Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality National Institute for Clinical Excellence in the UK-both adults and children ACEP/CDC-both adults and children xxx00.#####.ppt 07/10/12 P.
  • US vs Landmark: Adult lit. mostly of IJ, limited data for femoral site and in pediatrics, however, some peds studies showed similar results with US used for IJ and suggest benefit for femoral site primarily in reducing complications Operator experience not addressed in many of these studies but two studies suggest the most benefit with inexperienced proceduralists Dynamic vs. static vs landmark PRACTICALLY SPEAKING: detect anatomic variability and avoiding unnecessary complication (i.e. presence of thrombus) xxx00.#####.ppt 07/10/12 P.
  • Not one size fits all, may consider measuring xxx00.#####.ppt 07/10/12 P.
  • xxx00.#####.ppt 07/10/12 03:52 PM P. Text Text Text Text
  • xxx00.#####.ppt 07/10/12 P.
  • In adults, insertion ONLY reduces infxn In ped, insertion AND maintenance bundles, maint my carry more weight xxx00.#####.ppt 07/10/12 P.
  • Position-hip abduction/external rotation Confirmation-transduction, blood gas, radiographic xxx00.#####.ppt 07/10/12 P.

Transcript

  • 1. Vascular AccessPART ONE: Femoral and IJ CVC Pediatrics
  • 2. Objectives •By the end of this workshop, the learner will: ‐ Describe the anatomic landmarks used to guide central venous catheterization (CVC) at specified sites of insertion ‐ List at least 5 indications and 5 contraindications for CVC ‐ List at least 5 complications associated with CVC common to all sites of insertion ‐ Operate the basic functions of the ultrasound to assist in CVC ‐ Incorporate the use of ultrasound guidance when inserting central venous catheters as recommended by governing/certifying bodies Page 2Pediatrics xxx00.#####.ppt 07/10/12 03:52 PM
  • 3. REFLECTION Pediatrics
  • 4. Three common sites •Internal jugular •Femoral •Subclavian Page 4Pediatrics xxx00.#####.ppt 07/10/12 03:52 PM
  • 5. Three common sites •Internal jugular ‐ Anterior ‐ Middle ‐ Posterior •Femoral •Subclavian Page 5Pediatrics xxx00.#####.ppt 07/10/12 03:52 PM
  • 6. Femoral Anatomy Page 6Pediatrics xxx00.#####.ppt 07/10/12 03:52 PM
  • 7. Femoral Anatomy N Roger’s Textbook of Pediatric Intensive Care, 4th ed. A V Empty space L ymphatics Page 7Pediatrics xxx00.#####.ppt 07/10/12 03:52 PM
  • 8. Femoral Landmarks Roger’s Textbook of Pediatric Intensive Care, 4th ed. Page 8Pediatrics xxx00.#####.ppt 07/10/12 03:52 PM
  • 9. IJ Anatomy Page 9Pediatrics xxx00.#####.ppt 07/10/12 03:52 PM
  • 10. IJ Anatomy Page 10Pediatrics xxx00.#####.ppt 07/10/12 03:52 PM
  • 11. IJ Anatomy Page 11Pediatrics xxx00.#####.ppt 07/10/12 03:52 PM
  • 12. Basic US functions Page 12Pediatrics xxx00.#####.ppt 07/10/12 03:52 PM
  • 13. Indications •Peripheral access unobtainable •Medication/fluid administration •Emergency resuscitation •Monitoring of CVP and ScvO2 •Parenteral nutrition •Frequent blood sampling •Hemodialysis/hemofiltration/Apheresis Page 13Pediatrics xxx00.#####.ppt 07/10/12 03:52 PM
  • 14. Contraindications •Coagulopathy •Thrombosis •Skin infection at site of needle puncture •Trauma •Distorted anatomy •Clavicular/proximal rib fractures Page 14Pediatrics xxx00.#####.ppt 07/10/12 03:52 PM
  • 15. Complications • *Infection (F) • Catheter fragment/ guidewire embolism • Thrombosis (F) • Cardiac dysrhythmias • Arterial puncture • Air embolism • *Bladder puncture (F) • Erosion/perforation • Hemorrhage • Pericardial tamponade • Phlebitis • Uncooperative patient • Hemo/Pneumothorax (I/S) • Lack of experience/supervision • Tracheal puncture (I/S) Page 15Pediatrics xxx00.#####.ppt 07/10/12 03:52 PM
  • 16. Complications •Complication rates ‐ Adults: 0.5-15%, up to 35% for inexperienced ‐ Pediatrics: 0.3%-34% (lowest for femoral) •Risk increases exponentially with increasing number of attempts ‐ Likelihood of failed cannulation correlates with repeated attempts Kumar et al. Ultrasound guided vascular access: efficacy and safety. Best Practice & Research Clinical Anaesthesiology 2009; 23: 299–311 Rey et al. Mechanical complications during central venous cannulations in pediatric patients. Intensive Care Med 2009; 35: 1438–1443. Page 16Pediatrics xxx00.#####.ppt 07/10/12 03:52 PM
  • 17. Page 17Pediatrics xxx00.#####.ppt 07/10/12 03:52 PM
  • 18. Ultrasound Guidance •Governing/certifying bodies recommendations: ‐ AHRQ (2001) - dynamic US guided CVC for patient safety ‐ NICE (2002) - elective 2D US guidance for IJ CVC ‐ ACEP (2009) - use of US in CVC ‐ CDC (2011) - use of US-guided CVC •Technique ‐ Dynamic ‐ Static Kumar et al. Ultrasound guided vascular access: efficacy and safety. Best Practice & Research Clinical Anaesthesiology 2009; 23: 299–311 Srinivasan et al. Bedside ultrasound in pediatric critical care: A review. Ped Crit Care Med 2011; 12(6): 667‐674 Page 18Pediatrics xxx00.#####.ppt 07/10/12 03:52 PM
  • 19. WHY USE ULTRASOUND? •Reduce ‐ Cannulation failure rate ‐ Number of attempts (increased first-attempt success) ‐ Number of complications ‐ Procedure time •Anatomic variability •Avoiding unnecessary complications Kumar et al. Ultrasound guided vascular access: efficacy and safety. Best Practice & Research Clinical Anaesthesiology 2009; 23: 299–311 Srinivasan et al. Bedside ultrasound in pediatric critical care: A review. Ped Crit Care Med 2011; 12(6): 667‐674 Page 19Pediatrics xxx00.#####.ppt 07/10/12 03:52 PM
  • 20. Use of Ultrasound •Comparison of US use vs. “Landmark” technique ‐ Failure rate ‐ Number of attempts ‐ Arterial puncture •Can reduce time to procedural completion Page 20Pediatrics xxx00.#####.ppt 07/10/12 03:52 PM
  • 21. Use of Ultrasound •Reported to reduce complications and failed placement in infants and children during IJ cannulation •Static vs. Dynamic techniques • Higher success rate with dynamic technique Page 21Pediatrics xxx00.#####.ppt 07/10/12 03:52 PM
  • 22. UltrasoundOrientation Pediatrics
  • 23. SKILLSSTATIONS Pediatrics
  • 24. INSTRUCTIONS Page 24Pediatrics xxx00.#####.ppt 07/10/12 03:52 PM
  • 25. Objectives •By the end of this workshop, the learner will: ‐ Choose the appropriate sized vascular catheter according to indication for placement and/or the patient’s size ‐ Perform the steps for prepping and draping a site prior to CVC according to TCH PICU insertion bundle ‐ Execute the proper sequence in the placement of ultrasound-guided central venous catheters ‐ Combine the “landmark technique” and use of ultrasound when performing central venous catheterization Page 25Pediatrics xxx00.#####.ppt 07/10/12 03:52 PM
  • 26. Choosing a Catheter •Size? •Length? •Number of lumens? •Patient ‐ Weight/size ‐ Size of vessel ‐ Indications Page 26Pediatrics xxx00.#####.ppt 07/10/12 03:52 PM
  • 27. Choosing a Catheter Size/Length Page 27Pediatrics xxx00.#####.ppt 07/10/12 03:52 PM
  • 28. Insertion depth Page 28Pediatrics xxx00.#####.ppt 07/10/12 03:52 PM
  • 29. Insertion depth Page 29Pediatrics xxx00.#####.ppt 07/10/12 03:52 PM
  • 30. would be placed here, as would still images Page 30Pediatrics xxx00.#####.ppt 07/10/12 03:52 PM
  • 31. Catheter Associated Bloodstream Infection (CABSI) •Infection ‐ Most common complication of CVC ‐ Substantially reduced by using a “bundle” of practices ‐ Lower risk of infection with subclavian venous access in adults ‐ Regardless of site, strict attention insertion technique can reduce infections •Vessel cannulation complications can be reduced using visualization techniques Page 31Pediatrics xxx00.#####.ppt 07/10/12 03:52 PM
  • 32. Catheter-Associated Bloodstream Infection (CABSI) •Most common complication of CVC •Significant cause of morbidity, mortality and healthcare costs •Substantially reduced by using a “bundle” of practices •Lower risk of infection with subclavian venous access in adults •Regardless of site, strict attention insertion technique can reduce infections Miller et al. Decreasing PICU Catheter‐Associated Bloodstream Infections: NACHRIs Quality Transformation Efforts. Pediatrics 2010; 125: 206‐213 Page 32Pediatrics xxx00.#####.ppt 07/10/12 03:52 PM
  • 33. TCH Insertion Bundle Page 33Pediatrics xxx00.#####.ppt 07/10/12 03:52 PM
  • 34. TCH Insertion Bundle Page 34Pediatrics xxx00.#####.ppt 07/10/12 03:52 PM
  • 35. TCH Insertion Bundle Page 35Pediatrics xxx00.#####.ppt 07/10/12 03:52 PM
  • 36. Bundles of joy…. Page 36Pediatrics xxx00.#####.ppt 07/10/12 03:52 PM
  • 37. Sequence of Events •Inform/Consent parents •Perform a “Time Out” •Position** •Insertion Checklist (“Bundle”) •Perform Procedure/Apply sterile dressing •Confirm Placement •Document Page 37Pediatrics xxx00.#####.ppt 07/10/12 03:52 PM
  • 38. How are you judged? Page 38Pediatrics xxx00.#####.ppt 07/10/12 03:52 PM
  • 39. SKILLSSTATIONS Pediatrics
  • 40. REFLECTION Pediatrics