The curriculum 1830 present 2011

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The curriculum 1830 present 2011

  1. 1. The Struggle for the American Curriculum Curriculum Ferment 1830-Present
  2. 2. The Common School Movement 1830-1890
  3. 3. A Time of Unprecedented Change <ul><li>Territorial expansion </li></ul><ul><li>Dramatic Population Growth </li></ul><ul><li>Civil War </li></ul><ul><li>Industrialization </li></ul><ul><li>Urbanization </li></ul><ul><li>Social Reform </li></ul>
  4. 4. Jacksonian Democracy <ul><li>The era of the Common Man </li></ul><ul><li>Universal Manhood Suffrage </li></ul><ul><li>Local Control </li></ul>Andrew Jackson
  5. 5. A new Working Class <ul><li>Immigration </li></ul><ul><li>Urbanization </li></ul><ul><li>Industrialization </li></ul>
  6. 6. Social Problems <ul><li>Industrial revolution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Textile industry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lowell Massachusetts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Immigration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Potato famine in Ireland </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gap between classes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Child Labor </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Reform Movements <ul><li>Abolition of slavery </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Concord Mass. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Henry Ward Beecher </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Reform Movements <ul><li>Women’s Suffrage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Susan B. Anthony </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lucretia Mott </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Grimke Sisters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Elizabeth Cady Stanton </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Reform Movements <ul><li>Temperance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>WCTU </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Reform Movements <ul><li>Reform of Prisons </li></ul><ul><li>Mental Institutions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dorothea Dix </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Reform Movements <ul><li>Was the Goal . . . </li></ul><ul><li>Social Justice? </li></ul><ul><li>Social Control? </li></ul><ul><li>Both? </li></ul>
  12. 12. The Common School Movement <ul><li>New England Beginnings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ralph Waldo Emerson </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transcendentalism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Every human has a “Spark of the Divine” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>We have a moral obligation to help others </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Education is liberating </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Monitorial (Lancasterian) System <ul><li>Economical </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1 teacher and up to 300 students </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Rote memorization </li></ul><ul><li>Considered suitable for working class children </li></ul>
  14. 14. Catherine Beecher and the Common School <ul><li>Daughter of Henry Ward Beecher </li></ul><ul><li>Sister of Harriet Beecher Stowe </li></ul><ul><li>Founded </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hartford Female Seminary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Western Institute for Women </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Horace Mann and the Common School
  16. 16. Horace Mann <ul><li>First state Secretary of Education in Massachusetts </li></ul><ul><li>He was a reformer. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Led the fight for: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Railroads </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Insane asylums </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Horace Mann <ul><li>In 1837 he ended his law practice and became the first Secretary of Education for Massachusetts . </li></ul>“ Common schools would serve all boys and girls and teach a common body of knowledge that would give each student an equal chance in life.” “ It is a free school system that knows no distinction of rich and poor. . . It throws open its doors and spreads the table of its bounty for all children of the state.”
  18. 18. Horace Mann <ul><li>The state takes better care of its livestock that it does of its children.” </li></ul>“ Education then, beyond all other devices of human origin, is the equalizer of the conditions of men, the great balance wheel of the social machinery.”
  19. 19. Henry Barnard and the Common School <ul><li>First U. S. Commissioner of Education </li></ul><ul><li>His goal was for America to create: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Schools good enough for the best and cheap enough for the poorest.” </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Characteristics of the Common School <ul><li>Funded by local property taxes </li></ul><ul><li>Available for all white children </li></ul><ul><li>No tuition charges </li></ul><ul><li>Governed by local school committees (boards) </li></ul><ul><li>Regulated by the States </li></ul>
  21. 21. Opposition to common schools <ul><li>A system funded by state tax dollars </li></ul><ul><li>Irish Catholics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They were expected to attend schools that were anti-catholic </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bishop John Hughes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>We will not send our children where they will be trained without religion, lose respect for their parents and the faith of their fathers and come out turning up their noses at the name of Catholic. . . In a word, give us our just proportion of the common school fund. </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. The Great School Debates <ul><li>New York Herald </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Once we admit that the Catholics have a right to a portion of the school fund, every other sect will have the same. . . We shall be convulsed with endless jarrings and quarrels about the distribution of it and little left for the public schools.” </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. The Parochial School Movement
  24. 24. The Kalamazoo Case
  25. 25. Struggle Over the Curriculum <ul><li>From the 1830’s until the present day, there has been a struggle among various interest groups over what should be taught in public schools. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Humanists </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Social Efficiency Educators </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Developmentalists </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Social Meliorists </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. The Struggle for the American Curriculum <ul><li>The Humanists </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Curriculum should reflect our Western Cultural Heritage </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Social Efficiency Educators </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The curriculum should produce an efficient, smoothly running society </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Developmentalists </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Curriculum should be based upon the natural order of the development of the child </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Social Meliorists </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The curriculum should bring about social change </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Humanists/Mental Disciplinarians <ul><li>&quot;Guardians&quot; of ancient tradition tied to the power of reason and the finest elements of Western cultural heritage. </li></ul><ul><li>Humanists sought to reinterpret and preserve &quot;revered&quot; traditions and values in a rapidly changing society . </li></ul><ul><li>Charles W. Eliot </li></ul><ul><ul><li>President of Harvard </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. William Torrey Harris <ul><li>Basic function of the school is for the development of reason </li></ul><ul><li>He sought to preserve the humanist ideal by incorporating into the curriculum the finest elements of Western civilization </li></ul><ul><li>The “five windows of the soul” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>arithmetic and mathematics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>geography </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>history </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Grammar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>literature and art </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. The High School Curriculum <ul><li>The NEA Committee of ten </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lead By Charles Eliot (President of Harvard) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Believed in “Modern Liberal Arts” for High School students </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A curriculum that was “College Prep” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A curriculum that was “Life Prep” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Four courses of study were recommended but there was not distinction between college and life preparation </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Joseph Mayer Rice Rice undertook a survey of the public schools in1892. He published a series of muckraking articles in the magazine The Forum in 1892 and collected into the book “ The Public School System of the United States ”. His criticism mobilized parents against the corrupt politicians who, in practicing graft and patronage, had allowed many public schools to fall into lamentable disrepair. ,&quot;It is indeed incomprehensible ,&quot; he wrote, &quot;that so many loving mothers … are willing, without hesitation, to resign the fate of their little ones to the tender mercies of ward politicians, who in many instances have no scruples in placing the children in class-rooms the atmosphere of which is not fit for human beings to breathe, and in charge of teachers who treat them with a degree of severity that borders on barbarism.”
  31. 31. Efficiency and Social Control <ul><li>America at the turn of the century </li></ul><ul><ul><li>President Teddy Roosevelt, in his address to the Governors at the White House in 1910, prophetically remarked that &quot;The conservation of our national resources is only preliminary to the larger question of national efficiency.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Becoming more “efficient” became a national obsession </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Social Control <ul><li>One reason for the desire for efficiency was based upon a fear of social chaos. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Immigration brought about a thinly disguised racism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Edward Ross Social Control </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Society is always in the presence of the enemy”- i.e. the docile Slav, the street Arab, or the quiescent Hindoo. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Industrialization unchecked would corrupt the finer instincts of Americanism </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. The Cult of Efficiency <ul><li>Frederick Winslow Taylor and the Scientific Management movement </li></ul><ul><li>Taylor devised a system for getting greater productivity from human labor </li></ul>
  34. 34. The Cult of Efficiency <ul><li>For Taylor, there was always one best method for doing any particular job. </li></ul><ul><li>This method could be determined only through scientific study </li></ul>
  35. 35. The Cult of Efficiency <ul><li>Taylor believed that men was innately lazy and would always do less work than they were capable of unless they were strictly monitored </li></ul><ul><li>Effective management was necessary to bring about efficiency </li></ul>
  36. 36. The Principles of Scientific Management <ul><li>Time and motion studies must determine the elements of each man’s work </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(eliminate all false, slow, and useless movements) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Workers must be selected and trained to do their job in the most efficient manner </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(test them to see who is fastest with fewest errors) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>There must be an equal division of work throughout the system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(division of labor insures quick and efficient training) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Management and workmen must work together with common goals in mind </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Workmen are paid to “do” not to think </li></ul></ul>
  37. 37. The Principles of Scientific Management <ul><li>The most important role for management was to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Analyze </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plan and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Control the whole manufacturing process in minute detail </li></ul></ul>
  38. 38. Education and Efficiency School efficiency experts advocated programs of study that prepared individuals specifically and directly for the role that they would play as adult members of the social order. To go beyond what someone had to know in order to perform that role successfully was simply wasteful. Social utility became the supreme criterion against which the value of school studies was measured...
  39. 39. Social Efficiency Movement <ul><li>John Franklin Bobbitt </li></ul><ul><li>David Sneeden </li></ul><ul><li>Elwood C. Cubberley </li></ul><ul><li>Leonard Ayres </li></ul><ul><li>School Survey Movement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Boise Study </li></ul></ul>
  40. 40. Administrative “Trust”
  41. 41. Elwood P. Cubberly
  42. 42. Franklin Bobbitt Proponent of platoon system developed by Superintendent Willard Wirt in Gary, Indiana. Bobbitt saw students as &quot;raw materials&quot; that need to be trained for future roles that they will perform in society they &quot;should not be taught what they will never use. That was waste. In order to reduce waste, educators had to institute a process of scientific measurement leading to a prediction as to one's future role in life. That prediction would then become the basis of a differentiated curriculum“&quot;The elimination of waste in education&quot; (1912);
  43. 43. David Snedden Worked &quot;to enlarge the scope of vocational education & to create socially efficient curriculum&quot;. Curricula built around specific needs of future jobs with objectives of teaching what was need to function in the future role. Viewed Junior High School as a time when differences in student abilities become apparent, therefore requiring differentiated curricula.
  44. 44. Leonard Ayres Laggards in our schools (1909) Studied effects of retardation in schools (retardation = atypical progression through grades) Findings: &quot;retardation represented a great loss in efficiency&quot; this was because the 'college-repertory' curriculum that had held sway from so long needed to be replaced by a curriculum attuned to the needs of a new population and a new industrial order&quot;. He develops the Index of Efficiency for determining the productivity/efficiency of schools.
  45. 45. Charles S Meek
  46. 46. Boise in 1908
  47. 47. Boise 1919
  48. 48. Steunenberg Assassination
  49. 49. Trial of the Century Prosecution Team Defense Team
  50. 50. National Media Attention
  51. 51. Boise Boosterism
  52. 52. 709 Thatcher
  53. 53. Tourtellotte and Hummel Plans for Boise High
  54. 54. Boise High - East Wing
  55. 55. Boise High Main and East Wing
  56. 56. First Survey 1908 Calvin Kendal
  57. 57. Second Survey 1913 George Strayer Edward C. Elliot
  58. 58. A “Practical” Curriculum
  59. 59. A “Practical” Curriculum
  60. 60. Jessie Sears
  61. 61. 1919 Boise Survey
  62. 62. Efficient organization
  63. 63. Efficient organization
  64. 64. More Male Administrators
  65. 65. Standardized Tests
  66. 66. Spelling Results by School
  67. 67. Retardation and “laggards”
  68. 68. Eugenics
  69. 69. Racial Purity
  70. 70. I.Q. Testing
  71. 71. Louis Terman Created the “Stanford-Binet” IQ test in 1916
  72. 72. H.H. Goddard <ul><li>H.H. Goddard, said in his book Human Efficiency (1920) that government schooling was about &quot;the perfect organization of the hive.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>He said standardized testing was a way to make lower classes recognize their own inferiority. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Idiots, Imbeciles, Morons </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Like wearing a dunce cap, it would discourage them from breeding and having ambition. </li></ul>
  73. 73. I.Q. Testing WWI
  74. 74. Domination of Administrative Progressives <ul><li>Structure of Schooling </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Schooling broken into specialized parts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Kindergarten </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Elementary </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Junior high </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>High school </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vocational education </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>College </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Graduate or professional school </li></ul></ul></ul>
  75. 75. Domination of Administrative Progressives <ul><li>Hierarchy of authority established </li></ul><ul><li>Administrative power is extended </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Power over budgets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Curricular control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teacher evaluation- hiring and firing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Workplace conditions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Teacher response </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Compliance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Establishment of unions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>NEA </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Emma Flagg Young </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Margaret Haley in Chicago </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  76. 76. Domination of Administrative Progressives <ul><li>Social differentiation </li></ul><ul><li>Tracking by social/economic class </li></ul><ul><ul><li>I.Q. and other standardized testing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Behavioral Psychology dominates </li></ul><ul><li>Schools operate as bureaucracies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Administrators </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Central </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>School </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Teachers </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Support Staff </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>B. F. Skinner
  77. 77. Child-Study Movement/Developmentalists <ul><li>Curriculum should allow for the natural order of development of the child. </li></ul><ul><li>Scientific data important with respect to different stages of child and adolescent development and also to nature of learning. </li></ul><ul><li>General agreement among the developmentalists was that schools thwarted the child's basic need for activity by treating children as passive receptacles and presenting them with a program of studies that ran contrary to their natural tendencies and predilections </li></ul>
  78. 78. G. Stanley Hall <ul><li>Schools are in need of drastic reform in order to bring their program of studies in line with scientific findings about the nature of child life </li></ul><ul><li>The contents of children's minds (1883) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The child recapitulates in his or her individual development the stages that the whole human race traversed throughout the course of history (ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Play until the age of eight </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Read myths and legends during the “savage” stage. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ The guardians of the young, should strive first of all to keep out of nature's way, and to prevent harm, and merit the proud title of defenders of the happiness and rights of children.” </li></ul></ul>
  79. 79. Child-Study Movement William Heard Kilpatrick <ul><li>Foundations of Method (1925) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Project Method- “Education [should] be considered as life itself and not as a mere preparation for later living.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The child was the key to revitalized curriculum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Curriculum planning starts with life... with subject matter brought in only incidentally as it bears on real problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning is synonymous with purposeful activity </li></ul></ul>
  80. 80. Social Melorists <ul><li>Individuals have a moral responsibility to work for social justice </li></ul><ul><li>Schools are a major force for social change and social justice. </li></ul><ul><li>Schools were the vehicles to create a new social vision and to empower the young </li></ul>
  81. 81. Lester Frank Ward Dynamic Sociology 1913
  82. 82. Social Meliorists <ul><li>Schools are a major force for social change and social justice. Schools were the vehicles to create a new social vision. </li></ul><ul><li>George Counts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Response to Sumner-“The Absurd Effort to Make the World Over”(1884) with “Dare the School Build a New Social Order?” (1932) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Harold O. Rugg </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Social Reconstructionism </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Boyd Bode </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Progressive Education Association </li></ul></ul>
  83. 83. George S. Counts - Social Meliorist <ul><li>Dare the School Build a New Social Order? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>He was among the first to reflect on the undercurrent of uneasiness about American society during the 1930’s and connect it to American schools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>He argued that the American school system preserved and maintained the existing social order </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Counts challenged schools to meet the social issues of the day </li></ul>
  84. 84. John Dewey <ul><li>Dewey tried to synthesize the positions of the four interest groups </li></ul><ul><li>Humanists </li></ul><ul><li>Developmentalists </li></ul><ul><li>Scientific Efficiency Educators </li></ul><ul><li>Social Meliorists </li></ul>
  85. 85. Dewey began as a philosopher/psychologist/sociologist <ul><li>Pragmatism/Instrumentalism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Philosophy must be useful </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Psychology must be about the individual and the social </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sociology must be used to improve social institutions </li></ul></ul>
  86. 86. Dewey’s Problem-Solving Approach <ul><li>Avoid “Either-Or” positions </li></ul><ul><li>Always consider the consequences of a decision </li></ul><ul><li>Experiment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The scientific method </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Identify the problem </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Create an hypothesis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gather evidence </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Experiment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Accept/reject/revise hypothesis </li></ul></ul></ul>
  87. 87. Purpose of Education <ul><li>What is the “problem”? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Industrial organization has replaced the home and the neighborhood </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Schools must change to provide learning that is: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Real </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Immediate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Able to initiate children into the social world </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Create a miniature community </li></ul>
  88. 88. Criticism of Humanist Curriculum <ul><li>He rejected the idea that the interests of the child should be subordinated to future “rewards” </li></ul><ul><li>He rejected Harris’s “five windows to the soul” because: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They didn’t address human experience in a unified way- they were formal, artificial, separated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They were presented as “given” and “finished” </li></ul></ul>
  89. 89. Criticisms of Developmentalists <ul><li>The Culture-Epochs model was too simplistic </li></ul><ul><li>The curriculum was imposed in the same way as the humanist curriculum </li></ul>
  90. 90. Criticisms of Scientific Management <ul><li>The school is not a factory producing a product </li></ul><ul><li>Not all children learn in the same way at the same time </li></ul><ul><li>Bureaucratic processes are dehumanizing </li></ul>
  91. 91. Criticisms of Social Meliorism <ul><li>Schools are not just an institution for “social engineering” </li></ul><ul><li>There are aspects of the current social order that should be retained </li></ul>
  92. 92. The Dewey School <ul><li>A “Laboratory” school </li></ul><ul><li>“ Occupations” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Evolution of basic social activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Growing food </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Constructing shelter </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Making clothing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Traditional subjects taught by “doing” not telling </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Harmonize individual and social ends </li></ul>
  93. 93. The Dewey School <ul><li>A “Laboratory” school </li></ul><ul><li>“ Occupations” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Evolution of basic social activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Growing food </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Constructing shelter </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Making clothing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Traditional subjects taught by “doing” not telling </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Harmonize individual and social ends </li></ul>
  94. 94. The Dewey School <ul><li>A “Laboratory” school </li></ul><ul><li>“ Occupations” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Evolution of basic social activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Growing food </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Constructing shelter </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Making clothing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Traditional subjects taught by “doing” not telling </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Harmonize individual and social ends </li></ul>
  95. 95. The School and Society <ul><li>“ What the best and wisest parent wants for his own child, that must the community want for all of its children” </li></ul>
  96. 96. The School and Society <ul><li>Occupations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Methods of living </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Genuine forms of active community life </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Schools should reproduce in miniature the activities fundamental to community life as a whole. </li></ul></ul>
  97. 97. The four instincts that characterize children’s behavior <ul><li>The Social instinct (communicative) </li></ul><ul><li>The Constructive instinct </li></ul><ul><li>The instinct of investigation </li></ul><ul><li>The expressive instinct </li></ul>Spinning wool
  98. 98. Waste Response to the Social Efficiency Movement <ul><li>All waste is due to isolation </li></ul><ul><li>Organization is getting things in connection with one another. </li></ul><ul><li>Administrative waste comes from </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Friction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Duplication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of transitions. </li></ul></ul>
  99. 99. Waste <ul><li>From the standpoint of the child, the great waste in school comes from his inability to utilize the experiences he gets outside of the school in any complete and free way within the school itself, while, on the other hand, he is unable to apply in daily life what he is learning in school. </li></ul>
  100. 100. Child Psychology <ul><li>The school should be a laboratory of applied psychology </li></ul><ul><li>The individual mind is a function of social life. </li></ul><ul><li>Curriculum should be related to stages of growth. </li></ul>
  101. 101. Attention <ul><li>A person who has gained the power of “reflective attention” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The power to hold problems and questions before the mind; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Has developed “Habits of Mind and is, therefore, </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Educated. </li></ul>
  102. 102. Colonel Francis Parker Applied Dewey’s principles to a create a Progressive school in Chicago. Dewey sent his own children to Parker’s school
  103. 103. Pockets of Progressivism <ul><li>New York 1920-1940 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Activity program </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>An experimental program involving 69 elementary schools and over 70,000 students </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Child centered </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Flexible scheduling </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Activity or project based curriculum </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Freedom for teachers to determine instruction </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dalton Plan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>High school </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Individualized learning programs </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  104. 104. Pockets of Progressivism <ul><li>Denver 1920-1940 </li></ul><ul><li>The eight year study </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Experimental design </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Core curriculum (areas of living) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Personal living </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Immediate personal/social relationships </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Social/Civic relationships </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Economic relationships </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Integrated, project-based </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teachers controlled the curriculum </li></ul></ul>
  105. 105. The 1950s-1960s <ul><li>Post World War II saw a growing criticism of American Education </li></ul><ul><li>Sputnik (1957) gave evidence that Russia was doing a superior job of educating it’s youth. </li></ul><ul><li>Cold War implications </li></ul>
  106. 106. 1950’s Humanists after Sputnik (Soviet satellite launched in 1957) <ul><li>Curriculum reform projects are from academic departments in major universities. </li></ul><ul><li>The attempt to replace the academic subject as the basic building block of the curriculum was brought to abrupt end </li></ul><ul><li>Longstanding emphasis on local efforts at curriculum change replaced by pattern of centrally controlled curriculum revision. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Back to Basics” movement </li></ul>
  107. 107. The 1950s-1960s <ul><li>Arthur Bestor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Educational Wastelands” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Rudolf Flesch </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Why Johnny Can’t Read </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Admiral Hyman Rickover </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Education and Freedom </li></ul></ul>
  108. 108. The 1950s-1960s <ul><li>Admiral Hyman Rickover </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Education and Freedom </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dewey's insistence on making the child's interest the determining factor in planning curricula has led to substitution of know-how subjects for solid learning and to the widespread tendency of schools to instruct pupils in the minutiae of daily life--how to set a table correctly, how to budget one's income, how to use cameras, telephones, and consumer credit--the list is endless. </li></ul><ul><li>Add to this that Dewey insisted the schoolroom must mirror the community and you find classrooms cluttered with cardboard boxes, children learning arithmetic by keeping store, and education stuck in the concrete and unable to carry the child from there to abstract concepts and ideas. Our young people are therefore deprived of the tremendous intellectual heritage of Western civilization which no child can possibly discover by himself; he must be led to it.&quot; </li></ul>
  109. 109. Influence of the Federal Government <ul><li>1954- Brown vs. the Board of Education- Topeka, Kansas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rejection of the “separate but equal” clause </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1958- National Defense Education Act </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Federal funds to improve science, math, foreign language instruction </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1965- Elementary and Secondary Education Act </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Johnson’s “War on Poverty” (Title 1) </li></ul></ul>
  110. 110. Advocates of “Child-Centered” Progressive Education <ul><li>John Holt </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How Children Fail </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Children are subject peoples. School for them is a kind of jail. </li></ul><ul><li>Do they not, to some extent, escape and frustrate the relentless, insatiable pressure of their elders by withdrawing the most intelligent and creative parts of their minds from the scene? </li></ul><ul><li>Is this not at least a partial explanation of the extraordinary stupidity that otherwise bright children so often show in school? The stubborn and dogged &quot;I don't get it&quot; with which they meet the instructions and explanations of their teachers--may it not be a statement of resistance as well as one of panic and flight? ... </li></ul>
  111. 111. Advocates of “Child-Centered” Progressive Education <ul><li>John Holt </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How Children Fail </li></ul></ul><ul><li>We encourage children to act stupidly, not only by scaring and confusing them, but by boring them, by filling up their days with dull, repetitive tasks that make little or no claim on their attention or demands on their intelligence. </li></ul><ul><li>Our hearts leap for joy at the sight of a roomful of children all slogging away at some imposed task, and we are all the more pleased and satisfied if someone tells us that the children don't really like what they are doing. We tell ourselves that this drudgery, this endless busywork, is good preparation for life, and we fear that without it children would be hard to &quot;control.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>But why must this busywork be so dull? Why not give tasks that are interesting and demanding? Because, in schools where every task must be completed and every answer must be right, if we give children more demanding tasks they will be fearful and will instantly insist that we show them how to do the job. When you have acres of paper to fill up with pencil marks, you have no time to waste on the luxury of thinking. </li></ul>
  112. 112. Advocates of “Child-Centered” Progressive Education <ul><li>Johathan Kozol </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Death at an Early Age </li></ul></ul><ul><li>I noticed this one day while I was out in the auditorium doing reading with some children: Classes were taking place on both sides of us. The Glee Club and the sewing classes were taking place at the same time in the middle. Along with the rest, there was a 5th grade remedial math group, comprising six pupils, and there were several other children whom I did not know about simply walking back and forth. </li></ul><ul><li>Before me were six 4th graders, most of them from the disorderly 4th grade and several of them children who had had substitute teachers during much of the previous two years. It was not their fault; they had done nothing to deserve substitute teachers. And it was not their fault now if they could not hear my words clearly since it also was true that I could barely hear theirs. Yet the way that they dealt with this dilemma, at least on the level at which I could observe it, was to blame, not the school but themselves. Not one of those children would say to me: &quot;Mr. Kozol, it's too noisy.&quot; Not one of them would say: &quot;Mr. Kozol, what's going on here? This is a crazy place to learn.&quot; </li></ul>
  113. 113. Advocates of “Child-Centered” Progressive Education <ul><li>James Herndon </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The way it spose to be </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How to survive your native land </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Grouping by ability, formerly anathema in the district, has caught on. We group them high, low, and average in math and science; English teachers are waiting their turn. Below that we've tried &quot;remedial&quot; classes, and above that, &quot;enrichment.&quot; (The remedial kids complain that they ain't learning nothing but that baby stuff, and the enriched that they do the same thing as the other kids, just twice as much of it.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>We &quot;experiment&quot; a lot. We teach Spanish experimentally to everyone, then drop it experimentally. We experiment with slow learners, with nonachievers, with core programs, team teaching, with &quot;innovative&quot; programs. These programs, being only &quot;experiments,&quot; remain on the fringe of things; the general curriculum, not being an experiment at all, isn't affected by them. </li></ul></ul>
  114. 114. Advocates of “Child-Centered” Progressive Education <ul><li>Herbert Kohl </li></ul><ul><ul><li>36 Children </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I put an assignment on the board before the children arrived in the morning and gave the class the choice of reading, writing, or doing what was on the board. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>At no time did any child have to write, and whenever possible I let the children write for as long as their momentum carried them. Time increasingly became the servant of substance in the classroom. At the beginning of the semester I had tried to use blocks of time in a predetermined, preplanned way--first reading, then social studies, arithmetic, and so forth. Then I broke the blocks by allowing free periods. This became confining and so I allowed the length of periods to vary according to the children's and my interest and concentration. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Finally we reached a point where the class could pursue things without the burden of a required amount of work that had to be passed through every day. This meant that there were many things that the class didn't &quot;cover&quot;; that there were days without arithmetic and weeks without spelling or my dear &quot;vocabulary.&quot; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many exciting and important things were missed as well as many dull things. But the children learned to explore and invent, to become obsessed by things that interested them and follow them through libraries and books back into life; they learned to believe in their own curiosity and value the intellectual and literary, perhaps even in a small way the human, quest without being overly burdened with a premature concern for results . </li></ul></ul>
  115. 115. The Open Classroom Movement 1970’s <ul><li>The British Influence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A.S. Neill & Summerhill </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The British Infant Schools </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Joseph Featherstone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Where Children learn </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Alternative schools </li></ul><ul><li>“ Free schools” </li></ul>
  116. 116. The Open Classroom Movement <ul><li>Vito Perrone- </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dean of the Center for Teaching & Learning, University of North Dakota </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ Open Classroom” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning centers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Team teaching </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Active – project based learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ multi-media” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Child-centered curriculum </li></ul></ul>
  117. 117. The Open Classroom Movement <ul><li>Vito Perrone- </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dean of the Center for Teaching & Learning, University of North Dakota </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ Bottom Up” reform </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Teacher training </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Workshop model </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mass distribution of materials </li></ul></ul>
  118. 118. Today Does Progressive Education Exist? <ul><li>Pockets on the margins </li></ul><ul><li>Hybrids </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cooperative learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Project based education </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Middle School model </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>James Beane </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Current research from Cognitive and Developmental Psychology </li></ul><ul><li>School “Choice” models </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Charter schools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alternative schools </li></ul></ul>

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