Scientific Management


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Overview of the rise of scientific management and it's impact on American Education

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  • Scientific Management

    1. 1. Scientific Management And the rise of social efficiency
    2. 2. Efficiency and Social Control <ul><li>America at the turn of the century </li></ul><ul><ul><li>President Teddy Roosevelt, in his address to the Governors at the White House in 1910 </li></ul></ul>
    3. 3. Edward Ross &Social Control <ul><li>Social Control </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Society is always in the presence of the enemy- “the docile Slav, the street Arab, or the quiescent Hindoo” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Restriction of immigration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social control of reproduction </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. Science and the Measurement of Man <ul><li>Edward Thorndike </li></ul><ul><ul><li>He was a student of William James </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Whatever exists, exists in some amount and can be measured. </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. Science and the Measurement of Man <ul><li>Phrenology </li></ul><ul><li>Franz Joseph Gall </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1758-1828 </li></ul></ul>
    6. 6. Phrenology <ul><li>The brain is the organ of the mind. </li></ul><ul><li>The mind is composed of multiple distinct, innate faculties. </li></ul><ul><li>Because they are distinct, each faculty must have a separate seat or &quot;organ&quot; in the brain. </li></ul>
    7. 7. Phrenology <ul><li>The size of an organ, other things being equal, is a measure of its power. </li></ul><ul><li>The shape of the brain is determined by the development of the various organs. </li></ul>
    8. 8. Phrenology <ul><li>As the skull takes its shape from the brain, the surface of the skull can be read as an accurate index of psychological aptitudes and tendencies </li></ul>
    9. 9. Phrenology <ul><li>Pseudo-Science </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Racial bias </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cultural bias </li></ul></ul>
    10. 10. Measuring Intelligence <ul><li>Alfred Binet </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Asked by the French Ministry of Education to devise a way to identify children who needed special education </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>He devised a series of tasks and a scale to assess those tasks </li></ul></ul>
    11. 11. Louis H. Terman <ul><li>He created the Stanford Binet “I.Q.” test </li></ul><ul><li>Intelligence was callibated into minute units- I. Q. points. </li></ul>
    12. 12. R. M. Yerkes <ul><li>He administered I.Q. tests to American soldiers during World War I </li></ul><ul><li>It provided a giant amount of data </li></ul><ul><li>Unfortunately, the testing was flawed in: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Design </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Implementation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conclusions draws from the data </li></ul></ul>
    13. 13. I. Q. testing <ul><li>There were two forms of the test administered to the soldiers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Form A for those who were literate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Form B to those who were illiterate or for whom English was not their first language. </li></ul></ul>
    14. 14. I. Q. testing <ul><li>How the data was interpreted </li></ul>
    15. 15. Measuring Intelligence <ul><li>Thorndike claimed to have proven that school subjects made no difference “gain of ability to think.” </li></ul><ul><li>Native Intelligence was all that mattered </li></ul>
    16. 16. H.H. Goddard <ul><li>H.H. Goddard, said in his book Human Efficiency (1920) that government schooling was about &quot;the perfect organization of the hive.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>He said standardized testing was a way to make lower classes recognize their own inferiority. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Idiots, Imbeciles, Morons </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Like wearing a dunce cap, it would discourage them from breeding and having ambition. </li></ul>
    17. 17. The Cult of Efficiency <ul><li>Frederick Winslow Taylor and the Scientific Management movement </li></ul>
    18. 18. The Cult of Efficiency <ul><li>For Taylor, there was always one best method for doing any particular job. </li></ul><ul><li>This method could be determined only through scientific study </li></ul>
    19. 19. The Cult of Efficiency <ul><li>Taylor believed that men was innately lazy and would always do less work than they were capable of unless they were strictly monitored </li></ul><ul><li>Effective management was necessary to bring about efficiency </li></ul>
    20. 20. The Principles of Scientific Management <ul><li>Time and motion studies must determine the elements of each man’s work </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(eliminate all false, slow, and useless movements) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Workers must be selected and trained to do their job in the most efficient manner </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(test them to see who is fastest with fewest errors) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>There must be an equal division of work throughout the system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(division of labor insures quick and efficient training) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Management and workmen must work together with common goals in mind </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Workmen are paid to “do” not to think </li></ul></ul>
    21. 21. The Principles of Scientific Management <ul><li>Taylor’s ideas were adopted by Educators as well as by business and industry </li></ul><ul><li>School administrators were the “managers” of the teachers who were the “workers.” </li></ul><ul><li>Students were the products that were classified, sorted, and trained in the most efficient way possible. </li></ul>
    22. 22. The Administrative Progressives <ul><li>Elwood P. Cubberley </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dean of the Department of Education at Stanford University </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Schools should be run as a business </li></ul></ul>
    23. 23. The Administrative Progressives <ul><ul><li>Superintendents need to be “efficiency experts” who know how to manage based upon the ideas of scientific management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>He was hired by school districts throughout the country to conduct “School Surveys” and make recommendations based upon the tenets of Scientific Management. </li></ul></ul>
    24. 24. The Administrative Progressives- John Franklin Bobbit <ul><li>He was a proponent of the platoon system developed by Superintendent Willard Wirt in Gary, Indiana. </li></ul><ul><li>Bobbitt saw students as &quot;raw materials&quot; that need to be trained for future roles that they will perform in society. </li></ul>
    25. 25. The Administrative Progressives-Ross Finney <ul><li>He felt that people should be taught according to their IQ. </li></ul><ul><li>He envisioned one curriculum for leadership and another for 'followership' </li></ul>
    26. 26. The Administrative Progressives – David Sneeden <ul><li>He believed that curricula should be built around specific needs of future jobs </li></ul><ul><li>The Junior High School movement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Differentiated” curricula. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ teacher proof” curricula </li></ul></ul>
    27. 27. Leonard Ayres <ul><li>Laggards in our schools (1909) </li></ul><ul><li>Studied effects of retardation in schools </li></ul><ul><li>retardation represented a great loss in efficiency </li></ul><ul><li>He develops the Index of Efficiency for determining the productivity of schools. </li></ul>