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Overview of motivation including behavioral, constructivist, Bandura, Adkinson, Attribution theory and Mazlow

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  1. 1. Motivation The willingness to expend a certain amount of effort to achieve a particular goal
  2. 2. Behavioral Views of Motivation <ul><li>B. F. Skinner </li></ul><ul><li>Programmed Instruction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The student is reinforced for every correct response (the computer applauds!) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This motivates the student to go to the next frame </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The student works through the program until the desired terminal behavior is shaped </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Behavioral Views of Motivation <ul><li>REINFORCE DESIRED BEHAVIOR </li></ul><ul><li>Students are motivated to complete a task by being promised a reward </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Praise </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Grade </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Token to be exchanged for a desired object </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the privilege of engaging in a self-selected activity </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Social Behavioral Theory Albert Bandura <ul><li>We learn appropriate behavior in a social setting </li></ul><ul><li>Observation </li></ul><ul><li>Identification </li></ul><ul><ul><li>We work for a teacher we respect </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Imitation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An older sibling gets good grades, so we try to get good grades also </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Vicarious Reinforcement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A classmate is rewarded for a behavior, so we practice the same behavior, hoping for a reward </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Limitations of Behavioral View <ul><li>Rewards are extrinsic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Learner engages in an activity to earn a reward that is not inherently related to the activity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Intrinsic Motivation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Learner engages in an activity because it produces inherently positive consequences such as becoming more </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>knowledgeable </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>competent </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>independent </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Dangers of Extrinsic Motivation <ul><li>Changes in behavior are likely to be temporary </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When the extrinsic reward is obtained, the student reverts to earlier behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Students develop a materialistic attitude toward learning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ What tangible reward will I get if I agree to learn this?” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The “Undermining Effect” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>rewards undermine intrinsic desire to learn </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Minimizing the “Undermining Effect” <ul><li>Avoid indiscriminate use of rewards </li></ul><ul><li>Give rewards based upon a predetermined standard of excellence </li></ul><ul><li>Give rewards when the task is challenging </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First prize at a science fair may cause a student to maintain a strong interest in science </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Avoid rewards for activities in which there exists a natural interest </li></ul>
  8. 8. Cognitive Views of Motivation <ul><li>Humans are naturally motivated to learn because they strive for equilibrium </li></ul><ul><li>This is achieved by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Assimilating a new experience by relating it to an existing scheme </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accomodation of an existing scheme if the experience is too different to be assimilated </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Cognitive Views of Motivation <ul><li>Adkinson- The “Need for Achievement” </li></ul><ul><li>Partly innate - partly based upon experience </li></ul><ul><li>Individuals with a High Need for Achievement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>have a strong expectation for success </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>low fear of failure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>anticipate the feeling of pride in accomplishment </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Cognitive Views of Motivation <ul><li>High Need Achievers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>seek moderately challenging tasks that offer a balance between challenge and expected success </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Low Need Achievers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>avoid challenging tasks because their fear of failure outweighs their expectation of success </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>choose either easy tasks because the probability of success is high or very difficult tasks because there is no shame in failing </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Attribution Theory <ul><li>When asked, learners attribute success or failure to four factors </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of Ability “I have a poor head for numbers” </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of Effort “I didn’t really study for the test.” </li></ul><ul><li>Task Difficulty “That test was too hard” </li></ul><ul><li>Luck “I guessed wrong about what to study.” </li></ul>
  12. 12. Attribution Theory <ul><li>Luck and Task Difficulty are external attributions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The “locus of control” is outside the learner </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ability is a stable attribution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It tends to stay the same over time </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Effort is an internal attribution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The “locus of control” is with the learner </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Research indicates that </li></ul><ul><ul><li>stable attributes (ability) lead to expectations of future success or failure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>internal attributes (effort) lead to pride in achievement </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Humanistic Views of Motivation <ul><li>Abraham Maslow </li></ul><ul><li>Healthy individuals are motivated to seek fulfilling experiences </li></ul><ul><li>Human motivation is based upon need gratification </li></ul><ul><li>Maslow identified a five level hierarchy of needs </li></ul>
  14. 14. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Physiological- food, water, oxygen Safety- nurturance, money Belongingness Love Esteem Self-Actualization maximizing one’s potential. This is often called the growth need because people constantly strive to satisfy it
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