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Motivation

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Overview of motivation including behavioral, constructivist, Bandura, Adkinson, Attribution theory and Mazlow

Overview of motivation including behavioral, constructivist, Bandura, Adkinson, Attribution theory and Mazlow


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  • 1. Motivation The willingness to expend a certain amount of effort to achieve a particular goal
  • 2. Behavioral Views of Motivation
    • B. F. Skinner
    • Programmed Instruction
      • The student is reinforced for every correct response (the computer applauds!)
      • This motivates the student to go to the next frame
      • The student works through the program until the desired terminal behavior is shaped
  • 3. Behavioral Views of Motivation
    • REINFORCE DESIRED BEHAVIOR
    • Students are motivated to complete a task by being promised a reward
      • Praise
      • Grade
      • Token to be exchanged for a desired object
      • the privilege of engaging in a self-selected activity
  • 4. Social Behavioral Theory Albert Bandura
    • We learn appropriate behavior in a social setting
    • Observation
    • Identification
      • We work for a teacher we respect
    • Imitation
      • An older sibling gets good grades, so we try to get good grades also
    • Vicarious Reinforcement
      • A classmate is rewarded for a behavior, so we practice the same behavior, hoping for a reward
  • 5. Limitations of Behavioral View
    • Rewards are extrinsic
      • Learner engages in an activity to earn a reward that is not inherently related to the activity
    • Intrinsic Motivation
      • Learner engages in an activity because it produces inherently positive consequences such as becoming more
        • knowledgeable
        • competent
        • independent
  • 6. Dangers of Extrinsic Motivation
    • Changes in behavior are likely to be temporary
      • When the extrinsic reward is obtained, the student reverts to earlier behavior
    • Students develop a materialistic attitude toward learning
      • “ What tangible reward will I get if I agree to learn this?”
    • The “Undermining Effect”
      • rewards undermine intrinsic desire to learn
  • 7. Minimizing the “Undermining Effect”
    • Avoid indiscriminate use of rewards
    • Give rewards based upon a predetermined standard of excellence
    • Give rewards when the task is challenging
      • First prize at a science fair may cause a student to maintain a strong interest in science
    • Avoid rewards for activities in which there exists a natural interest
  • 8. Cognitive Views of Motivation
    • Humans are naturally motivated to learn because they strive for equilibrium
    • This is achieved by:
      • Assimilating a new experience by relating it to an existing scheme
      • Accomodation of an existing scheme if the experience is too different to be assimilated
  • 9. Cognitive Views of Motivation
    • Adkinson- The “Need for Achievement”
    • Partly innate - partly based upon experience
    • Individuals with a High Need for Achievement
      • have a strong expectation for success
      • low fear of failure
      • anticipate the feeling of pride in accomplishment
  • 10. Cognitive Views of Motivation
    • High Need Achievers
      • seek moderately challenging tasks that offer a balance between challenge and expected success
    • Low Need Achievers
      • avoid challenging tasks because their fear of failure outweighs their expectation of success
      • choose either easy tasks because the probability of success is high or very difficult tasks because there is no shame in failing
  • 11. Attribution Theory
    • When asked, learners attribute success or failure to four factors
    • Lack of Ability “I have a poor head for numbers”
    • Lack of Effort “I didn’t really study for the test.”
    • Task Difficulty “That test was too hard”
    • Luck “I guessed wrong about what to study.”
  • 12. Attribution Theory
    • Luck and Task Difficulty are external attributions
      • The “locus of control” is outside the learner
    • Ability is a stable attribution
      • It tends to stay the same over time
    • Effort is an internal attribution
      • The “locus of control” is with the learner
    • Research indicates that
      • stable attributes (ability) lead to expectations of future success or failure
      • internal attributes (effort) lead to pride in achievement
  • 13. Humanistic Views of Motivation
    • Abraham Maslow
    • Healthy individuals are motivated to seek fulfilling experiences
    • Human motivation is based upon need gratification
    • Maslow identified a five level hierarchy of needs
  • 14. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Physiological- food, water, oxygen Safety- nurturance, money Belongingness Love Esteem Self-Actualization maximizing one’s potential. This is often called the growth need because people constantly strive to satisfy it