Idealism -Realism-Pragmatism


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Idealism -Realism-Pragmatism

  1. 1. Idealism As A Philosophy of Education <ul><li>Absolutist- The search for “TRUTH”- True Ideas </li></ul><ul><li>Rationalist- The search for truth is a rational process. Thus, to be educated, is to reason effectively. </li></ul><ul><li>Subjectivist- Individuals should strive for self-realization </li></ul><ul><li>Character Development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wisdom </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Moral conviction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Good will </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Loyalty </li></ul></ul>AIMS of EDUCATION
  2. 2. Idealism As A Philosophy of Education <ul><li>Depth over breadth </li></ul><ul><li>Concepts over specific facts </li></ul><ul><li>Confront problems that arise from the “human condition.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Self-Directed” learning </li></ul><ul><li>Lecture to stimulate thought, not to convey information </li></ul>METHOD of EDUCATION
  3. 3. Idealism As A Philosophy of Education <ul><li>Materials that promote “critical thinking.” </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on reading and writing. </li></ul><ul><li>Reading materials should foster discussion of “big ideas.” </li></ul><ul><li>Classic works are favored because they have passed the test of time. </li></ul><ul><li>Student writing should emphasize both personal expression and clear reasoning. </li></ul>CURRICULUM
  4. 4. <ul><li>Socrates might serve as the prototype </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Socratic questioning </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Teachers serve as role models </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intellectual </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Moral </li></ul></ul><ul><li>An Idealist teacher tends to see teaching as a calling- more than just an occupation </li></ul>Idealism As A Philosophy of Education ROLE OF THE TEACHER
  5. 5. Realism as a Philosophy of Education <ul><li>Absolutist- Education should focus on the truth of the natural and physical world </li></ul><ul><li>Empiricist- Teach students the scientific method of problem solving by exploring the material world </li></ul><ul><li>Objectivist- Emphasize basic skills and basic facts- “3Rs” There are objective skills and facts that all students should learn. </li></ul><ul><li>Character Development: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Establish high standards and increased rigor and hold students accountable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emphasize practical knowledge that will prepare students for the world of work </li></ul></ul>Aims of Education
  6. 6. Realism as a Philosophy of Education Methods of Education <ul><li>Direct teaching techniques are preferable. </li></ul><ul><li>Students should be presented information in an organized, efficient and logical format. </li></ul><ul><li>Given the “information overload” in today’s society, it is important that “non-essential” learning should be eliminated. </li></ul><ul><li>Students should be taught based upon their strengths and abilities. </li></ul><ul><li>Scientific testing should be used to diagnose and place students in settings most appropriate to their needs </li></ul><ul><li>Technology should be utilized whenever appropriate in schools </li></ul>
  7. 7. Realism as a Philosophy of Education Curriculum <ul><li>Curricula should be practical and useful </li></ul><ul><li>Curricula should concentrate on the “Basics” and avoid fads and frills. </li></ul><ul><li>Curricula should be highly organized, correlated and aligned throughout the scope and sequence offered by schools </li></ul><ul><li>Curricula should be based upon pre-established standards and criteria. </li></ul><ul><li>Curricula should be “experiential” whenever possible </li></ul>
  8. 8. Realism as a Philosophy of Education Role of the Teacher <ul><li>A Realist teacher should be a subject matter expert. </li></ul><ul><li>A Realist teachers should be able to present material in an organized and systematic way. </li></ul><ul><li>A Realist teacher should be able to explain the lesson objectives in a way that is understandable to the learner. </li></ul><ul><li>A Realist teacher should be able to effectively assess students in such a way that all students are challenged and motivated to learn. </li></ul><ul><li>A Realist teacher should understand current research and technology and be able to utilize it in the classroom. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Pragmatism <ul><li>A 20 th Century Philosophy </li></ul><ul><li>Often considered to be the “American” philosophy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>William James </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>George Herbert Mead </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>John Dewey </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. William James- Percepts & Concepts
  11. 11. William James- Percepts & Concepts
  12. 12. William James- Percepts & Concepts
  13. 13. William James- Percepts & Concepts
  14. 14. William James- Percepts & Concepts
  15. 15. William James- Concepts
  16. 16. William James- Percepts
  17. 17. William James- Making Meaning
  18. 18. John Dewey – Experience and Education
  19. 19. John Dewey – Experience and Education
  20. 20. John Dewey – Experience and Education
  21. 21. John Dewey – Experience and Education p. 19 The either/or of the two positions awareness of changing world static aims and materials 6 make most of present opportunities prepare for remote future 5 attaining ends which make direct vital appeal acquire them as means of by drill 4 learning through experience learning from text/teachers 3 free activity external discipline 2 expression and cultivation of individuality imposition from above 1 Progressive Traditional
  22. 22. Ontology <ul><li>“ What is real?” This is not a useful question.Human beings process perceptions through our senses and construct concepts or ideas. Reality is being constantly constructed through our experiences. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Epistemology <ul><li>Truth is relative to a particular time, culture, place. We learn by making meaning of our experiences. We learn by solving meaningful problems. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Axiology <ul><li>We derive our moral sense through the social consciousness of the human race. Through personal experience we form habits, beliefs, feelings and emotions. These are always shaped by our social world. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Aims <ul><li>Education is a social process and school is a form of community life. School should promote personal growth on the part of every child. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Methods <ul><li>Methods should emerge from an understanding of a child’s powers and interests. A teacher should guide a child towards educative experiences that connect personal growth within community. </li></ul>
  27. 27. Curriculum <ul><li>Curriculum should grow out of life experiences. It should be centered in authentic problem solving and inquiry. </li></ul>
  28. 28. Role of the Teacher <ul><li>The teacher should be a guide, not a dispensor of information. Teachers should know their students and their subjects equally well so they can direct students towards educative experiences </li></ul>