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Overview of Piaget and Vygotsky

Overview of Piaget and Vygotsky

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  • 1. What is Development?
    • How people grow, adapt and change during their lives
      • Physical Development
      • Personality Development
      • Socioemotional Development
      • Cognitive Development
  • 2. History of Development
    • Hall was First President of APA
    • Contents of Children’s Minds (1883)
      • Ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny
        • Ontogeny is the growth (size change) and development (shape change) of an individual organism; phylogeny is the evolutionary history of a species
      • Children develop in regular stages
      • Deterministic
    • Cultural Epochs Curriculum
      • Epochs of human history provide scope and sequence of the curriculum
      • Differentiated curriculum
        • Prepare boys for the world of work
        • Prepare girls for marriage and motherhood
    G. Stanley Hall
  • 3. Contemporary Principles of Development
    • Development is Orderly
    • Development is Gradual
    • Nature - Nurture
      • Learning changes the physical structure of the brain
      • Different parts of the brain are ready to learn at different times
  • 4. Piagetian Development
    • Maturation
    • Activity
    • Social Experience
    • Equilibration
    • Blog
  • 5. Piagetian Terminology
    • Schemes
    • Adaptation
      • Assimilation
      • Accommodation
    • Equilibration
    • Constructivism
  • 6. Assimilation/Accommodation
  • 7. Stages of Cognitive Development
    • Sensorimotor
    • Pre-operational
    • Concrete operations
    • Formal operations
  • 8. Sensorimotor Stage: Ages 0-2
    • Learning through 5 senses
    • Object permanence
    • Trial & Error
    • Reflexes
  • 9. Preoperational Stage: 2-7
    • Egocentrism
    • One-way logic
    • Conservation
    • Language Development
    • Focus on states, not processes
  • 10. Preoperational Researcher - Are Dreams true? Child - No, they are pictures we see. Researcher - Are your eyes open or shut when you dream? Child - Shut. Researcher - Could I see your dream? Child - No, you would be too far away. Researcher - Could your mother see it? Child - Yes, but she turns on the light.
  • 11. Preoperational Researcher - If you stuck a pin in this stone, would it feel it? Child - No Researcher - Why not? Child - Because it is hard. Researcher - If you put it in the fire, would it feel that? Child - Yes, because it would get burnt Researcher -Is the sun alive? Child - Yes, because it gives light. Researcher - Is a candle alive? Child - No- Well, I guess it is when it is giving light. Researcher - Is a bicycle alive? Child - No, when it doesn’t go it isn’t alive!
  • 12. Conservation The child agrees that each container holds the same amount of liquid The child believes the tall container holds more.
  • 13. Conservation of Liquid Preschoolers ignore the pouring process and focus only on the beginning state and the end state Blog
  • 14. Concrete Operational Stage: 7-11
    • Hands-on Thinking
    • Two way logic
    • Transivity
    • Classification
    • Seriation
    Blog
  • 15. Formal Operational Stage: 11-15
    • Hypothetico-deductive reasoning
    • Systematic reasoning
    • Adolescent egocentrism
    • Monitored reasoning
    Blog
  • 16. Applications of Piaget
    • Awareness of student thinking
    • Individuals “construct” knowledge
    • Match teaching to cognitive stage
      • presentation strategies
      • illustrations & examples
      • assignments
    • Use disequilibrium to motivate
  • 17. Limitations of Piaget
    • Stage theory inconsistencies
    • Under estimation of children’s abilities
    • It overlooks cultural and social influences (Development depends upon task and prior experiences)
  • 18. Vygotsky: A sociocultural Perspective
    • Role of language & private speech
    • Social transmission
    • self-talk & learning
    • Scaffolding & assisted learning
    • Zone of Proximal Development
    • Importance of conversations
  • 19. Implementing Vygotsky’s Theory
    • Imitiative Learning
    • Instructed Learning
    • Assisted Learning
    • Cooperative Learning
    • Alternative Assessments
  • 20. Teaching Model Based Upon Vygotsky
  • 21. Limitations of Vygotsky
    • Learning may be effected by:
      • knowledge base
      • existing thinking skills
    • Environmental influences
      • transmission model of most American schools
      • authoritarian environments and unwillingness to allow socially transmitted learning