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ed psych Development2009



Overview of Piaget and Vygotsky

Overview of Piaget and Vygotsky



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    ed psych Development2009 ed psych Development2009 Presentation Transcript

    • What is Development?
      • How people grow, adapt and change during their lives
        • Physical Development
        • Personality Development
        • Socioemotional Development
        • Cognitive Development
    • History of Development
      • Hall was First President of APA
      • Contents of Children’s Minds (1883)
        • Ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny
          • Ontogeny is the growth (size change) and development (shape change) of an individual organism; phylogeny is the evolutionary history of a species
        • Children develop in regular stages
        • Deterministic
      • Cultural Epochs Curriculum
        • Epochs of human history provide scope and sequence of the curriculum
        • Differentiated curriculum
          • Prepare boys for the world of work
          • Prepare girls for marriage and motherhood
      G. Stanley Hall
    • Contemporary Principles of Development
      • Development is Orderly
      • Development is Gradual
      • Nature - Nurture
        • Learning changes the physical structure of the brain
        • Different parts of the brain are ready to learn at different times
    • Piagetian Development
      • Maturation
      • Activity
      • Social Experience
      • Equilibration
      • Blog
    • Piagetian Terminology
      • Schemes
      • Adaptation
        • Assimilation
        • Accommodation
      • Equilibration
      • Constructivism
    • Assimilation/Accommodation
    • Stages of Cognitive Development
      • Sensorimotor
      • Pre-operational
      • Concrete operations
      • Formal operations
    • Sensorimotor Stage: Ages 0-2
      • Learning through 5 senses
      • Object permanence
      • Trial & Error
      • Reflexes
    • Preoperational Stage: 2-7
      • Egocentrism
      • One-way logic
      • Conservation
      • Language Development
      • Focus on states, not processes
    • Preoperational Researcher - Are Dreams true? Child - No, they are pictures we see. Researcher - Are your eyes open or shut when you dream? Child - Shut. Researcher - Could I see your dream? Child - No, you would be too far away. Researcher - Could your mother see it? Child - Yes, but she turns on the light.
    • Preoperational Researcher - If you stuck a pin in this stone, would it feel it? Child - No Researcher - Why not? Child - Because it is hard. Researcher - If you put it in the fire, would it feel that? Child - Yes, because it would get burnt Researcher -Is the sun alive? Child - Yes, because it gives light. Researcher - Is a candle alive? Child - No- Well, I guess it is when it is giving light. Researcher - Is a bicycle alive? Child - No, when it doesn’t go it isn’t alive!
    • Conservation The child agrees that each container holds the same amount of liquid The child believes the tall container holds more.
    • Conservation of Liquid Preschoolers ignore the pouring process and focus only on the beginning state and the end state Blog
    • Concrete Operational Stage: 7-11
      • Hands-on Thinking
      • Two way logic
      • Transivity
      • Classification
      • Seriation
    • Formal Operational Stage: 11-15
      • Hypothetico-deductive reasoning
      • Systematic reasoning
      • Adolescent egocentrism
      • Monitored reasoning
    • Applications of Piaget
      • Awareness of student thinking
      • Individuals “construct” knowledge
      • Match teaching to cognitive stage
        • presentation strategies
        • illustrations & examples
        • assignments
      • Use disequilibrium to motivate
    • Limitations of Piaget
      • Stage theory inconsistencies
      • Under estimation of children’s abilities
      • It overlooks cultural and social influences (Development depends upon task and prior experiences)
    • Vygotsky: A sociocultural Perspective
      • Role of language & private speech
      • Social transmission
      • self-talk & learning
      • Scaffolding & assisted learning
      • Zone of Proximal Development
      • Importance of conversations
    • Implementing Vygotsky’s Theory
      • Imitiative Learning
      • Instructed Learning
      • Assisted Learning
      • Cooperative Learning
      • Alternative Assessments
    • Teaching Model Based Upon Vygotsky
    • Limitations of Vygotsky
      • Learning may be effected by:
        • knowledge base
        • existing thinking skills
      • Environmental influences
        • transmission model of most American schools
        • authoritarian environments and unwillingness to allow socially transmitted learning