Development2008

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Development2008

  1. 1. What is Development? <ul><li>How people grow, adapt and change during their lives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical Development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personality Development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Socioemotional Development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cognitive Development </li></ul></ul>
  2. 2. History of Development <ul><li>Hall was First President of APA </li></ul><ul><li>Contents of Children’s Minds (1883) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ontogeny is the growth (size change) and development (shape change) of an individual organism; phylogeny is the evolutionary history of a species </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Children develop in regular stages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deterministic </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cultural Epochs Curriculum </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Epochs of human history provide scope and sequence of the curriculum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Differentiated curriculum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Prepare boys for the world of work </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Prepare girls for marriage and motherhood </li></ul></ul></ul>G. Stanley Hall
  3. 3. Contemporary Principles of Development <ul><li>Development is Orderly </li></ul><ul><li>Development is Gradual </li></ul><ul><li>Nature - Nurture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning changes the physical structure of the brain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Different parts of the brain are ready to learn at different times </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Piagetian Development <ul><li>Maturation </li></ul><ul><li>Activity </li></ul><ul><li>Social Experience </li></ul><ul><li>Equilibration </li></ul><ul><li>Blog </li></ul>
  5. 5. Piagetian Terminology <ul><li>Schemes </li></ul><ul><li>Adaptation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Assimilation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accommodation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Equilibration </li></ul><ul><li>Constructivism </li></ul>
  6. 6. Assimilation/Accommodation
  7. 7. Stages of Cognitive Development <ul><li>Sensorimotor </li></ul><ul><li>Pre-operational </li></ul><ul><li>Concrete operations </li></ul><ul><li>Formal operations </li></ul>
  8. 8. Sensorimotor Stage: Ages 0-2 <ul><li>Learning through 5 senses </li></ul><ul><li>Object permanence </li></ul><ul><li>Trial & Error </li></ul><ul><li>Reflexes </li></ul>
  9. 9. Preoperational Stage: 2-7 <ul><li>Egocentrism </li></ul><ul><li>One-way logic </li></ul><ul><li>Conservation </li></ul><ul><li>Language Development </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on states, not processes </li></ul>
  10. 10. Preoperational Researcher - Are Dreams true? Child - No, they are pictures we see. Researcher - Are your eyes open or shut when you dream? Child - Shut. Researcher - Could I see your dream? Child - No, you would be too far away. Researcher - Could your mother see it? Child - Yes, but she turns on the light.
  11. 11. Preoperational Researcher - If you stuck a pin in this stone, would it feel it? Child - No Researcher - Why not? Child - Because it is hard. Researcher - If you put it in the fire, would it feel that? Child - Yes, because it would get burnt Researcher -Is the sun alive? Child - Yes, because it gives light. Researcher - Is a candle alive? Child - No- Well, I guess it is when it is giving light. Researcher - Is a bicycle alive? Child - No, when it doesn’t go it isn’t alive!
  12. 12. Conservation The child agrees that each container holds the same amount of liquid The child believes the tall container holds more.
  13. 13. Conservation of Liquid Preschoolers ignore the pouring process and focus only on the beginning state and the end state Blog
  14. 14. Concrete Operational Stage: 7-11 <ul><li>Hands-on Thinking </li></ul><ul><li>Two way logic </li></ul><ul><li>Transivity </li></ul><ul><li>Classification </li></ul><ul><li>Seriation </li></ul>Blog
  15. 15. Formal Operational Stage: 11-15 <ul><li>Hypothetico-deductive reasoning </li></ul><ul><li>Systematic reasoning </li></ul><ul><li>Adolescent egocentrism </li></ul><ul><li>Monitored reasoning </li></ul>Blog
  16. 16. Applications of Piaget <ul><li>Awareness of student thinking </li></ul><ul><li>Individuals “construct” knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Match teaching to cognitive stage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>presentation strategies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>illustrations & examples </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>assignments </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Use disequilibrium to motivate </li></ul>
  17. 17. Limitations of Piaget <ul><li>Stage theory inconsistencies </li></ul><ul><li>Under estimation of children’s abilities </li></ul><ul><li>It overlooks cultural and social influences (Development depends upon task and prior experiences) </li></ul>
  18. 18. Vygotsky: A sociocultural Perspective <ul><li>Role of language & private speech </li></ul><ul><li>Social transmission </li></ul><ul><li>self-talk & learning </li></ul><ul><li>Scaffolding & assisted learning </li></ul><ul><li>Zone of Proximal Development </li></ul><ul><li>Importance of conversations </li></ul>
  19. 19. Implementing Vygotsky’s Theory <ul><li>Imitiative Learning </li></ul><ul><li>Instructed Learning </li></ul><ul><li>Assisted Learning </li></ul><ul><li>Cooperative Learning </li></ul><ul><li>Alternative Assessments </li></ul>
  20. 20. Teaching Model Based Upon Vygotsky
  21. 21. Limitations of Vygotsky <ul><li>Learning may be effected by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>knowledge base </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>existing thinking skills </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Environmental influences </li></ul><ul><ul><li>transmission model of most American schools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>authoritarian environments and unwillingness to allow socially transmitted learning </li></ul></ul>

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