Childhood And Adolescent Development2007


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Childhood And Adolescent Development2007

  1. 1. Educational Psychology <ul><li>Childhood and Adolescent Development </li></ul>
  2. 2. Preschool Development <ul><li>Physical Development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gross & Fine motor development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2 yrs- walk, climb </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3 yrs-run, stack blocks </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>4 yrs-run with rhythm, skip, jump, draw shapes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>5 yrs-balance, stand on one foot, buttons, eating utensils, may be able to tie shoes </li></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Preschool Development <ul><li>Cognitive Development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Language Acquisition- Oral </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vocabulary & rules </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Language Acquisition-Reading </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Emergent literacy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Phonemic awareness </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Concept of print </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Language Acquisition- Writing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Print discrimination </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Invented spelling </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Preschool Development Socioemotional Development Peers Prosocial Behavior Play Parallel Cooperative Associative Solitary
  5. 5. Kinds of Early Childhood Programs <ul><li>Day Care Programs </li></ul>2. Preschools 3. Compensatory Programs: Head Start 4. Early Intervention Programs 5. Kindergarten Programs 6. Developmentally Appropriate Practice
  6. 6. Development During the Elementary Years <ul><li>Physical </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Slows in the Primary Years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bone and Skeletal Development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“Growing Pains” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Near the end of 4 th grade, girls begin growth spurt that continues until puberty </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Boys are 1 to 1 ½ years behind girls </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Development During the Elementary Years <ul><li>Cognitive </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Transition from Pre-Operational to Concrete Operational </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Form concepts, see relationships & solve problems as long as they involve familiar objects and situations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Draw inferences </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Seriation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Transivity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Class inclusion </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Metacognition </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Development During the Elementary Years <ul><li>Socioemotional </li></ul><ul><li>Self-Concept </li></ul><ul><li>Self-Esteem/Efficacy </li></ul><ul><li>Social Comparison </li></ul><ul><li>Peer Acceptance </li></ul><ul><li>Friendships </li></ul>I can do it myself.
  9. 9. Development During the Elementary Years <ul><li>Peer Relationships </li></ul>Importance of Friendships Emotional Resources Cognitive Resources Social Skills Fun
  10. 10. Middle and High School Development “ If all the world’s the stage that Shakespeare claimed, children and adolescents are playing primarily to an audience of peers. Their peers sit in the front rows and the box seats; parents and teachers are now relegated to the back rows and the balcony.” (J. Gordon, 2005, p. 166)
  11. 11. Middle School & High School Development <ul><li>Physical Development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Puberty- 2-6 years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Girls 1-2 years earlier than boys </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“raging hormones” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Comparisons </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Early maturation can lead to behavioral problems </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Late maturation can lead to issues of self-esteem </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Middle School & High School Development <ul><li>Cognitive Development </li></ul><ul><li>Intellectual Growth spurt? </li></ul><ul><li>Plateau effect? </li></ul><ul><li>Transition from Concrete to Formal Operations </li></ul>
  13. 13. Formal Operational Thinking <ul><li>Adolescents gain the ability to think about things without the necessity to see a physical representation of the concept they are addressing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Abstract thought becomes a reality. </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Formal Operational Thinking <ul><li>Hypothetico-deductive reasoning is the capacity to think of all possible factors that might affect the outcome of a problem and test them in an orderly fashion </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Start with a theory of the factors affecting the outcome on a problem </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Deduce predictions about what might happen </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Test the hypotheses </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contrast to Concrete Operational thinkers who can only operate on reality before them. </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Socio-Emotional Development <ul><li>Relationships with Peers </li></ul><ul><li>Relationships with Parents </li></ul><ul><li>Relationships with Teachers </li></ul><ul><li>Identity Development -Separateness Uniqueness </li></ul>
  16. 16. Middle and High School Development Marcia’s Four Identity Statues Foreclosure Identity Diffusion Moratorium Identity Achievement
  17. 17. Middle and High School Development Social Relationships <ul><li>Importance of Peers Increases </li></ul><ul><li>Independent Identities from Parents </li></ul><ul><li>Peer Acceptance </li></ul><ul><li>Social Status </li></ul>
  18. 18. Middle and High School Development Self-Concept and Self-Esteem <ul><li>More Abstract Portrayals </li></ul><ul><li>Differentiated Self-Concept </li></ul><ul><li>Fluctuations </li></ul>
  19. 19. Middle and High School Development Emotional Problems are related to: <ul><li>Physical, Cognitive, and Social Development </li></ul>Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006
  20. 20. Sexually Transmitted Diseases Risk of Pregnancy Delinquency Bullying Dropping Out Drug & Alcohol Abuse Emotional Disorders Adolescent Problems