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The End Of Stress
 

The End Of Stress

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The End Of Stress The End Of Stress Presentation Transcript

  • STRESS
    • What does it mean to you?
  • Stress
    • How do you deal with it?
  • STRESS IS BIG BUSINESS!
  • 壓力 無壓就無力
  • Understress Overstress Eustress Distress
  • S t r e s s US$200 Billion
    • Claude Bernard – le milieu internel
    Homeostasis
  • Homeostasis
  • Allostasis : body’s way of dealing with stress
    • Allostasis – body’s ability to remain stable by being themselves able to change
  • Allostatic load
    • Is the load too heavy?
  • Allostasis : fight or flight
    • any changes –
    • major / minor events
    • getting up in the morning,
    • chasing the bus,
    • getting fired
  • Allostasis overload
    • child who try but could not write
    • boss
    • spouse with chronic illness
    • physical problems – feet, hand, eyes etc.
    • poor eating habits
    • poor sleeping habits
    • poor interpersonal relationships
    • over/under exercise
    • our imagination
  • Hormonal Reaction
    • Sleep deprivation
    GLUCOSE CORTISOL
    • Sleep deprivation is
    • the most common
    • brain impairment.
    • William C. Dement (from The Promise of Sleep , 1999, p. 231)
    • Claude Bernard – internal balance
    • Walter Cannon – emotional stress and health (1914)
    • Hans Seyle – (1930s) – signs of generalized response
  • Seyle’s experiment
    • list of stimuli – “nocuous”
    • heat
    • cold
    • pain
    • fatique
    • fasting
    • nervous stress -- immobilization
  • Hans Seyle experiments
    • general adaptation syndrome –
    • alarm reaction
    • stage of resistance
    • state of exhaustion
    • Whether a stressor is a slight change in posture or a life-threatening assault, the brain determines when the body’s inner equilibrium is disturbed; the brain initiates the actions that restores the balance.
    • Bruce McEwen
  • Stress and the Brain
    • Allostasis begins in the hypothalamus  adrenal glands  adrenaline/epinephrine
    • adrenaline 
    • heart—pump more blood to muscles & organs (less to extremities)
    • Oxygen – rushes up to the brain
    • Hair – stands on end because adrenaline constricts the blood vessels to the skin
    • thus preventing bleeding
    • Fibrinogen – speeds up blood clotting
    • Glugose release – from energy storage as glycogen and release fatty acids – provide energy
    • Release endorphins – natural pain killer
  • How: HPA axis
    • Hypothalamic – pituitary – adrenal axis
    • (CRH – adreno- cortisol
    • corticotropin corticotropic goes into blood
    • releasing hormone
    • factor) from blood
    • moves thru to kidney
    • the blood
    • to pituitary
    • Nervous – hormonal glands – immune system
  • Cortisol
    • -- made from cholesterol
    • function: replenish energy depleted from adrenaline rush by converting food to storage forms as glycogen or fat
    • makes us hungry
  • Too much cortisol
    • blocks actions of insulin to stimulate muscle to take up glucose
    • storage of fat – in abdominal fat
    • loss of protein from muscles and converts to fat
    • mineral loss from bones
  • Too much cortisol
    • suppress immune system, get sick easier
    • short term help deal with infection/injury
  • Too little cortisol
    • * rashes, allergies
    • autoimmune diseases when immune system attack body’s own health tissue.
  • Cortisol and the Brain
    • Circadian rhythm
    • provides us with energy
  • Cortisol cycle
    • Morning -- evening
  • Cortisol level upset
    • abdominal fat
    • muscle loss
    • bone demineralization
    • memory loss
    • cognitive problems
    • Abnormal secretion causes hippocampus and amygdala to overwork
    • atrophy of brain cells and even brain damage
    • Animals can show stress-related wear and tear even in the wild. But in general they tend not to experience allostatic load because once a stressful situation is over, the stress response subsides.
    • For the most part, only humans can keep the HPA axis going indefinitely – because of how our faculties of perception, thought, and emotions are produced and how they are connected to stress response.
    • Stress begins in the brain.
        • Bruce McEwan
    • Memory –
      • declarative
      • episodic
      • cellular
  • Hippocampus
    • Memory formation vs Memory storage
    • Hippocampus – memory formation
    • Hippocampus + amygdala => unconscious memory
  • Amygdala
    • our input – visual stimulus  amygdala before the visual cortex
  • Joseph LeDoux
    • diff ./. memory from amygdala / hippocampus
    • (amygdala - -out of fear;
    • hippocampus – memory formation)
    • Woman with amnesia – damage to her hippocampus; unable to form new memory
  • Extinction***
    • a repatterning process
    • e.g. a rat – sound + shock
    • sound no shock
    • sound no fear
    • this is so important because it shows that we can re-wire, although depending on the negative experience we have, the rewiring may at times take longer. But the rewiring takes place in the prefrontal lobe.