The End Of Stress

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  • The End Of Stress

    1. 1. STRESS <ul><li>What does it mean to you? </li></ul>
    2. 2. Stress <ul><li>How do you deal with it? </li></ul>
    3. 3. STRESS IS BIG BUSINESS!
    4. 4. 壓力 無壓就無力
    5. 5. Understress Overstress Eustress Distress
    6. 6. S t r e s s US$200 Billion
    7. 7. <ul><li>Claude Bernard – le milieu internel </li></ul>Homeostasis
    8. 8. Homeostasis
    9. 9. Allostasis : body’s way of dealing with stress <ul><li>Allostasis – body’s ability to remain stable by being themselves able to change </li></ul>
    10. 10. Allostatic load <ul><li>Is the load too heavy? </li></ul>
    11. 11. Allostasis : fight or flight <ul><li>any changes – </li></ul><ul><li>major / minor events </li></ul><ul><li>getting up in the morning, </li></ul><ul><li>chasing the bus, </li></ul><ul><li>getting fired </li></ul>
    12. 12. Allostasis overload <ul><li>child who try but could not write </li></ul><ul><li>boss </li></ul><ul><li>spouse with chronic illness </li></ul><ul><li>physical problems – feet, hand, eyes etc. </li></ul><ul><li>poor eating habits </li></ul><ul><li>poor sleeping habits </li></ul><ul><li>poor interpersonal relationships </li></ul><ul><li>over/under exercise </li></ul><ul><li>our imagination </li></ul>
    13. 13. Hormonal Reaction <ul><li>Sleep deprivation </li></ul>GLUCOSE CORTISOL
    14. 14. <ul><li>Sleep deprivation is </li></ul><ul><li>the most common </li></ul><ul><li>brain impairment. </li></ul><ul><li>William C. Dement (from The Promise of Sleep , 1999, p. 231) </li></ul>
    15. 15. <ul><li>Claude Bernard – internal balance </li></ul><ul><li>Walter Cannon – emotional stress and health (1914) </li></ul><ul><li>Hans Seyle – (1930s) – signs of generalized response </li></ul>
    16. 16. Seyle’s experiment <ul><li>list of stimuli – “nocuous” </li></ul><ul><li>heat </li></ul><ul><li>cold </li></ul><ul><li>pain </li></ul><ul><li>fatique </li></ul><ul><li>fasting </li></ul><ul><li>nervous stress -- immobilization </li></ul>
    17. 17. Hans Seyle experiments <ul><li>general adaptation syndrome – </li></ul><ul><li>alarm reaction </li></ul><ul><li>stage of resistance </li></ul><ul><li>state of exhaustion </li></ul>
    18. 18. <ul><li>Whether a stressor is a slight change in posture or a life-threatening assault, the brain determines when the body’s inner equilibrium is disturbed; the brain initiates the actions that restores the balance. </li></ul><ul><li>Bruce McEwen </li></ul>
    19. 19. Stress and the Brain <ul><li>Allostasis begins in the hypothalamus  adrenal glands  adrenaline/epinephrine </li></ul>
    20. 20. <ul><li>adrenaline  </li></ul><ul><li>heart—pump more blood to muscles & organs (less to extremities) </li></ul><ul><li>Oxygen – rushes up to the brain </li></ul><ul><li>Hair – stands on end because adrenaline constricts the blood vessels to the skin </li></ul><ul><li>thus preventing bleeding </li></ul><ul><li>Fibrinogen – speeds up blood clotting </li></ul><ul><li>Glugose release – from energy storage as glycogen and release fatty acids – provide energy </li></ul><ul><li>Release endorphins – natural pain killer </li></ul>
    21. 21. How: HPA axis <ul><li>Hypothalamic – pituitary – adrenal axis </li></ul><ul><li>(CRH – adreno- cortisol </li></ul><ul><li>corticotropin corticotropic goes into blood </li></ul><ul><li>releasing hormone </li></ul><ul><li>factor) from blood </li></ul><ul><li>moves thru to kidney </li></ul><ul><li>the blood </li></ul><ul><li>to pituitary </li></ul><ul><li>Nervous – hormonal glands – immune system </li></ul>
    22. 22. Cortisol <ul><li>-- made from cholesterol </li></ul><ul><li>function: replenish energy depleted from adrenaline rush by converting food to storage forms as glycogen or fat </li></ul><ul><li>makes us hungry </li></ul>
    23. 23. Too much cortisol <ul><li>blocks actions of insulin to stimulate muscle to take up glucose </li></ul><ul><li>storage of fat – in abdominal fat </li></ul><ul><li>loss of protein from muscles and converts to fat </li></ul><ul><li>mineral loss from bones </li></ul>
    24. 24. Too much cortisol <ul><li>suppress immune system, get sick easier </li></ul><ul><li>short term help deal with infection/injury </li></ul>
    25. 25. Too little cortisol <ul><li>* rashes, allergies </li></ul><ul><li>autoimmune diseases when immune system attack body’s own health tissue. </li></ul>
    26. 26. Cortisol and the Brain <ul><li>Circadian rhythm </li></ul><ul><li>provides us with energy </li></ul>
    27. 27. Cortisol cycle <ul><li>Morning -- evening </li></ul>
    28. 28. Cortisol level upset <ul><li>abdominal fat </li></ul><ul><li>muscle loss </li></ul><ul><li>bone demineralization </li></ul><ul><li>memory loss </li></ul><ul><li>cognitive problems </li></ul>
    29. 29. <ul><li>Abnormal secretion causes hippocampus and amygdala to overwork </li></ul><ul><li>atrophy of brain cells and even brain damage </li></ul>
    30. 30. <ul><li>Animals can show stress-related wear and tear even in the wild. But in general they tend not to experience allostatic load because once a stressful situation is over, the stress response subsides. </li></ul><ul><li>For the most part, only humans can keep the HPA axis going indefinitely – because of how our faculties of perception, thought, and emotions are produced and how they are connected to stress response. </li></ul>
    31. 31. <ul><li>Stress begins in the brain. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bruce McEwan </li></ul></ul></ul>
    32. 32. <ul><li>Memory – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>declarative </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>episodic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>cellular </li></ul></ul>
    33. 33. Hippocampus <ul><li>Memory formation vs Memory storage </li></ul><ul><li>Hippocampus – memory formation </li></ul><ul><li>Hippocampus + amygdala => unconscious memory </li></ul>
    34. 34. Amygdala <ul><li>our input – visual stimulus  amygdala before the visual cortex </li></ul>
    35. 35. Joseph LeDoux <ul><li>diff ./. memory from amygdala / hippocampus </li></ul><ul><li>(amygdala - -out of fear; </li></ul><ul><li>hippocampus – memory formation) </li></ul><ul><li>Woman with amnesia – damage to her hippocampus; unable to form new memory </li></ul>
    36. 36. Extinction*** <ul><li>a repatterning process </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. a rat – sound + shock </li></ul><ul><li>sound no shock </li></ul><ul><li>sound no fear </li></ul><ul><li>this is so important because it shows that we can re-wire, although depending on the negative experience we have, the rewiring may at times take longer. But the rewiring takes place in the prefrontal lobe. </li></ul>

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