Career Road Strategy Model, Complementary of Competency Models and Strategic Job Analysis
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×
 

Career Road Strategy Model, Complementary of Competency Models and Strategic Job Analysis

on

  • 614 views

Strategic Job Analysis (SJA) and Competency Models (CM) both have the potential to fill an important void in Career Road Planning (CRP). This paper deals with a strategic model of career road planning ...

Strategic Job Analysis (SJA) and Competency Models (CM) both have the potential to fill an important void in Career Road Planning (CRP). This paper deals with a strategic model of career road planning to magnify organization and employee's situations in career road guiding complying with the strategic goals of the organization. To approve this meaning, It is assumed that career road planning is a project in organization's human resource management plan. It is then concluded through the investigation of different aspects of job analyzing and competency models that these methods are not able to present a complete solution in directing of career in road of organization's strategic goals because these approaches omit employee's role as a stakeholder in analysis and selection of career road. This paper presents a model with regard to two aspects: amount of career planning independency from organization's goal and stakeholder (organization and employee) roles to guide the strategic career road planning. Based on this analysis, it is inferred that the degree of employee’s independence is an important parameter in the career planning project’s environment that can be used to explain different strategies in career road. We suggest four distinct types of career planning strategies: obedient servant, independent innovator, flexible moderator and strong leader making job analyzing more clearly than previous approaches.

Statistics

Views

Total Views
614
Views on SlideShare
614
Embed Views
0

Actions

Likes
0
Downloads
6
Comments
0

0 Embeds 0

No embeds

Accessibility

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Adobe PDF

Usage Rights

CC Attribution License

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

Career Road Strategy Model, Complementary of Competency Models and Strategic Job Analysis Career Road Strategy Model, Complementary of Competency Models and Strategic Job Analysis Document Transcript

  • 2012 International Transaction Journal of Engineering, Management, & Applied Sciences & Technologies. International Transaction Journal of Engineering, Management, & Applied Sciences & Technologies http://TuEngr.com, http://go.to/Research Career Road Strategy Model, Complementary of Competency Models and Strategic Job Analysis a* Mohammad Bagher Fakhrzada Department of Industrial Engineering, Yazd University, IRANARTICLEINFO A B S T RA C TArticle history: Strategic Job Analysis (SJA) and Competency ModelsReceived 01 February 2012Received in revised form (CM) both have the potential to fill an important void in Career18 February 2012 Road Planning (CRP). This paper deals with a strategic model ofAccepted 18 February 2012 career road planning to magnify organization and employeesAvailable online18 February 2012 situations in career road guiding complying with the strategic goalsKeywords: of the organization.Competency model; To approve this meaning, It is assumed that career roadStrategic Job analysis; planning is a project in organizations human resourceCareer Road Planning. management plan. It is then concluded through the investigation of different aspects of job analyzing and competency models that these methods are not able to present a complete solution in directing of career in road of organizations strategic goals because these approaches omit employees role as a stakeholder in analysis and selection of career road. This paper presents a model with regard to two aspects: amount of career planning independency from organizations goal and stakeholder (organization and employee) roles to guide the strategic career road planning. Based on this analysis, it is inferred that the degree of employee’s independence is an important parameter in the career planning project’s environment that can be used to explain different strategies in career road. We suggest four distinct types of career planning strategies: obedient servant, independent innovator, flexible moderator and strong leader making job analyzing more clearly than previous approaches. 2012 International Transaction Journal of Engineering, Management, & Applied Sciences & Technologies.*Corresponding author (M.B. Fakhrzad). Fax: +98 351 8122402, E-mail address:mfakhrzad@yazduni.ac.ir. 2012. International Transaction Journal of Engineering,Management, & Applied Sciences & Technologies. Volume 3 No.2. ISSN 2228-9860 125eISSN 1906-9642. Online Available at http://TuEngr.com/V03/125-143.pdf.
  • 1. Introduction  Job analysis may be viewed as the hub of virtually all human resource managementactivities need for the successful functioning of organizations [1,2]. At the heart of almost everyhuman resources management program or activity is the need for accurate and thorough jobinformation. Job analysis is thus a prerequisite activity for the effective management of humanresources. However, many important assumptions that underlie such fundamental uses of jobanalysis in management are becoming questionable in todays business environment. Jobanalysis is focused on the collection of work-related information for the job as it currently existsand/or has existed in the past [3,4]. This has led to call for a more proactive and strategicapproach to job analysis, so that the procedures will continue to be relevant in todaysworkplace [5,6]. In many organizations, Competency Modeling (CM) has been replaced with TraditionalJob Analysis (TJA) for a host of human resource applications. However, there seems to be noprofessional consensus regarding the difference between TJA and CM, and some have evenargued that any Competency Modeling (CM) project is at its foundation also a job analysisprocess [7]. A group of experts, surveying the differences between TJA and CM, noted that the lattersemphasis on “linking results to business goals” is not only largely absent in TJA, but alsomethodologically more rigorous than CM in regards to data collection, level of detail,assessment of reliability of results and documentation of the research process [8], while othersopined that at least some CM applications are merely watered-down, less-than-rigorous jobanalysis [9,10], or that CM does not accomplish anything that new forms of strategic-orientedjob analysis cannot accomplish [11,12]. Guion [13] states: “…job analysis, as we generally know it, suffers from a couple ofserious plagues, at least for inferring performance requirements. One of these is its emphasis onthe status quo…we need further kinds of analysis to avoid the static nature of conventional jobanalysis. We need organizational forecasting information, strategic plans, and both currentinformation and plans related to the interactions between different organizational activities.” 126 M.B. Fakhrzad
  • The “new” careers literature is grounded in the supposition of a substantial changeaffecting careers and the career success construct [14,15]. In particular, much has been writtenabout the gradual displacement of the traditional, organization-based career and the oldpsychological contract with new types of career and the new, employability-orientatedpsychological contract [16,17]. Consequently, there has been a noticeable evolution in the waycareer and career successes are defined. While Wilensky [ 18 ] referred to career as asuccession of related jobs, arranged in a hierarchy of prestige, through which persons move inan ordered (more-or-less predictable) sequence. Super [19] defined career as the combinationand sequence of roles played by a person during the course of a lifetime. Finally, Arthur, Halland Lawrence [20] defined career as the evolving sequence of a person’s work experiences overtime, which is an established definition of career today [21]. This evolution from “jobs” to“experiences”, reflected in the post-modern, turn in the social sciences during the late 1980swhen attention increasingly shifted from the objective to the subjective world of work. The organization of this paper is as follows: First, we investigate different aspects of eachof the above issues, involving a comparison between CM and TJA followed by a strategic viewto the job analysis. Finally, we converge each of these aspects in a unique road, leadingorganization to its strategic objectives. In order to reach this goal, we use a common strategicplanning model.2. Literature review: career road, TJA, SJA and CM  There are different approaches and meanings for career success concept. Savickas [22]described the “rise and fall” of career in North America by outlining the historical evolutionfrom an agricultural to an industrial economy and finally, to the current-day knowledgeeconomy, causing careers to be decreasingly regulated and linear [23,24]. With regard toculture, several authors have demonstrated that the career narratives of people vary fromdifferent countries. Dany [25] described the European culture as bureaucratic, with servileobedience, risk aversion and strong commitment as key features. The U.S culture, on the otherhand, was defined as “contractual”; risk-taking and entrepreneurial, individualist attitudes arevalued [26]. Sturges [27] and Nabi [28] both reported finding of two factors in their qualitative studies,*Corresponding author (M.B. Fakhrzad). Fax: +98 351 8122402, E-mail address:mfakhrzad@yazduni.ac.ir. 2012. International Transaction Journal of Engineering,Management, & Applied Sciences & Technologies. Volume 3 No.2. ISSN 2228-9860 127eISSN 1906-9642. Online Available at http://TuEngr.com/V03/125-143.pdf. View slide
  • i.e. external, or extrinsic, career success versus internal, or intrinsic, career success. Dyke andMurphy [29] classified their findings on the meanings of career success under the four factors;balance, relationships, recognition and material success. Lee et al. [ 30 ] identifiedorganization-based, personal and interlinked themes in interviewees’ discourse about career.Additionally, Hennequin [31] established three factors within the career success road: materialcareer success, psychological career success and social career road. To reach these career success opportunities and to approach to the organization goals, up tonow, to many types of tools, methods and models have been presented. TJA, SJA and also CMare three famous models of them. CM is much better suited to the task of influencing employee behavior along the strategiclines than TJA is. That is, key to CMs capacity to provide a path between day-to-day employeebehavior and the broader goals of the organization. Schippmann et al. [32] relied on a smallnumber of core competencies that were unambiguously worded to embody the organizationscompetitive advantage across jobs, ranks, and locations [33,34]. Thus, competency modelsshould be easy to understand and communicate to anyone in the organization, regardless of jobtitle. In contrast, TJA is usually burdened with long lists of tasks and psychologically-wordedKnowledge, Skills, Abilities, and Other Characteristics (KSAOs) that undoubtedly provide adeep understanding of the nature of each job and its requirements, but which, together, form acomplex description that is difficult to communicate to those who are not closely familiar withthe job or with job-analytic terminology. As competition and technological innovations increase and product life cycles get shorter,jobs are becoming not only less static, but also less individually-based. Consequently, the tasksto be performed, and the knowledge, skills and abilities (KSAs) required for effective jobperformance are also becoming more volatile, and sometimes more team-based. Furthermore,in all likelihood, organizations may perceive the creation of jobs that do not currently exist andthe analysis of which is beyond the scope of traditional job analysis (TJA). Despite the obvious need for a strategic approach to job analysis, there have been just a fewtheoretical attempts in proposing SJA frameworks. In a seminal paper, Schneider and Konz 128 M.B. Fakhrzad View slide
  • [35] built on traditional job-analytic approaches in which they term a “multi-method jobanalysis” procedure. There is nothing particularly unique in their eight steps approach untilthe stage of collecting information about the future and revising tasks and KSAs in light offuture expected changes. The eight stages identified are: 1. collect information on the currentjob; 2. specify job tasks and build task clusters; 3. develop and administer task surveys; 4.conduct statistical analysis of task survey responses; 5. conduct the knowledge, skills andabilities process; 6. develop and administer the KSA surveys; 7. gather information about thefuture; and, 8. revise tasks and/or task clusters, and KSAs and/or KSA clusters in light of futurechanges. Schneider and Konz [51] suggested that subject matter experts (SMEs), including jobincumbents, supervisors, managers and job analysts, be brought together in a workshop todiscuss likely future changes. According to Stewart and Carson [36] “this approach acknowledges the dynamic natureof work and illustrates how perceptions of current and future jobs may differ, but it still assumesthat jobs can be analyzed independent of people”. Despite practical and theoretical problemsinherent in the approach, the attempt is certainly useful since it highlights the need for SJA andoffers a method to reshape job analysis to suit the emerging needs of many contemporaryorganizations. Snow and Snell [37], in an essay on staffing as a whole, rather than job analysis per se,argued that new trends in the environment demand changes in many human resourcemanagement functions, and that “companies that respond quickly and appropriately to thestaffing challenges presented by these trends will find that they can outperform competitorswho are slower to develop a strong human resource planning and management function”.Three conceptual models that characterize the staffing process are presented. Model 1, usingtraditional job analysis, seeks to match individuals to specific, well-defined jobs and ignores thecompanys strategy. Model 2 views staffing as part of the overall strategic implementationprocess and is concerned with broadly defined jobs, as well as linkages between jobs. Model 3suggests that the recruitment, assessment and selection of high-caliber individuals should be the*Corresponding author (M.B. Fakhrzad). Fax: +98 351 8122402, E-mail address:mfakhrzad@yazduni.ac.ir. 2012. International Transaction Journal of Engineering,Management, & Applied Sciences & Technologies. Volume 3 No.2. ISSN 2228-9860 129eISSN 1906-9642. Online Available at http://TuEngr.com/V03/125-143.pdf.
  • foundation of strategy. In this model, staffing drives the formation of competitive strategy. In Model 2, strategy supplements traditional job analysis as the basis of staffing and takesinto account the companys relationship with the environment. Its effectiveness is defined bythe companys accomplishment of its strategic goals rather than just the person–job match.Model 3 assumes shorter business cycles and rapid technological advances.3. Comparing TJA and CM approaches    It is clear that the dimensional comparison serves to clarify that TJA and CM are (or ideallyshould be) two fundamentally different HRM tools, even though the line that separates themhas been blurred in many of their field applications to date. In doing so, we hope to demonstrate how CM can be implemented in a manner that addsnot only to its strategic purpose thereby overcoming the limitations of TJA denouncedelsewhere [38], but also to the rigor that has been missed in CM [39]. First of all, TJA is best positioned in the domain of applied measurement and serves toinform HR functions such as staffing, training, and compensation, whereas CM is bestconceived of as a strategy execution tool whose closest referents can probably be found inOrganizational Culture and Social Control theories [40,41]. These theories suggest that acritical determinant of strategic leadership is not how brilliant the strategy is, but how muchemployees understand and share organizational norms concerning strategically-alignedbehavior. CM ideally attempts to open up a conduit for strategy execution, so that the employeelearns how to incorporate strategic concerns into day-to-day behavior. Secondly, the existence of an external reality dubbed the job that is objectively verifiable[42]. The arrival of the conceptualization of the job as a separate entity from the person whoperforms a certain work activity can be traced to the onset of the industrial revolution, whichcreated a need for division of labor. Obviously, there is a justification for the recommendationto separate the job from the person; specifically that the job analyst is interested in a “neutral”description of the job that is not contaminated by any job holders idiosyncratic interpretation. 130 M.B. Fakhrzad
  • Because TJA has focused on capturing the essential elements of the job in the form of anacross-incumbents description, it should not be surprising that this homothetic approach hasobviated the influence of the incumbents interpretation of the job. The shared perception reflected in the job descriptions characteristic of TJA reflects theaggregate of behaviors displayed by job incumbents over time, and the aggregate is just ahomothetic compromise representing the manner in which a non-existent, “average” jobincumbent performs the duties of the job [43]. However, the notion of the job is a socialconstruction that does not have tangible existence separate from those who perform it [44]. Incontrast to TJAs view of the job as a fixed entity that does not change from incumbent toincumbent, CM views the job as a role to be first interpreted, and then enacted by eachemployee. Another thing is that, TJA focuses solely on the job and CM, in contrast to TJA, assumesthat performance across all jobs in the organization should be touched by certain behavioralthemes embedded in the competencies that are connected directly to the organizational strategy. Another point that illustrates this contrast between the foci of TJA and CM is the fact thatthe same set of competencies normally cuts across jobs and layers of the organization. Thus,CM becomes a common language that prescribes the most valued behavioral themes by theorganization, regardless of the job. The strength of a list of competencies that cuts across all jobs in the organization is still itsability to simplify succession planning and career development systems. That is, competenciesrepresent universal behavioral themes that the organization would like to be displayed across alljobs and, therefore, those who wish to be promoted know exactly what these behavioral themesare that should lead them to better paid jobs. Also, whereas TJA is essentially descriptive, CM is primarily prescriptive [45]. That is,TJA attempts to provide an “objective” account of the “average” work activities and theirassociated worker requirements and in contrast, CM intends to prescribe the manner in whichwork activities should be carried out in alignment with the organizations strategy.*Corresponding author (M.B. Fakhrzad). Fax: +98 351 8122402, E-mail address:mfakhrzad@yazduni.ac.ir. 2012. International Transaction Journal of Engineering,Management, & Applied Sciences & Technologies. Volume 3 No.2. ISSN 2228-9860 131eISSN 1906-9642. Online Available at http://TuEngr.com/V03/125-143.pdf.
  • Because of its descriptive nature, TJA is also rooted in the past, and it portrays the job as ithas been done to date. CM, on the other hand, is focused on the future, and it signals the mannerin which the job should be interpreted and performed from now on, regardless of whether or notemployees have adopted such an approach in the past. TJA is concerned with uncovering day-to-day operational capabilities that have facilitatedthe continuation and survival of the organization to date and In contrast, CM is concerned withevolutionary and dynamic capabilities that facilitate growth and change. Still another difference lies in the distinct performance level addressed by TJA and CM.Whereas TJA can be said to focus on describing “typical” performance as represented in thedescription of the job as performed by an “average” job incumbent, CM aims at inducing“maximal” performance as reflected in a strategic interpretation of the job that results in a seriesof behaviors that fit certain strategic themes. TJA is well suited to applications where the goal is in part to determine basic workerrequirements or minimal qualifications needed for job entry and in contrast, CM encourages aseries of loosely coupled behaviors or behavioral themes that go beyond mastery of the basicaspects of their job, and instead concretize performance excellence as envisioned in theorganizations strategy.4. Strategic job analysis (SJA)  It is generally agreed that various human resources functions should be integrated into theoverall strategic management process of the organization [46]. Strategic job analysis means aligning current and future jobs with the strategic orientationof the organization. That is, SJA is a purposeful, systematic process of collecting current andfuture work-related aspects of a job, within the organizations strategic context. In order for organizations to become more strategic in terms of their job analysis, Siddique[47] advised a need to start looking into competencies as opposed to tasks and KSAs as seen in 132 M.B. Fakhrzad
  • the traditional job analysis approach. So, the use of a competency approach is critical fororganizations wishing to develop a strategic job analysis [48]. Job analysis plays a pivotal role within the human resources management field, and it is ofcrucial importance to other functions such as training, compensation and performanceappraisal. As such, strategic job analysis should not only be integrally linked to the strategicmanagement process of the organization, but to other related organizational functions as well. An environmental analysis/assessment entails the purposeful scanning of an organizationsinternal and external realms for information on opportunities, threats and probable changes. Environmental scanning provides a rational basis for action by anticipating futureconditions. Interestingly, Schneider and Konz [49], in their approaches to strategic job/workanalysis, advocated the use of subject matter experts in predicting future job changes and thenthe present and most likely future situations are compared by SMEs, job analysts and relevantpersonnel within the organization. Such a comparison allows an assessment of the extent towhich changes in the environment of the organization yield significant task and KSA changesfor the job in question. This comparison, or gap analysis, will reveal one of the following threepossibilities: little or no significant differences, moderate differences, or significantdifferences. Another implication of SJA also relates to selection and staffing. SJA goes beyond thetraditional person–job match and implies the incorporation of KSAs and work behavioursaligned with the strategic thrust of the organization. Traditional job analysis infers KSAs solelyfrom work behaviors associated with the current job. The human resource function, through a strategic job analysis, can help to ensure suchattributes and in the process, can increase the likelihood of the organizations survival andsuccess. It is only after a comparison of current and possible future jobs that the organizationcan set its strategic job analysis objectives. The objectives should also take into considerationthe overall strategic thrust of the organization. The objectives will guide the development ofSJA action plans/programs and the allocation of resources. The SJA process must also be*Corresponding author (M.B. Fakhrzad). Fax: +98 351 8122402, E-mail address:mfakhrzad@yazduni.ac.ir. 2012. International Transaction Journal of Engineering,Management, & Applied Sciences & Technologies. Volume 3 No.2. ISSN 2228-9860 133eISSN 1906-9642. Online Available at http://TuEngr.com/V03/125-143.pdf.
  • continuously evaluated through such feedback mechanisms as employee adaptation andperformance.5. Career Road Strategy, Complementary of TJA, SJA and CM    It is obvious from the above discussion that none of these approaches, in spite of theirunique specifications, are able to be an exact view without any shortage for present job analysisor team base or future job analysis. Studies [50] show that, TJA, SJA and CM approaches areopposed or at least different in these following aspects: A: purpose: because TJA describes the job, CM focuses on affects of career behavior andSJA purposes is a mixture of them. B: focus: the main attention of TJA is job, the CM approach is the organization and SJApoints the organization with its employee’s skills, knowledge and abilities. C: time orientation: TJA is rooted in the past, and it portrays the job as it has been done todate. But both SJA and CM are focused on the future, and signal the manner in which the jobshould be interpreted and performed from now on, regardless of whether or not employees haveadopted such an approach in the past. D: Performance level: whereas TJA can be said to focus on describing “typical”performance as represented in the description of the job as performed by an “average” jobincumbent, CM aims at “maximal” performance as reflected in a strategic interpretation ofthe job that results in a series of behaviors that fit certain strategic themes and SJA, in this item,is more approaching to CM. E: Measurement approach: all criteria used in TJA are measurable so that the assessment ofjob’s task is clear and simple while in CM, criteria are elusive and qualitative; SJA criteriadepend on the strategic goals and their indicators for assessment. Through more precision on details, we can find some other differences between these threeapproaches, so we simply can say that, none of these approaches are able to present a complete 134 M.B. Fakhrzad
  • view for career road strategy. In the other direction, there isn’t any attention to role of theemployee as a stakeholder for selection of career road in all of these approaches. That’s becauseeach of TJA, SJA and CM are aimed to increase organization’s performance, so the job and theemployee are evaluated just for this goal in theses approaches. As it can be concluded from the above, employee leaving out during job analysis andrepresentation of career road process, naturally will decrease organization performance andlead to unsuccessful strategic goals. Many researchers and practitioners accuse traditional jobanalysis of being too legalistic and of creating artificial boundaries that interfere with thisemerging need for team-oriented and cross-functional employees [51] and make reaching toorganization goals very hard. Therefore, representing a tool or method to be a complement partfor theses approaches with entering role of the employee in decision making process andselection of the career road can be insurance for organization strategic goals acquirement. This paper introduces career road strategy as a complementary for TJA, SJA and CMmodels. This model helps to make clear organization and employee situations to lead the roadof the job and to comply it with the organization goals. In the next section we describe differentaspects of this method.6. Career Road Strategy Model description  In this paper, we present a career road strategic model that insert organization andemployee’s goals inside of the career planning properties. Therefore, planning of the careerroad viewed as a project in human resource management plan of organization, so according to aproject independency characters, three tracks can be assumed: In the first and most dominant track, career planning projects are viewed as subordinate tothe parent organization where career strategy is derived from more significant businessstrategies of the parent. In the second track, career planning projects have been considered as autonomousorganizations connected loosely or tightly to a parent organization.*Corresponding author (M.B. Fakhrzad). Fax: +98 351 8122402, E-mail address:mfakhrzad@yazduni.ac.ir. 2012. International Transaction Journal of Engineering,Management, & Applied Sciences & Technologies. Volume 3 No.2. ISSN 2228-9860 135eISSN 1906-9642. Online Available at http://TuEngr.com/V03/125-143.pdf.
  • In the third track, career planning projects have been considered as organizations that arenot subject to clearly defined governance or authority setting in relation to their surroundingorganizations or stakeholder organizations. In such cases, career planning projects adapt to theongoing changes as career strategic entities of their own. The Career planning strategy can be considered to be partly derived from the successdiscussion. The success issue relates to different stakeholders. The various stakeholders’different objectives, interests, and needs add to the complexity of managing a career planningprojects. The governance and shaping of the career planning projects in its complexenvironment with several stakeholders relate to strategic job analysis with attention to bothemployee and organization as stakeholders. Based on the above analysis, we conclude that the concept of career planning strategyshould not be limited to serve a single organization only. Instead, this issue shouldacknowledge organization strategic goals as well as employee’s requirements andcompetencies. So, career road strategy is moving on the road of success that both organizationand employee take part in it. Strategies of career planning project relates to its environment. Career planning projectstrategy is influenced by how autonomous an employee towards the organization is. Traditional/strategic job analysis and competency models in the existing literature assumethat an employee is not autonomous, but the career planning project is run under a stronggovernance of one organization. Our interpretation of career planning autonomy is notrestricted only to cover autonomy in relation to the organization, but we’d rather use theconcept of independence that reflects the autonomous position of employee to the organizationas stakeholder. Based on this analysis, it is concluded that the degree of employee’s independence is animportant parameter in the career planning project’s environment that can be used to explaindifferent strategies in career road. We suggest four distinct types of career planning strategies:obedient servant, independent innovator, flexible moderator and strong leader. In Figure 1, weshow these four different types of career strategies can take along the employee’s independence 136 M.B. Fakhrzad
  • from the organizations goals. The four career planning strategy types are explainedsubsequently. Degree of Independence Independent Strong High Innovator Leader Obedient Flexible Servant Mediato Low Organization Career STACKHOLDERS Figure 1: Types of career planning strategies. Career planning with obedient servant strategy considers its organization as the mostimportant stakeholder in its environment. Employee exists for the organization and theobjective for the career is to fulfill its organization’s goals. An obedient servant strategy mayresult in the career planning project’s success due to appreciation of the organization, measuredby how well the career implements and supports the organization’s business strategy. Career planning with independent innovator strategy establishes its direction throughencouraging innovative and independent behavior for finding or maintaining the employee’sown goals and purposes. Career joins with such parts of the organization that help to advancethe career and organization’s purposes, but it simultaneously competes, fights or hedges againstsuch parts of the organization that pose a threat to the career road’s purpose. The success of anindependent innovator strategy may be measured through newness, degree of change, or impactrelated to employee’s outcome, or even through the employee’s competency to renew itsorganization’s business strategy. Career road planning with flexible mediator strategy finds its direction by definingemployee and organization as strong stakeholders. The career planning project adapts to itsstakeholders’ goals and objectives set for the career. Career road planning with strong leader strategy selects its direction by creating a strong*Corresponding author (M.B. Fakhrzad). Fax: +98 351 8122402, E-mail address:mfakhrzad@yazduni.ac.ir. 2012. International Transaction Journal of Engineering,Management, & Applied Sciences & Technologies. Volume 3 No.2. ISSN 2228-9860 137eISSN 1906-9642. Online Available at http://TuEngr.com/V03/125-143.pdf.
  • independent culture and feeling of the importance of making the career successful. This meansthat the career establishes and adjusts its own goals and objectives. The career planning projectis organized from inside out by creating a governance umbrella where organization ispositioned in purposeful roles. The success of a strong leader strategy may be measured by thecareer’s internal capability of creating a unique purposeful goal and objective for planning ofthe career road, capability of using the organization as a resource.7. Conclusion  Job analysis may be viewed as the hub of virtually all human resource managementactivities need for the successful functioning of organizations. Strategic Job Analysis (SJA) andCompetency Models (CM) both have the potential to fill an important void in career roadplanning. In this paper we present a strategic model for career road planning that makes thesituation of both employee and organization clear in the process of strategic planning.Characteristics of TJA, SJA and CM are compared and then we concluded that none of themcould be a complete method or tool for career planning, because they don’t pay attention to bothstakeholders together, so career road strategy model is a complementary of competency modelsand traditional /strategic job analysis. Degree of employee’s independence is an importantparameter in the career planning project’s environment that can be used to explain differentstrategies in career road. We suggest four distinct types of career planning strategies: obedientservant, independent innovator, flexible moderator, and strong leader.8. Themes for future research  The generic definition of career road strategy as a HRM project introduced in this paperprovides a fruitful foundation for further research. Such further research should take intoaccount the dynamic nature of the career road strategy, meaning that the career strategies aredynamically created and they also change during the HRM project lifecycle. We suggest futureresearch on the following three themes: First, the practical value of the four types of strategies, created in this paper based onsynthesis of existing research, should be shown by empirical research. What is the morespecific nature of each of the four different career strategies? Which career strategies are themost appropriate in different contexts, i.e., what are their real success factors? 138 M.B. Fakhrzad
  • Second, research on career strategy formulation and implementation is needed. What arethe routes through which successful career strategies emerge? Third, further research is proposed on the evolution and dynamics of career road strategies.Empirical studies should address especially the factors that determine what kinds of positions acareer may take in relation to its external environment and how that position changes during thecareer life. From this perspective, career road strategy can also become a path to change acareer’s position, e.g. to gain more autonomy.9. References [1]. Ash, R. (1988). Job analysis in the world of work. In S. Gael (Ed.), The Job Analysis Handbook for Business (pp. 3-13). New York: John Wiley and Sons.[2]. Siddique, C. M. (2004). Job analysis: A strategic human resource management practice. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 15(1), 219-244.[3]. Palmer, H., & Valet, W. (2001). Job analysis: Targeting needed skills. Employment relations today, 28(3), 85-91.[4]. Schneider, B., & Konz, A. (1989). Strategic job analysis. Human Resource Management, 28(1), 51-63.[5]. Ethridge, G., Rodgers, R. A., & Fabian, E. S. (2007). Emerging roles, functions, specialty areas, and employment settings for contemporary rehabilitation practice, Journal of Applied Rehabilitation Counseling, 38(4), 27-33.[6]. Sanchez, J. (1994). From documentation to innovation: Reshaping job analysis to meet emerging business needs. Human Resource Management Review, 4(1), 51-74.[7]. Ruggeberg, B. J. (2007, April). A consultants perspective on doing competencies well: Methods, models, and lessons. In A. Fink (Ed.), Doing competencies well, Symposium presented at the Annual Conference of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, New York.[8]. Schippmann, J. S., Ash, R. A., Battista, M., Carr, L., Eyde, L. D., Hesketh, B., et al. (2000). The practice of competency modeling, Personnel Psychology, 53, 703-740.*Corresponding author (M.B. Fakhrzad). Fax: +98 351 8122402, E-mail address:mfakhrzad@yazduni.ac.ir. 2012. International Transaction Journal of Engineering,Management, & Applied Sciences & Technologies. Volume 3 No.2. ISSN 2228-9860 139eISSN 1906-9642. Online Available at http://TuEngr.com/V03/125-143.pdf.
  • [9]. Barrett, G. V., & Callahan, C. M. (1997, April). Competencies: The Madison Avenue approach to professional practice. In R. C. Page (Ed.), Competency models: What are they and do they work? Practitioner Forum presented at the 12th Annual Conference of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, St. Louis, Missouri.[10]. Pearlman, K. (1997, April). Competencies: Issues in their application. In R. C. Page (Ed.), Competency models: What are they and do they work? Practitioner forum, conducted at the meeting of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, St. Louis, MO.[11]. Barney, M. (2000). Interdisciplinary contributions to strategic work modeling. Ergometrika, 1, 24-37.[12]. Sackett, P. R., Laczo, R.M. (2003). Job and work analysis. InW. C. Borman, D. R. Ilgen, & R. J. Klimoski (Eds.), Handbook of psychology: Vol. 12. (pp. 21 –37). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.[13]. Guion, R. (1993). The need for change: Six persistent themes. In N. Schmitt,W. Borman, & Associates (Eds.), Personnel selection in organizations San Francisco: Josey-Bass Publishers Hammer, L.[14]. Dany, F. (2003). ‘Free actors’ and organizations: Critical remarks about the new career literature, based on French insights. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 14(5), 821–838.[15]. Sullivan, S. E. (1999). The changing nature of careers: A review and research agenda. Journal of Management, 25(3), 457–484.[16]. Briscoe, J. P., Hall, D. T., & DeMuth, R. L. F. (2006). Protean and boundary less career attitudes: An empirical exploration. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 69(1), 30–47.[17]. Fugate, M., Kinicki, A. J., & Ashfort, B. E. (2004). Employability: A psycho-social construct, its dimensions, and applications. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 65(1), 14– 38.[18]. Wilensky, H. L. (1961), Careers, lifestyles, and social integration. International Social Science Journal, 12(4), 553–558.[19]. Super, D. E. (1980). A life span, life space approach to career development. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 13, 282–298.[20]. Arthur, M. B., Hall, D. T., & Lawrence, B. S. (1989). Handbook of career theory. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press. 140 M.B. Fakhrzad
  • [21]. Arthur, M. B., Khapova, S. N., & Wilderom, C. P. M. (2005). Career success in a boundary less career world. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 26(2), 177–202.[22]. Savickas, M. L. (2000). Renovating the psychology of careers for the 21st century, In A. Collin & R. Young (Eds.), The future of career (pp. 53 – 68). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.[23]. Briscoe, J. P., Hall, D. T., & DeMuth, R. L. F. (2006). Protean and boundaryless career attitudes: An empirical exploration. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 69(1), 30–47.[24]. Evetts, J. (1992). Dimensions of career: Avoiding reification in the analysis of change. Sociology, 26(1), 1–21.[25]. Dany, F. (2003). ‘Free actors’ and organizations: Critical remarks about the new career literature, based on French insights. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 14(5), 821–838.[26]. Briscoe, J. P., Hall, D. T., Las Heras, M., & Unite, J. A. (2007). Doing well and doing good: Equations for career success in the United States. In J. P. Briscoe (Chair), Doing well by doing good across cultures? A global perspective on career success, Symposium conducted at the annual meeting of the academy of management, Philadelphia, PA.[27]. Sturges, J. (1999). What it means to succeed: Personal conceptions of career success held by male and female managers at different ages. British Journal of Management, 10(3), 239–252.[28]. Nabi, G. R. (2001). The relationship between HRM, social support, and subjective career success among men and women, International Journal of Manpower, 22(5), 457 –474.[29]. Dyke, L. S., & Murphy, S. A. (2006). How we de.ne success: A qualitative study of what matters most to women and men. Sex Roles: A Journal of Research, 55(5), 357– 372.[30]. Lee, M. D., Lirio, P., Karakas, F., MacDermid, S. M., Buck, M. L., & Kossek, E. E. (2006). Exploring career and personal outcomes and the meaning of career success among part-time professionals in organizations. In R. J. Burke (Ed.), Research companion to work hours and work addiction (pp. 284–309).[31]. Hennequin, E. (2007). What’career success’ means to blue-collar workers, Career Development International, 12(6), 565–581.*Corresponding author (M.B. Fakhrzad). Fax: +98 351 8122402, E-mail address:mfakhrzad@yazduni.ac.ir. 2012. International Transaction Journal of Engineering,Management, & Applied Sciences & Technologies. Volume 3 No.2. ISSN 2228-9860 141eISSN 1906-9642. Online Available at http://TuEngr.com/V03/125-143.pdf.
  • [32]. Schippmann, J. S., Ash, R. A., Battista, M., Carr, L., Eyde, L. D., Hesketh, B., et al. (2000). The practice of competency modeling. Personnel Psychology, 53, 703-740.[33]. Chatman, J. A., & Cha, S. E. (2003). Leading by leveraging culture, California Management Review, 45(4), 20-34.[34]. Prahalad, C. K., & Hamel, G. (1990). The core competence of the corporation, Harvard Business Review, 68(3), 79-91.[35]. Schneider, B., & Konz, A. (1989). Strategic job analysis, Human Resource Management, 28(1), 51-63.[36]. Stewart, G. L., & Carson, K. P. (1997), Moving beyond the mechanistic model: An alternative approach to staffing for contemporary organizations. Human Resource Management Review, 7(2), 157-184.[37]. Snow, C., & Snell, S. (1993). Staffing as strategy. In N. Schmitt, W. Borman, & Associates (Eds.), Personnel selection in organizations. San Francisco: Josey-Bass.[38]. Snow, C. C., & Snell, S. A. (1992). Staffing as strategy. In N. Schmitt, &W. C. Borman (Eds.), Personnel selection in organizations (pp. 71-98), San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.[39]. Schippmann, J. S., Ash, R. A., Battista, M., Carr, L., Eyde, L. D., Hesketh, B., et al. (2000), The practice of competency modeling. Personnel Psychology, 53, 703-740.[40]. Bowen, D. E., & Ostroff, C. (2004). Understanding HRM-.rm performance linkages: The role of the “strength” of the HRM system, Academy of Management Review, 29, 203-221.[41]. Chatman, J. A., & Cha, S. E. (2003). Leading by leveraging culture. California Management Review, 45(4), 20-34.[42]. Cronshaw, S. F. (1998). Job analysis: Changing nature of work. Canadian Psychology, 39(1), 5-13.[43]. Levine, E. L., & Sanchez, J. I. (2007). Evaluating work analysis in the 21st century, Ergometrika, 4, 1-11.[44]. Sanchez, J. I., & Levine, E. L. (2000). Accuracy or consequential validity: Which is the better standard for job analysis data? Journal of Organizational Behavior, 21, 809-818.[45]. Sackett, P. R., Laczo, R.M. (2003). Job and work analysis. InW. C. Borman, D. R. Ilgen, & R. J. Klimoski (Eds.), Handbook of psychology: Vol. 12. (pp. 21–37). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley. 142 M.B. Fakhrzad
  • [46]. Boxall, P., & Purcell, J. (2000). Strategic human resource management: Where have we come from and where should we be going? International Journal of Management Reviews, 14(2), 183-203.[47]. Siddique, C. M. (2004). Job analysis: A strategic human resource management practice. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 15(1), 219-244.[48]. Shippmann, J., Ash, R., Battista, M., Carr, L., Eyde, L., Hesketh, B., et al. (2000), The practice of competency modelling. Personnel Psychology, 53, 703-740.[49]. Schneider, B., & Konz, A. (1989). Strategic job analysis. Human Resource Management, 28(1), 51-63.[50]. Juan I. Sanchez, Edward L. Levine,(2009). Human Resource Management Review 19 (2009) 53–63[51]. Parbudyal Singh (2008), Human Resource Management Review 18 (2008) 87–99. Dr. M.B. Fakhrzad is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Industrial Engineering at Yazd University, Yazd, Iran. He received his M.S. and PhD. in Industrial Engineering from University of Science and Technology, Tehran, Iran. His research activities include Operation management, Systems Engineering, and Optimization Engineering. Peer Review: This article has been internationally peer-reviewed and accepted for publication according to the guidelines given at the journal’s website.*Corresponding author (M.B. Fakhrzad). Fax: +98 351 8122402, E-mail address:mfakhrzad@yazduni.ac.ir. 2012. International Transaction Journal of Engineering,Management, & Applied Sciences & Technologies. Volume 3 No.2. ISSN 2228-9860 143eISSN 1906-9642. Online Available at http://TuEngr.com/V03/125-143.pdf.