A Review on Quantum Cryptography Technology
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A Review on Quantum Cryptography Technology

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Nowadays, the information is exchanged among the computer network. These data and information are involved in business, military, academic education, research and etc. which are shared around the ...

Nowadays, the information is exchanged among the computer network. These data and information are involved in business, military, academic education, research and etc. which are shared around the world in both private and public network. Since, many categories of data are required restriction on authorization of access, modify, delete and insert, security in communication is increasingly important to the network communication. Currently, computer security applies mathematic theory to computer security for encrypting and decrypting on both sender and receiver. To use security attack with high performance computer (e.g. quantum computer), attacker can find a key and then obtains the data in feasible period. Quantum cryptography is one of the solutions that use property of polarization to ensure that transmitted data is not trapped by eavesdropper. Quantum cryptography is improved significantly in the last decades including the most two dominant protocol BB84 and BB92.

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A Review on Quantum Cryptography Technology A Review on Quantum Cryptography Technology Document Transcript

  • International Transaction Journal of Engineering, Management, & Applied Sciences & TechnologiesInternational Transaction Journal of Engineering, Management, & Applied Sciences & Technologies http://www.TuEngr.com, http://go.to/ResearchA Review on Quantum Cryptography Technology a*Piya Techateerawata Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Faculty of Engineering, Thammasat University,THAILANDARTICLEINFO A B S T RA C TArticle history: Nowadays, the information is exchanged among theReceived 2 August 2010Received in revised form computer network. These data and information are involved in23 August 2010 business, military, academic education, research and etc. which areAccepted 27 August 2010 shared around the world in both private and public network. Since,Available online10 September 2010 many categories of data are required restriction on authorization ofKeywords: access, modify, delete and insert, security in communication isQuantum Cryptography increasingly important to the network communication. Currently,QKDQuantum Key Distribution computer security applies mathematic theory to computer securityBB84 for encrypting and decrypting on both sender and receiver. To useBB92 security attack with high performance computer (e.g. quantum computer), attacker can find a key and then obtains the data in feasible period. Quantum cryptography is one of the solutions that use property of polarization to ensure that transmitted data is not trapped by eavesdropper. Quantum cryptography is improved significantly in the last decades including the most two dominant protocol BB84 and BB92. 2010 International Transaction Journal of Engineering, Management, & Applied Sciences & Technologies. Some Rights Reserved.1. Introduction  In general cryptography can be categorized as symmetric and asymmetric cryptography.Symmetric cryptography uses one key in decrypting and encrypting data such as DES (Eli andShamir, 1993), 3DES (Merkle and Hellman, 1981) and AES (Ferguson et al., 2001). In contrast,*Corresponding author (P. Techateerawat). Tel/Fax: +66-2-5643001 Ext.3246. E-mail addresses:tpiya@engr.tu.ac.th 2010. International Transaction Journal of Engineering, Management, & AppliedSciences & Technologies. Volume 1 No. 1. eISSN: 1906-9642 35Online Available at http://tuengr.com/V01-01/01-01-035-041{Itjemast}_Piya.pdf
  • asymmetric cryptography uses one key to encrypt and another key to decrypt. These two keys inasymmetric cryptography are related in mathematically method where one encryption key hasonly one decryption key that can reveal the encrypted data. An example of asymmetriccryptography is RSA (Rivest et al., 1978) which contains public key and private key. In thesecurity perspective, asymmetric cryptography is more secured than symmetric cryptography andreduces the chance that eavesdropper breaks the security because of increasing domain ofavailable keys and complex computing. However, if computing power is increasing significantly such as quantum computer, the timeto reveal the key can be reduced significantly from million years in today computer to seconds inquantum computer. As a result communication needs a new technique to transmit data securelyother than depending on mathematically method and large set of keys. Quantum cryptography uses a property of laws of quantum mechanics to inform sender andreceiver (Alice and Bob) if other person attempts to retrieve transmitting data. If this case isoccurred, both sender and receiver will ignore this part of data or this key. Then, they will re-starttransmitting a new key for encrypting data again. To compare with current cryptography, bothsymmetric cryptography and asymmetric cryptography have no information when eavesdropperintercepts the transmitting key.2. Quantum Cryptography  Quantum cryptography contains a key distribution system that uses the laws of quantummechanics to guarantee secure communication. The crucial element of quantum mechanics such aHeisenberg’s uncertainty principle (Heisenberg, 1927) prevents anyone directly measuring the bitvalue without introducing errors that can be detected. A single photon is indivisible which meansthat an eavesdropper cannot split the quantum signal to make measurements covertly. Quantumcryptography has a quantum no-cloning theory. This theory shows that it is not possible toreceive a single photon and duplicate the photon without giving the notice to others. There aretwo dominant schemes for quantum key distribution protocols which are the BB84 protocol andthe BB92 protocol.2.1  BB84  Protocol  BB84 (Bennett and Brassard, 1984) protocol is the first quantum cryptography protocol 36 Piya Techateerawat
  • which is proposed by Charles Bennett and Gilles Brassard in 1984. This protocol employs twopolarization bases of single photon; rectilinear basis and diagonal basis. The single photon maybe polarized with four states: horizontal |h>, vertical |v>, left circle polarized |lcp>, and rightcircle polarized |rcp>. Polarization state horizontal |h> and left circle polarized |lcp> represent a‘0’. Polarization state vertical |v> and right circle polarized |rcp> represent a ‘1’. To exchange secret key between sender and receiver (Alice and Bob) needs two channels,quantum channel and public channel, process as follow: Alice sends a random sequence polarizephotons to Bob via quantum channel. After transmission is completed, Bob randomly chooses hisdetector either rectilinear basis or diagonal basis and then reports his detector to Alice via publicchannel. After that Alice responds the correct basis to Bob. Finally, Alice and Bob share thecorrect bits which are used as the key for the secure encryption. The procedure of BB84 protocolis shown in figure 1. Alice Bob Random Sequence Photons Source Basis Polarization Random Detector Basis Measure Polarization Interpret as Bit Sequence Detector Basis Correct Basis Discard Incorrect Bits Shared Secret Key Shared Secret Key Figure 1: An example of key exchange between Alice and Bob by using BB84 protocol.*Corresponding author (P. Techateerawat). Tel/Fax: +66-2-5643001 Ext.3246. E-mail addresses:tpiya@engr.tu.ac.th 2010. International Transaction Journal of Engineering, Management, & AppliedSciences & Technologies. Volume 1 No. 1. eISSN: 1906-9642 37Online Available at http://tuengr.com/V01-01/01-01-035-041{Itjemast}_Piya.pdf
  • 2.2 BB92  Protocol  BB92 (Bennett and Brassard, 1982) protocol is proposed by Charles Bennett and GillesBrassard in 1992, similar to BB84 protocol but uses only two non-orthogonal quantum state |h>represent a ‘0’ and |rcp> represent a ‘1’, half of the BB84 protocol to transmit the key. The process of secret key transmission: Alice sends a random sequence of photons, |h> and|rcp>.Bob randomly chooses his detector basis from |lcp> or |v> and interprets as a quantum bitsequence, ‘0’ and ‘1’. Alice and Bob share the same quantum bits, discarding all other bits. TheBB92 protocol is shown in figure 2.  Alice  Bob    Random Sequence Photons      Polarization                        Random Detector Basis  Figure 2: An example of key exchange between Alice and Bob by using BB92 protocol.3. Cryptography Attack  In general cryptography, key or password is the target of an intruder which attempts to revealthe encrypted data. There are several methods to attack by using the opportunity in transmittingdata in network as shown below.3.1 Brute Force Attack (BFA)  This method defeats cryptography by trying every possible key. It expects to find a correctkey approximately at half of key domain (e.g. if there is 2n possible keys, BFA will average befounded correct key at 2n-1). However, this theory has a limitation in real world that arrayprocessors require a large amount of energy and continuous operation for a long period (Blaze,1993). 38 Piya Techateerawat
  • 3.2 Known Plain Text Attack (KPA)  KPA is attacking model where adversary has samples of plaintext (e.g. sensing data innetwork) and uses them to reveal secret key. As a result, an adversary could translate all theencrypted messages and also transmit fraudulent messages to the network (Meyer and Wetzel ,2004).3.3 Replay Attack (RPA)  RPA is an attack against the message which is repeated or delayed. It could be using asduplicated authentication or malicious data. In network communication, RPA can use for creatinga new session or to bypass authentication (Kwon and Song , 1999).3.4 Man­in­the­middle Attack (MITM)  MITM has the intent to read, add and modify messages between two parties. It requiresintercepting messages between two parties (Meyer and Wetzel , 2004).3.5 Denial of Service Attack (DoS)  DoS is an attack to disrupt computer resource or obstruct communication between user andservice. DoS in network can be in the form of flooding network which disturbs communicationbetween nodes, or continuous communication burns out the equipment’s battery (Deng et al.,2005).4. Discussion  Since Brute Force Attack (BFA) is focused on the key, quantum cryptography is increasingthe computation time that BFA required to decrypt an entire set of information because thefrequency of key changing in quantum cryptography is increasing more than generalcryptography. Known Plain Text Attack (KPA) is more difficult in quantum cryptographybecause rapidly key change during the session increasing more varieties of encrypted pattern, soattack in quantum cryptography is required more processing time significantly than generalcryptography. However, Man-in-the-middle Attack (MITM) and Denial of Service Attack (DoS)still able be occurred in this quantum cryptography because these two attacks are not focused incryptography method but rely on trust and network protocol mechanisms.*Corresponding author (P. Techateerawat). Tel/Fax: +66-2-5643001 Ext.3246. E-mail addresses:tpiya@engr.tu.ac.th 2010. International Transaction Journal of Engineering, Management, & AppliedSciences & Technologies. Volume 1 No. 1. eISSN: 1906-9642 39Online Available at http://tuengr.com/V01-01/01-01-035-041{Itjemast}_Piya.pdf
  • 5. Conclusion  Quantum cryptography is alternative security solution for computer network. Instead ofusing general encryption and decryption technique, quantum cryptography can verify that key istransmitted without interception from eavesdropper. In the case that key is intercepted, bothsender and receiver are simple drop the key and re-send the new key. BB84 is the protocol that introduces the method to transmit the key with quantum technique.However, BB84 requires four polarization states: horizontal |h>, vertical |v>, left circle polarized|lcp>, and right circle polarized |rcp> comparing to two non-orthogonal quantum state |h>represent a ‘0’ and |rcp> represent a ‘1’ in BB92. Also, the procedure during setting up the sharedkey for both sender and receiver, BB92 is simplified with more effective of transmission. This quantum cryptography can be applied to application and superior secure channel. In thefuture, this protocol is also prepared for the upcoming high performance computer (e.g. quantumcomputer).6. Acknowledgements  For this paper, we would like to thank Optical and Quantum Communication Research Lab,National Research Council of Thailand, Faculty of Engineering Thammasat University andThammasat University for the support and cooperation.7. References  Bennet, C.H., and G. Brassard. Quantum cryptography using any two non-orthogonal states, Physical Review Letters, Vol. 68, 1992; 3121-3124.Bennet, C.H., and G. Brassard. Quantum Cryptography: public key distribution and coin tossing, Proceeding of IEE International Conference on Computers, Systems and Signal Processing, India 1984; 175-179.Blaze, M. A cryptographic file system for UNIX ,in Proceedings of the 1st ACM conference on Computer and communications security Fairfax, Virginia, United States ACM Press, 1993; 9-16.Deng, J., R. Han, and S. Mishra, Defending against pathbased DoS attacks in wireless sensor networks, in Proceedings of the 3rd ACM workshop on Security of ad hoc and sensor networks Alexandria, VA, USA ACM Press, 2005; 89-96. 40 Piya Techateerawat
  • Eli B., and A. Shamir, Differential Cryptanalysis of the Data Encryption Standard, Springer Verlag, 1993.Ferguson, N., R. Schroeppel, and D. Whiting, A simple algebraic representation of Rijndael, Proceedings of Selected Areas in Cryptography, 2001, Lecture Notes in Computer Science., Springer-Verlag, 2001;103–111.Heisenberg, W., Über den anschaulichen Inhalt der quantentheoretischen Kinematik und Mechanik, Zeitschrift für Physik, 1927; 172–198.Kwon, T., and Song J., Clarifying straight replays and forced delays, SIGOPS Oper. Syst. Rev. , vol. 33, 1999;47-52.Merkle R., and M. Hellman. On the Security of Multiple Encryption, Communications of the ACM, Vol 24, 1981; 465–467.Meyer U., and S.Wetzel. A man-in-the-middle attack on UMTS ,in Proceedings of the 2004 ACM workshop on Wireless security, PA, USA ACM Press, 2004; 90-97.Rivest R., A. Shamir, and L. Adleman. A Method for Obtaining Digital Signatures and Public- Key Cryptosystems, Communications of the ACM ,Vol 21,1978; 120–126. P. Techateerawat is a lecturer of Computer Engineering at Thammasat University. He received his B.Eng. from University of New South Wales, Australia with Honors in 2004. He continued his PhD study at Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology University, Australia, where he obtained his PhD in Wireless Sensor Network Security. Dr. Piya Techateerawat current interests involve applications of Sensor Network, Security and Quantum Cryptography.*Corresponding author (P. Techateerawat). Tel/Fax: +66-2-5643001 Ext.3246. E-mail addresses:tpiya@engr.tu.ac.th 2010. International Transaction Journal of Engineering, Management, & AppliedSciences & Technologies. Volume 1 No. 1. eISSN: 1906-9642 41Online Available at http://tuengr.com/V01-01/01-01-035-041{Itjemast}_Piya.pdf