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2-Neuroimmune Mechanisms of the Subluxation Complex
2-Neuroimmune Mechanisms of the Subluxation Complex
2-Neuroimmune Mechanisms of the Subluxation Complex
2-Neuroimmune Mechanisms of the Subluxation Complex
2-Neuroimmune Mechanisms of the Subluxation Complex
2-Neuroimmune Mechanisms of the Subluxation Complex
2-Neuroimmune Mechanisms of the Subluxation Complex
2-Neuroimmune Mechanisms of the Subluxation Complex
2-Neuroimmune Mechanisms of the Subluxation Complex
2-Neuroimmune Mechanisms of the Subluxation Complex
2-Neuroimmune Mechanisms of the Subluxation Complex
2-Neuroimmune Mechanisms of the Subluxation Complex
2-Neuroimmune Mechanisms of the Subluxation Complex
2-Neuroimmune Mechanisms of the Subluxation Complex
2-Neuroimmune Mechanisms of the Subluxation Complex
2-Neuroimmune Mechanisms of the Subluxation Complex
2-Neuroimmune Mechanisms of the Subluxation Complex
2-Neuroimmune Mechanisms of the Subluxation Complex
2-Neuroimmune Mechanisms of the Subluxation Complex
2-Neuroimmune Mechanisms of the Subluxation Complex
2-Neuroimmune Mechanisms of the Subluxation Complex
2-Neuroimmune Mechanisms of the Subluxation Complex
2-Neuroimmune Mechanisms of the Subluxation Complex
2-Neuroimmune Mechanisms of the Subluxation Complex
2-Neuroimmune Mechanisms of the Subluxation Complex
2-Neuroimmune Mechanisms of the Subluxation Complex
2-Neuroimmune Mechanisms of the Subluxation Complex
2-Neuroimmune Mechanisms of the Subluxation Complex
2-Neuroimmune Mechanisms of the Subluxation Complex
2-Neuroimmune Mechanisms of the Subluxation Complex
2-Neuroimmune Mechanisms of the Subluxation Complex
2-Neuroimmune Mechanisms of the Subluxation Complex
2-Neuroimmune Mechanisms of the Subluxation Complex
2-Neuroimmune Mechanisms of the Subluxation Complex
2-Neuroimmune Mechanisms of the Subluxation Complex
2-Neuroimmune Mechanisms of the Subluxation Complex
2-Neuroimmune Mechanisms of the Subluxation Complex
2-Neuroimmune Mechanisms of the Subluxation Complex
2-Neuroimmune Mechanisms of the Subluxation Complex
2-Neuroimmune Mechanisms of the Subluxation Complex
2-Neuroimmune Mechanisms of the Subluxation Complex
2-Neuroimmune Mechanisms of the Subluxation Complex
2-Neuroimmune Mechanisms of the Subluxation Complex
2-Neuroimmune Mechanisms of the Subluxation Complex
2-Neuroimmune Mechanisms of the Subluxation Complex
2-Neuroimmune Mechanisms of the Subluxation Complex
2-Neuroimmune Mechanisms of the Subluxation Complex
2-Neuroimmune Mechanisms of the Subluxation Complex
2-Neuroimmune Mechanisms of the Subluxation Complex
2-Neuroimmune Mechanisms of the Subluxation Complex
2-Neuroimmune Mechanisms of the Subluxation Complex
2-Neuroimmune Mechanisms of the Subluxation Complex
2-Neuroimmune Mechanisms of the Subluxation Complex
2-Neuroimmune Mechanisms of the Subluxation Complex
2-Neuroimmune Mechanisms of the Subluxation Complex
2-Neuroimmune Mechanisms of the Subluxation Complex
2-Neuroimmune Mechanisms of the Subluxation Complex
2-Neuroimmune Mechanisms of the Subluxation Complex
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2-Neuroimmune Mechanisms of the Subluxation Complex

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We will explore the pertinent evidence in the peer-reviewed literature and integrate the following: …

We will explore the pertinent evidence in the peer-reviewed literature and integrate the following:
The neuroscience underlying neurogenic inflammation, antidromic vasodilation, tachykinin release and pathophysiologic end-organ changes.
The immunology underlying neuronal monoamine oxidation, lymph node denervation and loss of immune competence.
The neuroimmune characteristics of connective tissue and its influence on nerve function.
Contextualize these understandings into the philosophy, art and science of chiropractic and nutritional recommendations.

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  • 1. Dr. Edward Atkinson in his Antarctica lab circa 1910. Investigations
  • 2. Art. 19: THE THREE PHASES OF CHIROPRACTIC STUDY 1. Study of the Immaterial. 2. Study of the Material. 3. Study of Art. Stephenson RW. Chiropractic Text Book. Freshman Text. 1927.
  • 3. Study of the Material In order that the chiropractor know something about the material and structure of the body, it is advisable for him to study the materials in order to understand the actions of structures in function; to better understand the effects of causes, and to trace to causes from the effects . Stephenson RW. Chiropractic Text Book Freshman Text. 1927.
  • 4. The Challenge Patient has acid stomach. Patient takes Pepcid (famotidine). After adjusting T6 he no longer needs Pepcid. It would be nice if you could explain that one.
  • 5. If it's true that these “work,”
  • 6. then it should follow that ... … there is some overlapping mechanism of action that can be identified. … a review of the pharmacological mechanisms of action of Pepcid can help in our understanding of chiropractic. … deductive reasoning can serve as our methodology in this pursuit.
  • 7. What is Pepcid? Pepcid is in a group of drugs called histamine-2 blockers . It works by decreasing the amount of acid produced by the parietal cells of the stomach. http://www.drugs.com/pepcid.html
  • 8. What is the Source of the Histamine? Enterochromaffin-like cells or ECL cells are a type of neuroendocrine cells found in the gastric glands of the gastric mucosa beneath the epithelium, in particular in the vicinity of parietal cells . http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ECL_cell
  • 9. What is the Relationship of Parietal and ECL Cells? In Practice 2010;32:478-483 doi:10.1136/inp.c6670
  • 10. An ECL Cell is a TMC Tissue Mast Cell Enterochromaffin-like Cell
  • 11. What are the Neural Connections to the Parietal Cell? Ach or acetylcholine is the neurotransmitter of the postganglionic parasympathetic fibers. These fibers derive through the Vagus Nerve (CN X)
      Acetylcholine
      PARIETAL cell
      ACh receptor
      HCl secretion
  • 12. What are the Autonomic Connections to the Enterochromaffin-like Cell? Vagal motor fibers synapse to the Enterochromaffin-like cells and Parietal cells.
      histamine-secreting cell
      Acetylcholine
      PARIETAL cell
      histamine receptor
      ACh receptor
      HCl secretion
      ECL cell
  • 13. Autonomic System Review Parasympathetic
    • Preganglionic Cholinergic System
    • 14. Postganglionic Cholinergic System
    Sympathetic
    • Preganglionic Cholinergic System
    • 15. Postganglionic Adrenergic System (predominantly)
    The Autonomic System is defined based on its motor function. It is visceromotor ONLY. Its function is derived from the postganglionic neurotransmitter/end-organ interaction.
  • 16. Subluxation Induced Vagal Irritation ... … could result in postganglionic, cholinergic stimulation of the parietal cell. … could result in postganglionic, cholinergic stimulation of enterochromaffin like cell.
  • 17. But, the Patient Improved with a Thoracic Adjustment ... NE or norepinephrine is the neurotransmitter of the postganglionic sympathetic fibers. These fibers are derived through the Celiac Plexus .
      histamine-secreting cell
      Acetylcholine
      PARIETAL cell
      histamine receptor
      ACh receptor
      HCl secretion
      ECL cell
  • 18. Splanchnic & Cranial Nerves Autonomic motor fibers travel through peripheral nerves called splanchnic and cranial nerves to innervate internal organs. These peripheral nerves also convey sensory fibers .
  • 19. Dr. Bonci, Please! Get to the POINT!
  • 20. Carpe Lucem
  • 21. What was I Missing? There are no noradrenergic (sympathetic) inputs to the parietal cells nor to the enterochromaffin-like cells. What could be the role of the thoracic adjustment in normalizing stomach acid?
  • 22. Neurokinin Receptors
      histamine-secreting cell
      Acetylcholine
      PARIETAL cell
      histamine receptor
      ACh receptor
      HCl secretion
      ECL cell
      Neurokinin
    • Receptor
      Tachykinin
  • 23. Neurohormonal Modulation of Rat Enterochromaffin-like Cell Histamine Secretion. Gastric mucosal cells and nerve terminals contain ... substance P ... These data are consistent with the hypothesis that substantial neurohormonal modulation of ECL cell function exists. Sandor A, et. al. Gastroenterology. 1996 Apr;110(4):1084-92.
  • 24. Sensory-Effector Innervation Enterochromaffin-like Cells /Tissue Mast Cells receive sensory c-fiber innervation . Sensory fibers have an effector function with the release of a a class of neurotransmitters known as tachykinins .
  • 25. Sensory fibers can play a nontraditional “motor” function. In this case, sensory fibers carried by the splanchnic nerves can indirectly trigger the release of protons from the parietal cells. This is a significant piece of the chiropractic puzzle . Sensory-Effector Trigger
  • 26. Neurogenic Inflammation
  • 27. Neurogenic Inflammation The role of sensory nerves and axon reflexes in producing inflammation was recognized in the early 1900s. Nevertheless, neurogenic inflammation captured the interest of the international scientific community only during the 1980s . Neurogenic inflammation CRC press; 1996: page 33
  • 28. On the origin from the spinal cord of the vaso-dilator fibres of the hind-limb, and on the nature of these fibres. Bayliss WM. J Physiol. 1901 Feb 28;26(3-4):173-209.
  • 29. Further researches on antidromic nerve-impulses. Bayliss WM. J Physiol. 1902 Jul 21;28(4):276-99.
  • 30. The Science of Chiropractic DD Palmer 1906; p. 36 Looking over our immense vertebral collection […] we find caries limited, as a rule, to the bodies and articular processes. The laminae, transverse and spinous processes are rarely affected. Various reasons have been assigned by various authors […] until I discovered that heat was produced by nerves. Excessive heat softens bone , producing caries . Articular and intervertebral cartilages become fibrillated, disintegrated, and the adjacent parts of the bodies affected by caries .
  • 31. Triple Response of Lewis
    • Red reaction -red line(transient local vasodilation due to histamine)
    • 32. Flare -spreading redness extending beyond the red line(due to axon reflex)
    • 33. Wheal -Swelling/localized edema in the region of the redline(increased capillary permeability due to histamine)
    Sir Thomas Lewis Circa 1927
  • 34. Nerve Irritation circa 1910 “Nerve irritation creates heat by increasing molecular vibration. An excess of heat disturbs circulation, innervation and the cellular process of metabolism .” DD Palmer. Chiropractor's Adjuster. 1910; page 26.
  • 35. Uninhibited reversible antidromic vasodilation in pathophysiologic diseases: Arteriosclerosis, carcinogenesis, neuritis, and osteoporosis. Hackett GS. Angiology. 1966 Feb;17(2):109-18.
  • 36. Antidromic vasodilatation and neurogenic inflammation. Szolcsányi J. Agents Actions. 1988 Feb;23(1-2):4-11.
  • 37. Antidromic Vasodilatation and Neurogenic Inflammation. Antidromic stimulation of the lumbosacral dorsal roots of the rat
    • evokes a long-lasting increase in cutaneous microcirculation of the paw and
    • 38. induces plasma extravasation in the innervated skin areas and various pelvic organs.
    This local neuroregulatory mechanism mediates neurogenic inflammation, cutaneous vasodilatation ... Szolcsányi J. Agents Actions. 1988 Feb;23(1-2):4-11.
  • 39. Sensory Nerve-Mast Cell Communication
      Saban R et al. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2002;283:F616-F629
  • 40. Obscured from View In the 1970s one can find no references to neurogenic inflammation or its synonyms among the subject indexes of published works on inflammatory processes. Neurogenic inflammation CRC press; 1996: page 33 It's as if the key to understanding this has been lodged up the ass of science for decades
  • 41. Neurogenic Inflammation Review
  • 42. Neurogenic Inflammation Summary End-Organ Changes #3 #1 #5 #4 #2
  • 43. Nociceptive Threshold “[I]njection of PGE2 at the sight of receptor terminals fails to evoke any response in the fiber, yet the nociceptive threshold to mechanical and chemical stimuli is decreased .” Pitchford S., Levine JD. Prostaglandins sensitize nociceptors in cell culture. Neuroscience letters 1991; 132:105-108.
  • 44. Neurogenic Inflammation Summary End-Organ Changes #1 #3 #1 #5 #4 #2
  • 45. Neurogenic Inflammation Emergence and the Sensory-Effector System To The CNS Release of Substance -P & other tachykinins from free nerve Ending. "Axon Reflex" The orthodromic impulse is "reflexively" converted into an antidromic impulse at the level of the axon. This is accomplished without spinal cord assistance. Nociceptive, Orthodromic Input DRG Irritation results in both orthodromic AND antidromic impulse propagation. Orthodromic Orthodromic Antidromic Tissue Mast Cell Stimulation with resultant release of histamine, heparin and proteases.
  • 46. Neurogenic Inflammation Summary End-Organ Changes #1 #3 #1 #5 #4 #2
  • 47. Sensory Nerve-Mast Cell Relationship J Dermatol Sci. 2006 Apr;42(1):47-54.
  • 48. Neurogenic Inflammation Summary End-Organ Changes #1 #3 #1 #5 #4 #2
  • 49. Neurogenic Inflammation Summary End-Organ Changes #1 #3 #1 #5 #4 #2
  • 50. Tissue Injury
    • Toxic Oxygen Metabolites
    • 51. Proteases
    • 52. Neurtophil Chemotactic Factors
    • 53. CoagulationFactors
    • 54. Arachidonic Acid Metabolites
    • 55. Nitric Oxide
    Fibrosis
    • Growth Factors (PDGF, FGF, TGF-B)
    • 56. Fibrogenic Cytokines
    • 57. Angiogenesis Factors (FGF)
    • 58. "Remodeling" Collagenases
    Mechanisms of End-Organ Transformation http://www.robbinspathology.com/ SP
  • 59. Article 134: Accumulative Destructive Survival Value It is the result of unsuccessful adaptation ; has to do with destruction or depletion . Stephenson RW. Chiropractic Text Book. Sophmore Text. 1927.
  • 60. Dr. Bonci, Please! Get to the POINT!
  • 61. Carpe Lucem
  • 62. Awareness of Illusion There is a powerful temptation to see biological mechanisms in a sequential, linear fashion when, in fact, they are nonlinear, parallel, and emergent in nature .
  • 63. Amit Goswami The current worldview has it that everything is made of matter, and everything can be reduced to the elementary particles of matter ... [a]nd cause arises from the interactions of these basic building blocks. "Scientific Proof of the Existence of God : An interview with Amit Goswami" by Craig Hamilton in What Is Elightenment? magazine (Spring-Summer 1997)
  • 64. Outside-In, Below-Up This is what we call ' upward causation .' So in this view, what human beings — you and I think of as our free will –- does not really exist.” "Scientific Proof of the Existence of God : An interview with Amit Goswami" by Craig Hamilton in What Is Elightenment? magazine (Spring-Summer 1997)
  • 65. Emergence: Upward Causation Organism Organ Systems Organs Tissues Cells Organelles Molecules Atoms Subatomic Particles Consciousness Intelligence
  • 66. Intelligence is Behind It All “Now, the opposite view is that everything starts with consciousness. That is, consciousness is the ground of all being.” "Scientific Proof of the Existence of God : An interview with Amit Goswami" by Craig Hamilton in What Is Elightenment? magazine (Spring-Summer 1997) Video intelligence intelligence
  • 67. Biological Emergence “ Emergence is a potentiality becoming an actuality when local conditions are favorable and facilitated.” ~ David R. Hawkins ~
  • 68. A B C A B C
  • 69. Above-Down, Inside-Out “In this view, consciousness imposes " downward causation ." In other words, our free will is real. When we act in the world we really are acting with causal power .” "Scientific Proof of the Existence of God : An interview with Amit Goswami" by Craig Hamilton in What Is Elightenment? magazine (Spring-Summer 1997) intelligence
  • 70. Emergence: Downward Causation Organism Organ Systems Organs Tissues Cells Organelles Molecules Atoms Subatomic Particles Consciousness Intelligence
  • 71. Old Dad Chiro The All-Wise Creative Intelligence is as expressed. The Creator is unfolding creation , developing it toward perfection. The Chiropractors' Adjustor, 1910.

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