Silkworld - China, Japan, Korea, India
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A Study Relating to Top Silk Trading Countries

A Study Relating to Top Silk Trading Countries
- China, Japan, Korea, India

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    Silkworld - China, Japan, Korea, India Silkworld - China, Japan, Korea, India Presentation Transcript

    • B.Krishnamurthy R.T.E. Society’s Arts, Science and Commerce College, Ranebennur – 581 115 China, Japan, Korea, India SILK WORLD A Study Relating to Top Silk Trading Countries 
    • INTRODUCTION
      • Silk refers to the thread made from fibre produced by Silk Worms used in textiles. It has the features of:
      • High Value Low Volume Commodity
      • Precious and scarce natural fibre
      • Produced in small quantity
      • Available round the year
      • Local and International Market for the products
      • Consumed by affluent class of Society for luxury garments.
      • China & India Continued to be the Major silk suppliers to the world.
      • Due to its high density & intensity of silk fabric it is considered as “Queen of textiles”
      • By Jan1. 2005, there would be a radical change in world silk market.
      • To present the world raw silk production scenario.
      • To show the present production policy of top silk trading countries.
      • To show the present situation of Indian silk industry.
      • To compare Indian sericulture with Chinese sericulture.
      • To compare sericulture labour cost in Japan & in India
      • To Present the weaknesses of Indian silk industry.
      • To show the global opportunity of Indian silk industry under WTO.
      OBJECTIVES
      • For the countries with farming base, high population and small farm landholdings, sericulture is boon and tailor made enterprise.
      • Today more than 29 countries engaged in silk production activities, but consumed by all countries of the world.
      • 14 silk producing countries are situated in Asian Region
      • The Contribution of Asian Region is 90%
      • China, India, Japan, Korea are the top silk trading countries.
      • Year 1995 witnessed worlds highest production of raw silk to the extent of 1,05,438 Tonnes.
      • Only after 1970, china surpassed Japan and become No1 in the world silk production.
      World Raw Silk Production
    • World Raw Silk Production
        • The graph shows the growth of raw silk production in the world.
        • China continues to hold the key position, though presently production is steadily decreasing.
        • India remains second place, but the production improved considerably.
        • Japan reduced production from 5700 in 1990 to 557 M.tonnes in 2000.
        • Korea which produced 780 Mts in 1990 reduced to 165 Mts in 2000.
        • Thus there is shift in production in the Sericulturally advanced countries.
      World Raw Silk Production
      • Being the home land of Silk.
      • Become leading producer and exporter of silk to the world.
      • Silk occupies 9.5% of total textile GDP of the Country.
      • Production reached highest level of 87,770 Tonnes in 1994.
      • But now the production came down to 55,990 tonnes in 1999 is due to
      • a) enhanced labour cost &
      • b) Global fall in silk prices
      • Domestic consumption is only 10%.
      China
      • The Chart clearly indicates that:
      • The production came down from 87,770 tonnes in 1994 to 55,990 tonnes in 1999, is mainly due to global fall in prices
      Silk Output and prices in China.
      • Once the major silk producer, now it becomes worlds greatest consumer to the extent of 30,000 tonnes per year, equivalent to 20%-30% of total silk production
      Japan
      • Chart clearly shows that:
      • production decreased considerably
      • from 7864 tonnes in 1987 to 557 tonnes in 2000
      • Imports increased
      • from 1457 tonnes in 1987 to 2298 tonnes
      • People of Japan
      • changed their lifestyle of wearing traditional kimono
      • to western style clothing
      • Production is reduced due to:
      • High labour cost, reduced land availability and
      • lack of interest among young generation.
      Japan
      • Sericulturally advanced country in the world.
      • Silk is a traditional commodity
      • It accounts 18% of Agricultural Income
      • The production declined since 1977 due to rapid industrialization and reduction in agriculture
      • Now there is paradigm shift in sericulture from traditional fabric making to non traditional,
      • high value products like functional food, Industrial and medicinal products,
      • Thus the sericulture farmers are earning:
      • 5 times more by silk worm powder and
      • 6 times more by cordyceps
      South Korea
      • The Scientists have developed:
      • Automatic Cocoon Harvester – proved 8.5 % efficient
      • Artificial diet for silkworm rearing result
      • - 60% saving in labour Cost
      • - 6 % increase in cocoon yield
      • Movable mulberry feeder – 27% feeding time reduced
      • Powdery Silk worm become functional food and have Blood Glucose lowering effect
      • Use of Mulberry leaves result as anti-ageing, anti-oxidation, lowering cholesterol level.
      • In 1996 Scientists developed Cordyceps
      • proved as fatigue recovery, anti-ageing and anti- cancer
      South Korea
      • Silk in India represent both culture and tradition
      • No function in India is complete without silk in any form.
      • India‘s share in world raw silk production is 1/6 and ranks second in the world
      • Silk is the only agro commodity where 100% transaction is done under Govt. Supervision.
      • Indian scientists provide R&D support to various
      • Countries.
      • India is the only country in the world which cultivates all known commercial varieties of silk
      • Viz. Mulberry, Tasar, Muga & Eri
      INDIA
    • Silk Production in India & in Karnataka   (Qty: Tonnes) 8,121 15,214 85 974 211 13,944 1999-00 8,944 14,018 - - - 14,018 1998-99 9,236 15,189 62 806 287 14,034 1997-98 8,328 14,126 73 864 235 12,954 1996-97 8,264 13,899 86 745 184 12,884 1995-96 5,482 11,763 72 704 309 10,658 1991-92 3,127 5249 44 147 257 4801 1981-82 1,775 2600 72 168 314 2046 1971-72 1700 56 134 202 1308 1961-62 886 45 102 114 625 1951-52 Karnataka Total Muga Eri Tasar Mulberry Year
      • Of the total, Mulberry constitute 90%
      • Mulberry Silk confined to 3 states
      • Viz. Karnataka, TamilNadu & Andhra Pradesh
      • Together 3 states constitute 85%
      • Karnataka being the traditional state
      • The contribution of Karnataka is 65%
      • Thus Karnataka is called as “Silk Bowl” of the country
      INDIA IMPORTS: Estimated requirement of Silk in India is 25,000 M.Tonnes Present Production is 16,000 M.Tonnes To meet the demand, India Imports Raw Silk mainly from China Particular/Year 2000-01 20001-02 Total Imports (M.Tonnes) 4713 6797 Import from China “ 4333 6306 % imports from China 91.94% 92.76% Value Imports (Rs. Crores) 475.15 620.78 “ “ (US $ Million) 104.02 131.31
    • India’s Export earnings Source: Indian silk, Aug - 2002 -11.5 -7.7 469.22 2235.38 530.21 2,421.98 Total -22.9 -19.6 7.68 36.58 9.96 45.49 4. Silk waste 45.7 51.9 35.36 168.45 24.27 110.88 3. Silk Carpet 7.5 12.1 151.32 720.88 140.72 642.82 2. Ready made garments -22.6 -19.3 274.87 1309.47 355.25 1622.79 1. Natural silk yarn Fabrics, made ups. US$ Rs. US$ Million Rs. Crores US$ Million Rs. Crores % increase / Decrease 2001-02 2000-01 Item wise Exports
      • Silk is the traditional commodity of both the countries.
      • Both countries hold the place of Top silk trading countries.
      • China being No. I and India being No.2 position
      • Both are labour surplus countries.
      • Silk trade has been affected by both the countries.
        • Increase in labour cost & b) global fall in silk prices
        • Thus,
        • China shifting its production to
        • a) less developed mountain areas and
      • b) non-traditional zones
      • But, in India,
      • Production is increasing continuously, even after global fall in prices and govt.
      • making efforts to increase the production
      • The Problems faced by India :
      • Inadequate silk worm breeds to suit agro-climatic conditions & socio-economic situations
      • insufficient irrigation
      • poor post cocoon technology
      • Cottage & decentralized small scale activities
      • Industry being mainly for domestic /home consumption
      Comparison between China & India
    • Sericulture in China and in India Source: Indian Silk Aug. 98, P.6 2. Silk Worm Races Bivoltine Multi&bivoltine 3. Leaf yield/ha/year/ (kg) 40,000 30,000 15. Domestic Consumption About 10-15% 85-90% 1. Production Plan Export Domestic 4. Dfls brushed / ha / crop / year 4000 2500 5. Cocoon yield / 100 Dfls (2 box) (kg) 55-60 35-40 6. Leaf cocoon ratio (kg) 18-20:1 26-28:1 7. Cocoon weight (g) 1.9 1.6 8. Cocoon yield/ha (kg) 1200-2500 750-1250 9. Shell percentage > 21-22% 18-19% 10. Filament length (m) > 1000-1200 700-800 11. Renditta 6-6.5 8.5-9.5 12. Grade of silk > 1A, 2A, 3A. B-F 13. Exporting Mainly India (45%) >50 countries 16. Cocoon price (Rs/kg) 55-60 90-110 14. Cocoon Price fixation Based on quality Open Auction. India China Particulars Sl.No.
    • Labour cost – A comparison between India & Japan 5.06 135.22 684.60 Grand Total 3.93 108.22 425.10 Total 1.13 21.15 24.00 d) Cocoon harvesting & marketing total 6.69 43.05 288.00 c) Mounting of Worms 2.57 37.35 96.00 b) Leaf Harvest 2.56 6.67 17.10 a) Silk worm rearing II 9.6 27.00 259.50 Total 3.00 1.50 4.50 c) Plant protection 9.00 7.50 67.50 b) Mulberry pruning & Other operation 10.41 18.00 187.50 a) Mulberry I Japan India Labour efficiency Man hours Utilized Component/Operation
    • CONCLUSION
      • With stiff competition from synthetic fibre, silk production is continuously increasing every year.
      • Decline in production in china, Japan & Korea gave opportunity to India to increase production
      • Under Globalization, the world class quality and competitive price for its products be sustained.
      • With full implementation of WTO agreements on Textile Industry by Jan 1, 2005, there would be a radical change in world silk market
      • Exclusive brands of “Indian Silk” be developed
      Thanking You,