More than half the world at risk
• Every year more than one billion people are
infected and more than one million people die
• One sixth of the illness and disability suffered
worldwide is due to vector-borne diseases,
with more than half the world’s population
currently estimated to be at risk of these
• These diseases affect urban, peri-urban and
rural communities but
Thrive predominantly among communities with
poor living conditions –
• Particularly lack of access to adequate
• Safe drinking water and
Malnourished people and those with weakene
immunity are especially vulnerable.
• Vector-borne diseases therefore play a central
role in poverty reduction and economic
• An econometric model for malaria
suggests that countries with intensive malaria
have income levels of only one third of those
that do not have malaria
• Malaria is caused by Plasmodium parasites
transmitted through the bites of female
• In 2012, there were about 207 million cases of
malaria and an estimated 627 000 deaths
• Around the world, malaria transmission occurs
in 97 countries, putting about 3.4 billion
people at risk.
Malaria Kills more people than AIDS
• Malaria kills in one year what AIDS kills in 15
years. For every death due to HIV/AIDS there
are about 50 deaths due to malaria. To add to
the problem is the increasing drug resistance
to the established drug.
Populations most at risk
• Young children, pregnant women, people
living with HIV, people affected by
humanitarian emergencies and natural
disasters, and non-immune travellers moving
into endemic areas.
• The poorest of the poor in vulnerable
communities, living in remote rural areas with
limited access to health facilities, suffer the
• Dengue fever is a severe, flu-like illness.
• Symptoms include high fever, severe
headaches, muscle and joint pains, nausea,
vomiting, swollen glands or rash.
• Dengue itself is rarely fatal, but
• Severe dengue is a potentially fatal
complication, with symptoms including low
temperature, severe abdominal pains, rapid
breathing, bleeding gums and blood in vomit.
• No effective antiviral medications exist to treat
• In cases of severe dengue, it is critical to
maintain the patient’s body fluid volume.
• No commercial vaccine against dengue is
• More than 2.5 billion people – over 40% of the
world’s population – are now at risk of dengue.
• WHO estimates there may be more than 100
million dengue infections worldwide every year.
• An estimated 500 000 people with severe dengue
require hospitalization each year, a large
proportion of whom are children. About 2.5% of
those affected die.
• Symptoms are fever and severe joint pain that
can last for weeks. Other symptoms include
muscle pain, headache, nausea, fatigue and
• Chikungunya occurs in Africa, Asia and the
• In recent decades, there have been outbreaks
of the disease in countries that have never
recorded cases before
• The virus is transmitted between mosquitoes, in
particular Culex tritaeniorhynchus, and animals
such as pigs and wading birds.
• Humans are incidental or ‘dead-end’ hosts,
because they usually do not develop high enough
concentrations of the virus in their bloodstreams
to infect feeding mosquitoes
• Japanese encephalitis causes an estimated 50
000 cases and 10 000 deaths every year, mostly
of children aged less than five.
• More than 120 million people are currently
infected with lymphatic filariasis, about 40
million of whom are disfigured and
incapacitated by the disease.
• Lymphatic filariasis afflicts more than 25
million men with genital disease and more
than 15 million people with lymphoedema.
Long-lasting insecticidal nets
• Insecticide-treated bednets are one of the
most efficient and cost-effective ways to
protect against mosquito-borne diseases,
• WHO therefore recommends that everyone
who is at risk of malaria sleeps under a
longlasting insecticidal net every night
Indoor residual spraying
• Indoor residual spraying with insecticides is the
most widely used method to control mosquitoes.
• It is also an effective way to reduce sandflies and
bugs inside homes.
• At least 80% of houses in a targeted area need to
be sprayed for maximum impact.
• Indoor spraying is effective for 3–6 months,
depending on the insecticide used and the type
of surface on which it is sprayed
• Spraying outer surfaces of domestic animal
shelters, outdoor latrines and other damp
places can help control sandflies
• Aerial spraying has also been used to control
mosquitoes during epidemics of dengue and
Reduce breeding habitats
• Water-storage containers can be designed to
prevent access by mosquitoes for laying their
• Containers should be fitted with tight lids or, if
rain-filled, with tightly-fitted mesh screens to
allow rainwater to be harvested from roofs
while keeping mosquitoes out.
• Domestic water storage containers should be
emptied and cleaned regularly
• Biological control is a method of controlling
mosquitoes and other vectors through the
introduction of parasites, predators or other
• Larvivorous fish
• Regular monitoring and restocking of these
organisms is important for sustained control.
• Empty tins, plastic bottles, unused drums,
coconut shells and used car tyres can serve as
important breeding sites for mosquitoes.
• Household rubbish, particularly damp, organic
matter, is a favoured habitat for sandflies so all
garbage should be disposed of properly, away
from human settlements
• Human settlements should be located away from
• They should be fitted with door and window
screens to help keep insects out.
• Efforts need to be made to keep plaster walls and
concrete floors in good condition, with cracks and
other possible entry points sealed up against all
vectors, particularly sandflies and triatomine
• Air conditioning and/or fans keep mosquitoes
• For individuals, personal protection against
insect bites represents the first line of defence
against many vector-borne diseases
• Long sleeved, light-coloured shirts and
trousers will help protect against mosquito,
sandfly and tick bites.
Integrated vector management
• People should avoid places and times when
vectors are active.
• For example, by staying inside during peak
biting hours (e.g. from dusk to dawn for
malaria-carrying mosquitoes) and
• By avoiding walking in wooded areas with tall
grass where ticks are found.
Integrated vector management
• Close collaboration between the health sector
and other government sectors, as well as the
• Optimal use of human and financial resources
through a multi-disease control approach
• Planning and decision-making delegated to the
lowest possible administrative level
• Advocacy and social mobilization to promote
vector control in relevant agencies, organizations
and civil society
Integrated vector management
• Engagement with local communities to
empower them and ensure sustainability of
• Increased capacity-building at national and
local levels based on a situational analysis
Challenges in the control of
• Emerging insecticide resistance
• The expertise of entomologists is critical to
guiding vector control; however, the world is
facing an extreme shortage of entomologists
• In many high-burden settings, however, there
is almost no data on these diseases or their
• WHO calls for countries to increase their
investment in training people with
entomological skills, as well as
• the corresponding infrastructure (insectaries
and entomological laboratories) to support
Sanitation and access to
safe drinking water
• Poor sanitation and lack of access to clean
drinking water allows many vectors to thrive
• Climate change is likely to exacerbate the
already-high impact of vector-borne diseases
on the world’s most vulnerable populations,
• Including children, pregnant women, elderly
people, nomads, poor urban populations,
refugees and people living in post-conflict
• Pesticide poisoning is a serious public health
problem that disproportionately affects
infants and children – partly because of their
smaller size; differing metabolism; and rapidly
growing and developing organs.
Vectors spread diseases
Mosquitoes, flies, ticks, bugs and
freshwater snails can spread
diseases that cause serious
illness and death
Diseases are preventable
Diseases such as malaria,
dengue, leishmaniasis and
yellow fever are preventable,
yet they have the biggest impact
on some of the world’s poorest
50% of population is at risk
More than half of the world’s
population is at risk of these
diseases. Increased travel, trade
and migration make even more
You can protect yourself and your
family by taking simple measures
that include sleeping under a
bednet, wearing a long-sleeved
shirt and trousers and using
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