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  • STANDARD AVIONICS The Garmin G1000 Avionics System is an integrated flight control and navigation system. The system combines primary flight instruments, communications, aircraft system information and navigational information all displayed on two color displays.
  • SOP required 1 hour fuel reserves Weather along route CAVU; FD, NW - 20 knots ATIS - Wind 260 at 20, G33 Landed at Meigs a month earlier in a Bonanza with wind 090, 22 steady, no sweat. Landed to the north. Winds at MDW, 240/12 Used 20 o flaps (first time), floated, no amber lights, looking for terminal to gauge position, touched down on centerline, split second of heavy breaking, saw giant upside down 36 and snow banks either side of runway end. GO AROUND!! Damage; tire, tube, wheel half, popped CB on Janitrol
  • High Reliability Theory – if each component is highly reliable, then the system will be highly reliable and safe. High Reliability Theory argues that organizations operating high-risk technologies, if properly designed and managed, can compensate for inevitable human shortcomings, and therefore avoid mistakes that under other circumstances would lead to catastrophic failures. - Todd R. La Porte and Paula M. Consolini, “Working in Practice but Not in Theory,” Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory , 1 (1991) pp. 19-47 Primacy vs. Recency There are good arguments to support both During times of rational thought, it’s more likely that variables associated with each have more to do with the result than whether it is first or last Under pressure the facts are clear, first learned is what will take place Police officer in a shootout lining up his brass This is good and bad. Good if you are doing or received correct initial training; bad if you don’t/didn’t. University of Michigan, School of Business Administration, 1987
  • Right side of the graph first Initially skill will peak and then decrease as youthful mental skills and reflex diminishes, by that time superior judgment should keep a pilot from exceeding his limitations The tendency with traditional training is that skill accelerates ahead of judgment As long as the pilot can survive their high risk “judgment training” until the lines cross they will survive their aviation career
  • Skill might not be as high initially (i.e. takes longer to learn to land) ADM starts day one Judgment always exceeds skill or judgment is preferred over skill to successfully complete an operation.
  • Time is short Customer is not familiar with the area Customer has never heard of FITS
  • Inside or Outside The challenge has always been to get the student to remain vigilant Initially the student is completely head down Ultimately they can achieve more outside time in their scan than with a non TAA aircraft AP is a big key Understand the limitations of the system TIS is not a TCAS2 Transponder is mode S and will give resolution information to an TCAS2 TAS not EGPWS XM lightening vs. Stormscope Real time weather or Near-Real time Know what you have and how to utilize it Reversionary Training PFD, aircraft control is not a big problem as the representation is similar on both IFR GPS, although not as capable, provides much situational awareness IMC flight using KI208, 209 could be a problem Performance vs. Safety American Airlines Flight 191, DC-10 out of ORD, May 25, 1979; 273 killed (two on the ground) Nexrad weather, safety enhancement not weather penetration Are you using enhancements for safety margin or performance advantage
  • G1000 Cockpit Display Component: GDU 1040. Cockpit display units labeled CDUs. Resolution 1024X768 – 10.4 inch XGA display. One is the primary flight display on the left side and the other is the multi-function display on the right side. There are only two switches that affect this, the master switch and the avionics switch. The PFD and MFD are identical Control Display Units. As a result, the side controls, and softkey buttons are the same. Either unit can be used as a PFD or MFD; the displays role is determined by its avionics harness connection. In the unlikely event of a CDU failure, each display can work in reversionary mode. In reversionary mode, contains necessary information ; both CDUs display the primary flight instruments with the engine instruments displayed on the LH side of the displays. The Two tubes talk to each other – crossbill, Nav and Com Frequencies as well as Flight Plan Information
  • Cessna

    1. 1. Garmin G1000 Avionics System Version 3.0 Cessna Factory Training
    2. 2. Life Lessons <ul><li>Jan 21, 1994, Beech 55 Baron , TN to CGX, 6 souls </li></ul><ul><li>Commercial, CFII, 500 hours TT, 230 XC, 33 Multi, </li></ul><ul><li>Night, VFR (IFR FP), 2.5 hours planned, 3.5 fuel onboard </li></ul><ul><li>.7 hours, headwind 5-10 knots more than forecast </li></ul><ul><li>1.2 hours, Janitrol heater quits </li></ul><ul><li>1.5 hours overflys Cincinnati </li></ul><ul><li>2.0 hours, headwinds 35 knots, still have IFR reserves </li></ul><ul><li>2.5 hours, 10 minutes from CGX, ATIS Windy </li></ul><ul><li>2.7 hours, landing at CGX (can you say numb extremities?) </li></ul><ul><li>3.0 hours, lands MDW with flat LH main tire </li></ul><ul><li>3.3 hours on the Hobbs at shutdown </li></ul>
    3. 3. New Concept? <ul><li>Karl E. Weick argues that when people are trained for high reliability, the initial reactions they learn are the most important because those are the ones most likely to reappear under pressure . </li></ul><ul><li>Often, he notes, the training settings have only modest validity once trainees move to their actual jobs . </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Weick, K.E. (1987) Organizational culture as a source of high reliability, California management review, 29 (2) 112-127 </li></ul></ul></ul>
    4. 4. New Concept? <ul><li>Law of Intensity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A sharp, clear, or exciting learning experience teaches more than a routine or boring one. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This law implies that a student will learn more from the real thing than a substitute. </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. Traditional Training
    6. 6. FITS Objective
    7. 7. How does this apply to a <ul><li>BFR </li></ul><ul><li>IPC </li></ul><ul><li>Aircraft Checkout </li></ul><ul><li>Recurrency Course </li></ul><ul><li>Differences Training Course </li></ul>
    8. 8. G1000 Program <ul><li>Transition/Differences Training </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus is G1000 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aircraft Make & Model is Somewhat Incidental </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2 ½ to 3 days </li></ul><ul><ul><li>8 Hours Ground School </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4-6 Hours Flight </li></ul></ul>
    9. 9. G1000 Program <ul><li>Flight Scenarios </li></ul><ul><ul><li>VFR </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cross Country </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Airport arrival and departure </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Enroute Diversion </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IFR </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Various Approaches </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Class C & D operations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emergency and Abnormal Procedures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>G1000 Only </li></ul></ul></ul>
    10. 10. G1000 Program <ul><li>Cessna FITS Accepted Instructor (CFAI) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Instructors under the CPC network </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Additional 3 days of training </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus is teaching the G1000 FITS transition course </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Network of regionally based instructors </li></ul></ul>
    11. 11. Training Numbers <ul><li>12 Full-Time Factory Based Flight Instructors </li></ul><ul><li>20-30 Customers per week </li></ul><ul><li>1200+ Customers Trained </li></ul><ul><li>100+ CFAI (Cessna FITS Accepted Instructor) regionally based worldwide </li></ul>
    12. 12. We may not be able to <ul><li>Convince every customer of the importance of FITS principles </li></ul><ul><li>Utilize every element of FITS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>X-C Flight Planning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Full A to B scenario </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Accomplish much toward ADM and PBL </li></ul><ul><li>Significantly alter behavior </li></ul>
    13. 13. Identify & Prioritize Training Goals <ul><li>What is our primary objective </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Teaching one new system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bringing a student to a desired level of proficiency </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How can we use FITS principles to accomplish that objective </li></ul>
    14. 14. We Can <ul><li>Introduce customers to FITS (Recency) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Risk Assessment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learner Centered Grading </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Problem Based Learning (Post-flight Critique) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Utilize FITS to maximize effectiveness in the time we have (Intensity) </li></ul><ul><li>Make the training enjoyable/interesting (Effect) </li></ul><ul><li>Lay the foundation, or a few building blocks, toward improved ADM </li></ul>
    15. 15. Advantages of FITS <ul><li>Proven Teaching Concept </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not strictly a TAA issue </li></ul></ul><ul><li>FITS Serves Training </li></ul><ul><li>Wide Range of Applicability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Primary, Advanced, Transition, Recurrent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>FITS Based Checking, Examining, Testing </li></ul></ul>
    16. 16. My Observations <ul><li>Inside or Outside </li></ul><ul><li>Understand the limitations of the system </li></ul><ul><li>Reversionary Transition </li></ul><ul><li>Performance vs. Safety </li></ul>
    17. 17. My Observations <ul><li>Inside or Outside </li></ul><ul><li>Understand the limitations of the system </li></ul><ul><li>Reversionary Transition </li></ul><ul><li>Performance vs. Safety </li></ul><ul><li>Cessna can’t build TAA airplanes fast enough </li></ul>
    18. 18. What’s Coming for Cessna Factory Training <ul><li>Training Web Site </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pre-course materials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recurrency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CFAI Support </li></ul></ul><ul><li>FTD/Simulator Integration </li></ul><ul><li>Advanced G1000 training </li></ul><ul><li>Continued development of worldwide network </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cessna Pilot Centers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Regionally based G1000 flight instructors </li></ul></ul>
    19. 19. FITS Is… <ul><li>A proven teaching method </li></ul><ul><li>Based on techniques used by successful ‘high risk’ technologies </li></ul><ul><li>Being confirmed by the research data </li></ul><ul><li>Working in the real world </li></ul><ul><li>The right approach to flight training </li></ul>
    20. 20. Questions?