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Cognitivism

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  • 1.  What? Who? In the Classroom My Classroom
  • 2.  Focuses on inner mental activities. Incorporates mental structures and processes into learning. Activities like thinking and remembering are behaviors. As behaviors they allow us to measure their effect on learning.
  • 3.  Knowledge is seen as a schema. Learning is a change in the student’s schemata. Students require active participation to learn. Actions are a consequence of thought. Changes in behavior are a result of what is happening in the persons head. Return to Menu
  • 4.  Allen Paivio- Dual Coding Theory › Material should be presented in visual and verbal form. › The combination of these forms enhances recall and recognition. Robert Gagne › Learners should go through a hierarchy of skills. › Five categories of learning:  Verbal information, intellectual skills, cognitive strategies, motor skills, and attitudes.
  • 5.  Benjamin Bloom- learning domains › Cognitive domain- a student’s intellectual level. › Affective domain- emotions, interest, attention, and attitudes. › Psychomotor domain- motor skills and physical abilities. › Bloom’s taxonomy- learning has levels like a ladder.  Knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis, and evaluation.
  • 6.  Howard Gardner- Multiple Intelligences › Intelligence- the ability to gain knowledge, apply knowledge, manipulate one’s environment, and think abstractly. › Individuals use eight intelligences to perceive and understand. › These intelligences are influenced by learning opportunities and cultural contexts.
  • 7.  Howard Gardner- Multiple Intelligences › Linguistic-verbal  Enjoy reading, writing, and telling stories  Think in words with sensitivity to rhythm › Logical-mathematical  Use numbers effectively and reasoning › Spatial-visual  Visualize objects and spatial dimentions  Like to draw, design, and complete puzzles › Body-kinesthetic  Ability to move the body with skill and control
  • 8.  Howard Gardner- Multiple Intelligences › Musical  Able to recognize patterns and sounds with sensitivity to pitch and rhythm  Think in tones and learns through rhythm and melody › Interpersonal  Ability to understand, communicate, and interpret others › Intrapersonal  Awareness of one’s feelings and goals  The use of this awareness for personal understanding › Naturalist  Awareness of the natural world  Can develop a sense of cause and effect in relation to natural occurances Return to Menu
  • 9.  Teachers can incorporate Gagne’s Nine Events of Instruction to improve student learning. Because cognitivism emphasizes active participation in learning, teachers can: › Play games with students to improve memory › Use Bloom’s taxonomy to motivate students to reach higher learning levels
  • 10.  Teachers can use Gardner’s multiple intelligences to personalize assessment and instruction. Teachers can use Bloom’s taxonomy to monitor the level at which they are challenging students. › This allows teachers to ensure that they are challenging students at a higher level. Return to Menu
  • 11.  I think that cognitive ideas fit very well into my philosophy of education. › I agree that different students learn in different ways. › I also believe that students who are actively involved in learning are more likely to internalize the information they are given.
  • 12.  I think that I will use many cognitive ideas in my future classroom. › One of my favorite activities to teach students spelling words is a game called sparkle. › I think that I will try to address as many learning styles as I can through games, group activities, videos, puzzles, etc.
  • 13. Sources: •The book •http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cognitivism_(psycholo gy) •http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Learning_theory_(edu cation)#Cognitivism •http://www.learning-theories.com/cognitivism.html •http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SFIgVAMfz64& feature=relmfu