Focuses on inner mental activities. Incorporates mental structures and processes into learning. Activities like thinking and remembering are behaviors. As behaviors they allow us to measure their effect on learning.
Knowledge is seen as a schema. Learning is a change in the student’s schemata. Students require active participation to learn. Actions are a consequence of thought. Changes in behavior are a result of what is happening in the persons head. Return to Menu
Allen Paivio- Dual Coding Theory › Material should be presented in visual and verbal form. › The combination of these forms enhances recall and recognition. Robert Gagne › Learners should go through a hierarchy of skills. › Five categories of learning: Verbal information, intellectual skills, cognitive strategies, motor skills, and attitudes.
Benjamin Bloom- learning domains › Cognitive domain- a student’s intellectual level. › Affective domain- emotions, interest, attention, and attitudes. › Psychomotor domain- motor skills and physical abilities. › Bloom’s taxonomy- learning has levels like a ladder. Knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis, and evaluation.
Howard Gardner- Multiple Intelligences › Intelligence- the ability to gain knowledge, apply knowledge, manipulate one’s environment, and think abstractly. › Individuals use eight intelligences to perceive and understand. › These intelligences are influenced by learning opportunities and cultural contexts.
Howard Gardner- Multiple Intelligences › Linguistic-verbal Enjoy reading, writing, and telling stories Think in words with sensitivity to rhythm › Logical-mathematical Use numbers effectively and reasoning › Spatial-visual Visualize objects and spatial dimentions Like to draw, design, and complete puzzles › Body-kinesthetic Ability to move the body with skill and control
Howard Gardner- Multiple Intelligences › Musical Able to recognize patterns and sounds with sensitivity to pitch and rhythm Think in tones and learns through rhythm and melody › Interpersonal Ability to understand, communicate, and interpret others › Intrapersonal Awareness of one’s feelings and goals The use of this awareness for personal understanding › Naturalist Awareness of the natural world Can develop a sense of cause and effect in relation to natural occurances Return to Menu
Teachers can incorporate Gagne’s Nine Events of Instruction to improve student learning. Because cognitivism emphasizes active participation in learning, teachers can: › Play games with students to improve memory › Use Bloom’s taxonomy to motivate students to reach higher learning levels
Teachers can use Gardner’s multiple intelligences to personalize assessment and instruction. Teachers can use Bloom’s taxonomy to monitor the level at which they are challenging students. › This allows teachers to ensure that they are challenging students at a higher level. Return to Menu
I think that cognitive ideas fit very well into my philosophy of education. › I agree that different students learn in different ways. › I also believe that students who are actively involved in learning are more likely to internalize the information they are given.
I think that I will use many cognitive ideas in my future classroom. › One of my favorite activities to teach students spelling words is a game called sparkle. › I think that I will try to address as many learning styles as I can through games, group activities, videos, puzzles, etc.