fermentation andfermentation and
Main Functions of GUT FLORA
Antibiotic Induced Diarrhoea
Antibiotics depletes normal Body's Lactobacilli
Alteration of colonic Microflora
Colonisation by Pathogens
Release of Toxins
Colonic mucosal injury and inflammation
Diarrhoea: It is a condition in which a sufferer has frequent watery loose stool
more than three times a day.
Irritable Bowel Syndrome
A functional Bowel disorder in which abdominal
pain is associated with the defecation or change
in bowel habit.
Post Surgical Prophylaxis
• Post: After
• Surgical: Related to surgery.
• Prophylaxis: Treatment given to prevent the
disease before it occurs.
• Pro : For & Bio : Life
• Live microorganisms thought to be healthy for
• Criteria for bacteria to be included as a
- Survives the stomach acid and bile
- Non-pathogenic and non-toxic
- Must be of human origin and should be able to survive
in the intestinal ecosystem.
- Adheres to the intestinal lining
Production of inhibitory substances like
Reduction of pH
Blocking of adhesion sites
Degradation of toxin receptors
Competition for nutrients
MOA of Probiotics
Great ability to adhere to human mucosa cells
Found in human intestinal microflora
Add two points
One of the most important residents in the human
Bifidobacterium longum is among the first to colonise
the sterile digestive tract of newborns and predominates
in breast-fed infants.
Saccharomyces boulardii is a strain of yeast
S. boulardii has been shown to maintain and restore the
Mechanism of action involves-inhibition of pathogen
adhesion, enhancement of the mucosal immune response.
• Non-digestible food ingredients that stimulate
the growth or activity of bacteria in the
The Ideal Properties of Prebiotics :
● Should be a non-digestible food ingredient
● Should be principally an oligosaccharide
● Neither be hydrolysed nor be absorbed in the upper
part of the GI tract
● Should reduce the gut pH
● Should promote the growth and activity of probiotics
● Beneficially affects the host health
● Must be selectively fermented so that it is able to
alter the colonic microflora towards a healthier
Polyols (sugar alcohols)
Fructo- oligosaccharides (FOS) – the most commonly used
Types of prebiotics
Lactobacillus acidophilus - 0.75 billion
Lactobacillus rhamnosus - 0.75 billion
Bifidobacterium longum - 0.75 billion
Bifidobacterium bifidum - 0.50 billion
Saccharomyces boulardii - 0.10 billion
Fructo Oligo Saccharides - 100 mg
One to two capsules per day or as directed by physician.