Anatomy And Physiology
The study of the structure of the various systems of
the human body
The study of the functions of the various systems of
the human body
CellCell -the basicbasic functional / living unit of our body
Many cells of similar function and structure come
together to form a tissuetissue
Many tissues together form an organorgan
Many organs together form a systemsystem
Many systems together form a humanhuman bodybody
Structural organization of the body
Houses the DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) which
stores genetic information for a cell.
Production of proteins at the ribosomes (PROTEIN SYNTHESIS)
via the mRNA
series of connected vesicles and flattened sacs
Rough ER : synthesize and export proteins and glycoproteins
Sort, chemically alter, and package important molecules
Lysosomes serve as the cell's digestive system.
Lysosomes contain hydrolytic enzymes that digest unwanted
materials inside the cell, including worn-out cell parts.
Mitochondria is the powerhouse of the cell.
The Mitochondria stores energy by converting carbohydrates
and fatty acids into ATP (adenosine tri-phosphate).
Epithelial tissue covers body surfaces and lines body
Three types of epithelium :
• Squamous epithelium is flattened cells.
• Cuboidal epithelium is cube-shaped cells.
• Columnar epithelium consists of elongated cells
Connective tissue serves many purposes in the body:
1. Cells embedded in the matrix
2. Matrix may be
• solid (as in bone),
• soft (as in loose connective tissue),
• liquid (as in blood).
3. Collagen fibres
SKIN AND INTERNAL ORGANS
Muscle tissue facilitates movement of the animal by
contraction of individual muscle cells (referred to as
Nervous tissue functions in the integration of
stimulus and control of response to that